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Silva Fennica vol. 50 no. 2 | 2016

Category: Research article

article id 1521, category Research article
Kalle Karttunen, Juha Laitila & Tapio Ranta. (2016). First-thinning harvesting alternatives for industrial or energy purposes based on regional Scots pine stand simulations in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 50 no. 2 article id 1521. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1521
Highlights: Small-diameter delimbed wood from Scots pine stands delivered directly for energy use was the most cost-efficient option in terms of the total supply-chain cost in comparison with corresponding industrial use or a whole-tree supply chain for energy use; Forest-management and harvesting decisions influenced the removal of forest biomass and stumpage price as well as the total supply-chain costs for forest biomass; The greatest cost-reduction potential (10.0%, 4.00 € m–3) was achieved for the delimbed energy wood’s supply chain in the regional case of South Savo in eastern Finland.

Combining research into forest management stand conditions and wood supply chain processes has been missing from earlier forestry studies. There is a clear need to develop more cost-efficient small-diameter wood production, harvesting and transportation methods from first thinning, which could be used for either industrial or energy wood purposes. This study considers the total cost for small-diameter wood originating from young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) dominated stands. Pine pulpwood is the most harvested and most used roundwood assortment, use of which is expected to rise following new pulp-mill investments in Finland. In addition, utilisation of small-diameter trees directly for energy purposes has been increasing steadily in recent years. The aim of the study was to determine the cost-reduction potential of alternative forest management options and supply chains for small diameter-wood in the regional case of South Savo in eastern Finland. The total costs of three distinct scenarios were studied on the basis of forest management, first-thinning harvesting methods, and transportation: 1) industrial wood, 2) delimbed energy wood, and 3) whole trees for energy purposes. The cost-reduction potential for energy-wood supply chains from first thinning was compared to the industrial supply chain. Small-diameter delimbed wood delivered straight for energy purposes was found to be the most cost-efficient as far as the total cost of the supply chain is concerned. More cost-efficient small-diameter wood processes can be found by linking forest stand simulations with supply chain analysis.

  • Karttunen, Lappeenranta University of Technology, LUT School of Energy Systems, Laboratory of Bioenergy, Lönnrotinkatu 7, FI-50100 Mikkeli, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: kalle.karttunen@lut.fi
  • Laitila, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Bio-based business and industry, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: juha.laitila@luke.fi
  • Ranta, Lappeenranta University of Technology, LUT School of Energy Systems, Laboratory of Bioenergy, Lönnrotinkatu 7, FI-50100 Mikkeli, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: tapio.ranta@lut.fi (email)
article id 1520, category Research article
Tomáš Kolář, Kyriaki Giagli, Miroslav Trnka, Emílie Bednářová, Hanuš Vavrčík & Michal Rybníček. (2016). Response of the leaf phenology and tree-ring width of European beech to climate variability. Silva Fennica vol. 50 no. 2 article id 1520. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1520
Highlights: The timing of leaf phenological phases in European beech is controlled by temperature; Tree-ring width variations in European beech positively reflect growing season precipitation and soil water availability; The water availability in the top 40 cm of soil layer is more important for European beech growth than that in the deeper layers; Extension of the phenological growing season does not increase tree-ring width.

Various environmental conditions (heat waves and drought events) strongly affect leaf and xylem phenology. Disentangling the influence of temperature, precipitation and soil moisture content (AWR) on the forest productivity remains an important research area. We analyzed the impact of climate variability on the leaf phenology (10 sample trees) and radial growth (17 sample trees) of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.). The study was conducted on 130-year-old European beech trees growing in a temperate forest stand in the Czech Republic. Detailed 20-year phenological monitoring was performed at the study site (1992–2011). As expected, leaf phenological events were mainly driven by the growing season temperatures. Leaf unfolding was highly affected positively by spring temperatures and the top-layer (to 40 cm) AWR in March. The correlation of tree-ring width with the interpolated climate data was positive significant for the growing season AWR and precipitation signal. Furthermore, the water availability in the top soil layer was found to be an important predictor of tree growth and extremely low growth occurrence. The extended phenological growing season, which was caused by a temperature increase, was not followed by an increased tree-ring width. The examined relationships point out the significance of the water availability in the top soil layer in European beech stands.

  • Kolář, Department of Wood Science, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Technology, Mendel University in Brno, Zemědělská 3, 613 00 Brno, Czech Republic; Global Change Research Institute, The Czech Academy of Sciences, Bělidla 986/4a, 603 00 Brno, Czech Republic ORCID ID:E-mail: koldatom@gmail.com (email)
  • Giagli, Department of Wood Science, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Technology, Mendel University in Brno, Zemědělská 3, 613 00 Brno, Czech Republic ORCID ID:E-mail: giagli@node.mendelu.cz
  • Trnka, Global Change Research Institute, The Czech Academy of Sciences, Bělidla 986/4a, 603 00 Brno, Czech Republic; Department of Agrosystems and Bioclimatology, Faculty of Agronomy, Mendel University in Brno, Zemědělská 1, 613 00 Brno, Czech Republic ORCID ID:E-mail: mirek_trnka@yahoo.com
  • Bednářová, Institute of Forest Ecology, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Technology, Mendel University in Brno, Zemědelská 3, 61300 Brno, Czech Republic ORCID ID:E-mail: bednarov@mendelu.cz
  • Vavrčík, Department of Wood Science, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Technology, Mendel University in Brno, Zemědělská 3, 613 00 Brno, Czech Republic ORCID ID:E-mail: vavrcik@mendelu.cz
  • Rybníček, Department of Wood Science, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Technology, Mendel University in Brno, Zemědělská 3, 613 00 Brno, Czech Republic; Global Change Research Institute, The Czech Academy of Sciences, Bělidla 986/4a, 603 00 Brno, Czech Republic ORCID ID:E-mail: michalryb@post.cz
article id 1510, category Research article
Tähti Pohjanmies, Sakina Elshibli, Pertti Pulkkinen, Mari Rusanen, Pekka Vakkari, Helena Korpelainen & Tomas Roslin. (2016). Fragmentation-related patterns of genetic differentiation in pedunculate oak (Quercus robur) at two hierarchical scales. Silva Fennica vol. 50 no. 2 article id 1510. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1510
Highlights: While long-lived, widespread tree species should be resistant to genetic impoverishment, we detected high differentiation among populations and pronounced genetic structure within populations of Quercus robur in Finland; These patterns seem indicative of population processes active at range margins, and of disequilibrium following historic habitat change; Preservation of remaining genetic variation is thus important in the conservation of Q. robur.

Populations at species’ range margins are expected to show lower genetic diversity than populations at the core of the range. Yet, long-lived, widespread tree species are expected to be resistant to genetic impoverishment, thus showing comparatively high genetic diversity within populations and low differentiation among populations. Here, we study the distribution of genetic variation in the pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.) at its range margin in Finland at two hierarchical scales using 15 microsatellite loci. At a regional scale, we compared variation within versus among three oak populations. At a landscape scale, we examined genetic structuring within one of these populations, growing on an island of ca 5 km2. As expected, we found the majority of genetic variation in Q. robur to occur within populations. Nonetheless, differentiation among populations was markedly high (FST = 0.12) compared with values reported for populations of Q. robur closer to the core of its range. At the landscape level, some spatial and temporal sub-structuring was observed, likely explained by the history of land-use on the island. Overall, Q. robur fulfils the expectation of the central-marginal hypothesis of high differentiation among marginal populations, but the notable population differentiation has most likely been influenced also by the long, ongoing fragmentation of populations. Finnish oak populations may still be adjusting to the drastic habitat changes of the past centuries. Preservation of genetic variation within the remaining stands is thus an important factor in the conservation of Q. robur at its range margin.

  • Pohjanmies, University of Helsinki, Department of Agricultural Sciences, Spatial Foodweb Ecology Group, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland; University of Jyväskylä, Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyväskylä, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: tahti.t.pohjanmies@jyu.fi (email)
  • Elshibli, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Green technology, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland; University of Helsinki, Department of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: sakina.elshibli@helsinki.fi
  • Pulkkinen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Green technology, Haapastensyrjäntie 34, FI-12600 Läyliäinen, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: pertti.pulkkinen@luke.fi
  • Rusanen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Green technology, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: mari.rusanen@luke.fi
  • Vakkari, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Green technology, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: pekka.vakkari@luke.fi
  • Korpelainen, University of Helsinki, Department of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: helena.korpelainen@helsinki.fi
  • Roslin, University of Helsinki, Department of Agricultural Sciences, Spatial Foodweb Ecology Group, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland; Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Ecology, P.O. Box 7044, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: tomas.roslin@helsinki.fi
article id 1495, category Research article
Per-Ola Olsson, Tuula Kantola, Päivi Lyytikäinen-Saarenmaa, Anna Maria Jönsson & Lars Eklundh. (2016). Development of a method for monitoring of insect induced forest defoliation – limitation of MODIS data in Fennoscandian forest landscapes. Silva Fennica vol. 50 no. 2 article id 1495. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1495
Highlights: We developed and tested a method to monitor insect induced defoliation in forests based on coarse-resolution satellite data (MODIS); MODIS data may fail to detect defoliation in fragmented landscapes, especially if defoliation history is long. More homogenous forests results in higher detection accuracies; The method may be applied to future coarse and medium-resolution satellite data with high temporal resolution.

We investigated if coarse-resolution satellite data from the MODIS sensor can be used for regional monitoring of insect disturbances in Fennoscandia. A damage detection method based on z-scores of seasonal maximums of the 2-band Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI2) was developed. Time-series smoothing was applied and Receiver Operating Characteristics graphs were used for optimisation. The method was developed in fragmented and heavily managed forests in eastern Finland dominated by Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) (pinaceae) and with defoliation of European pine sawfly (Neodiprion sertifer Geoffr.) (Hymenoptera: Diprionidae) and common pine sawfly (Diprion pini L.) (Hymenoptera: Diprionidae). The method was also applied to subalpine mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. Czerepanovii N.I. Orlova) forests in northern Sweden, infested by autumnal moth (Epirrita autumnata Borkhausen) and winter moth (Operophtera brumata L.). In Finland, detection accuracies were fairly low with 50% of the damaged stands detected, and a misclassification of healthy stands of 22%. In areas with long outbreak histories the method resulted in extensive misclassification. In northern Sweden accuracies were higher, with 75% of the damage detected and a misclassification of healthy samples of 19%. Our results indicate that MODIS data may fail to detect damage in fragmented forests, particularly when the damage history is long. Therefore, regional studies based on these data may underestimate defoliation. However, the method yielded accurate results in homogeneous forest ecosystems and when long-enough periods without damage could be identified. Furthermore, the method is likely to be useful for insect disturbance detection using future medium-resolution data, e.g. from Sentinel‑2.

  • Olsson, Lund University, Department of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Science, Sölvegatan 12, S-223 62 Lund, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: per-ola.olsson@nateko.lu.se (email)
  • Kantola, Texas A & M University, Knowledge Engineering Laboratory, Department of Entomology, College Station, TX, USA ORCID ID:E-mail: tuula.kantola@helsinki.fi
  • Lyytikäinen-Saarenmaa, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: paivi.lyytikainen-saarenmaa@helsinki.fi
  • Jönsson, Lund University, Department of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Science, Sölvegatan 12, S-223 62 Lund, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: anna_maria.jonsson@nateko.lu.se
  • Eklundh, Lund University, Department of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Science, Sölvegatan 12, S-223 62 Lund, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: lars.eklundh@nateko.lu.se
article id 1475, category Research article
Jiaxi Wang, Haiqun Yu, Guolei Li & Feng Zhang. (2016). Growth and nutrient dynamics of transplanted Quercus variabilis seedlings as influenced by pre-hardening and fall fertilization. Silva Fennica vol. 50 no. 2 article id 1475. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1475
Highlights: High pre-hardening fertilization favored seedling growth and nutrient storage at the rapid growth and hardening phases following transplantation. Overall, high fall fertilization was beneficial only at the hardening phase; The combination of 100 mg N seedling–1 during pre-hardening with 36 mg N seedling–1 during hardening was recommended for satisfactory transplanting performance for Quercus variabilis.

Stored nutrient reserves are closely correlated with survival and growth of transplanted seedlings. Previous studies have proven that combining pre-hardening fertilization (PF) with fall fertilization (FF) built seedling nutrient reserves more effectively; however, their effect on transplanting performance is poorly documented. We investigated the independent and interacting effects of 2 levels of PF and 4 levels of FF on seedling growth, nutrient acquisition and accumulation during different growth phases 1 year after transplanting of Quercus variabilis Blume in a nursery. High PF benefited nutrient reserves and subsequent transplanted seedling growth and tissue nutrient storage at the end of the rapid growth and hardening phases. Fall fertilization with 36 mg N increased stem dry mass and tissue nutrient content at the end of the hardening phase. At the conclusion of establishment, PF and FF showed a significant interaction for N and K uptake from soil. At the end of the rapid growth and hardening phases, high PF consistently increased nutrient uptake. Enhanced N and K uptake occurred following application of 36 mg N of FF at the end of the hardening phase. Distinct roles for PF and FF on 3 phases of transplanted seedlings demonstrated the necessity to evaluate fertilization in terms of nutrient reserves and subsequent transplanting performance in consecutive phases. Combining 100 mg N seedling–1 during pre-hardening with 36 mg N seedling–1 during fall yielded ideal transplanting performance for Quercus variabilis seedlings.

  • Wang, Key Laboratory for Silviculture and Conservation, Ministry of Education; Beijing Laboratory of Urban and Rural Ecological Environment, Beijing Forestry University, 35 East Qinghua Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083, China ORCID ID:E-mail: wjx198979@163.com
  • Yu, Beijing Forestry Carbon Administration, room 201, No.1 Xiao Huang Zhuang Bei Jie, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100013, China ORCID ID:E-mail: yuhq@bfdic.com
  • Li, Key Laboratory for Silviculture and Conservation, Ministry of Education; Beijing Laboratory of Urban and Rural Ecological Environment, Beijing Forestry University, 35 East Qinghua Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083, China ORCID ID:E-mail: glli226@163.com (email)
  • Zhang, Beijing Forestry Carbon Administration, room 201, No.1 Xiao Huang Zhuang Bei Jie, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100013, China ORCID ID:E-mail: zhangf@bfdic.com
article id 1474, category Research article
Cedric A. Goussanou, Sabin Guendehou, Achille E. Assogbadjo, Maguette Kaire, Brice Sinsin & Aida Cuni-Sanchez. (2016). Specific and generic stem biomass and volume models of tree species in a West African tropical semi-deciduous forest. Silva Fennica vol. 50 no. 2 article id 1474. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1474
Highlights: Non-destructive sampling approach applied to derive ground truth observations and generate robust basic wood densities; Species-specific and generic allometric equations; Specific equations have better predictive capabilities than generic models.

The quantification of the contribution of tropical forests to global carbon stocks and climate change mitigation requires availability of data and tools such as allometric equations. This study made available volume and biomass models for eighteen tree species in a semi-deciduous tropical forest in West Africa. Generic models were also developed for the forest ecosystem, and basic wood density determined for the tree species. Non-destructive sampling approach was carried out on five hundred and one sample trees to analyse stem volume and biomass. From the modelling of volume and biomass as functions of diameter at breast height (Dbh) and stem height, logarithmic models had better predictive capabilities. The model validation showed that in absence of data on height, models using Dbh only as variable was an alternative. The comparison of basic wood densities to data published in literature enabled to conclude that the non-destructive sampling was a good approach to determining reliable basic wood density. The comparative analysis of species-specific models in this study with selected generic models for tropical forests indicated low probability to identify effective generic models with good predictive ability for biomass. Given tree species richness of tropical forests, the study demonstrated the hypothesis that species-specific models are preferred to generic models, and concluded that further research should be oriented towards development of specific models to cover the full range of dominant tree species of African forests.

  • Goussanou, Laboratory of Applied Ecology, Faculty of Agronomic Sciences, University of Abomey-Calavi, 01 BP 526 Cotonou, Benin ORCID ID:E-mail: cedricgoussanou@gmail.com (email)
  • Guendehou, Laboratory of Applied Ecology, Faculty of Agronomic Sciences, University of Abomey-Calavi, 01 BP 526 Cotonou, Benin; Benin Centre for Scientific and Technical Research, 03 BP 1665 Cotonou, Benin ORCID ID:E-mail: sguendehou@yahoo.fr
  • Assogbadjo, Laboratory of Applied Ecology, Faculty of Agronomic Sciences, University of Abomey-Calavi, 01 BP 526 Cotonou, Benin ORCID ID:E-mail: assogbadjo@yahoo.fr
  • Kaire, Centre Régional AGRHYMET, Département Formation et Recherche, BP 11011 Niamey, Niger ORCID ID:E-mail: m.kaire@agrhymet.ne
  • Sinsin, Laboratory of Applied Ecology, Faculty of Agronomic Sciences, University of Abomey-Calavi, 01 BP 526 Cotonou, Benin ORCID ID:E-mail: bsinsin@gmail.com
  • Cuni-Sanchez, University of Copenhagen, Center for Macroecology, Evolution and Climate, Nørregade 10, P.O. Box 2177, 1017 Copenhagen K, Denmark ORCID ID:E-mail: aidacuni@hotmail.com
article id 1462, category Research article
Pekka Punttila, Olli Autio, Janne S. Kotiaho, D. Johan Kotze, Olli J. Loukola, Norbertas Noreika, Anna Vuori & Kari Vepsäläinen. (2016). The effects of drainage and restoration of pine mires on habitat structure, vegetation and ants. Silva Fennica vol. 50 no. 2 article id 1462. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1462
Highlights: Mire drainage shifted floristic composition and ant assemblages towards forest communities; Raising the water-table level by ditch filling and the thinning of trees affected mire communities positively already 1–3 years after the start of restoration; The extent of tree cover, the coverage of Sphagnum mosses and the water-table level were major determinants of ant assemblage structure.

Habitat loss and degradation are the main threats to biodiversity worldwide. For example, nearly 80% of peatlands in southern Finland have been drained. There is thus a need to safeguard the remaining pristine mires and to restore degraded ones. Ants play a pivotal role in many ecosystems and like many keystone plant species, shape ecosystem conditions for other biota. The effects of mire restoration and subsequent vegetation succession on ants, however, are poorly understood. We inventoried tree stands, vegetation, water-table level, and ants (with pitfall traps) in nine mires in southern Finland to explore differences in habitats, vegetation and ant assemblages among pristine, drained (30–40 years ago) and recently restored (1–3 years ago) pine mires. We expected that restoring the water-table level by ditch filling and reconstructing sparse tree stands by cuttings will recover mire vegetation and ants. We found predictable responses in habitat structure, floristic composition and ant assemblage structure both to drainage and restoration. However, for mire-specialist ants the results were variable and longer-term monitoring is needed to confirm the success of restoration since these social insects establish perennial colonies with long colony cycles. We conclude that restoring the water-table level and tree stand structure seem to recover the characteristic vegetation and ant assemblages in the short term. This recovery was likely enhanced because drained mires still had both acrotelm and catotelm, and connectedness was still reasonable for mire organisms to recolonize the restored mires either from local refugia or from populations of nearby mires.

  • Punttila, Finnish Environment Institute, P.O. Box 140, FI-00251 Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: pekka.punttila@ymparisto.fi (email)
  • Autio, Centre for Economic Development, Transport and the Environment in South Ostrobothnia, P.O. Box 252, FI-65101 Vaasa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: olli.autio@ely-keskus.fi
  • Kotiaho, University of Jyväskylä, Department of Biology & Environmental Sciences, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 Jyväskylä, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: janne.kotiaho@jyu.fi
  • Kotze, University of Helsinki, Department of Environmental Sciences, P.O. Box 65, FI-00014, University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: johan.kotze@helsinki.fi
  • Loukola, University of Oulu, Department of Biology, P.O. Box 3000, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: olli.loukola@gmail.com
  • Noreika, University of Helsinki, Department of Environmental Sciences, P.O. Box 65, FI-00014, University of Helsinki, Finland; University of Helsinki, Department of Biosciences, P.O. Box 65, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: norbertas.noreika@gmail.com
  • Vuori, University of Jyväskylä, Department of Biology & Environmental Sciences, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 Jyväskylä, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: anna@kureniemi.fi
  • Vepsäläinen, University of Helsinki, Department of Biosciences, P.O. Box 65, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: kari.vepsalainen@helsinki.fi
article id 1448, category Research article
Andrew McEwan, Natascia Magagnotti & Raffaele Spinelli. (2016). The effects of number of stems per stool on cutting productivity in coppiced Eucalyptus plantations. Silva Fennica vol. 50 no. 2 article id 1448. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1448
Highlights: Double- and single stem coppice stools were harvested mechanically; Stem size had the strongest impact on productivity; An experienced operator performed equally well with both stool treatments; Cost was ~10% higher with double stems for the less experienced operator; Operator experience may play a major role when cutting coppice stands.

A time study was conducted to determine whether stem crowding had any impact on harvester productivity in Eucalyptus grandis stands. This represents an important element when trying to balance the advantages and disadvantages of coppice management in fast growing plantations designated for mechanized harvesting (i.e. machine felling, delimbing, debarking and cross-cutting). The study material consisted of 446 coppice stems, half of which grew as single stems per stool and half as double stems per stool as a result of different coppice reduction strategies. The dataset was balanced and randomized, with both subsets replicating exactly the same stem size distribution and the single and double stems alternating randomly. Harvester productivity ranged between 6 and 50 m3 under bark per productive machine hour, following the variation of tree diameter from 10 to 40 cm at breast height (1.37 m according to South African standards). Regression analysis indicated that both tree size and stem crowding (e.g. one or two stems per stool) had a significant effect on harvester productivity, which increased with stem size and decreased with stem crowding. However, operator experience may overcome the effect of stem crowding, which was not significant when the harvester was manned by a highly experienced operator. In any case, the effect of stem size was much greater than that of stem crowding, which resulted in a cost difference of less than 10%. However, this figure excludes the possible effects of stem crowding on volume recovery and stem development, which should be addressed in the future.

  • McEwan, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University – George Campus, Saasveld, 6529, George, South Africa ORCID ID:E-mail: Andrew.McEwan@nmmu.ac.za
  • Magagnotti, CNR IVALSA, Via Madonna del Piano 10, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (FI), Italy ORCID ID:E-mail: magagnotti@ivalsa.cnr.it
  • Spinelli, CNR IVALSA, Via Madonna del Piano 10, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (FI), Italy ORCID ID:E-mail: spinelli@ivalsa.cnr.it (email)
article id 1414, category Research article
Rami Saad, Jörgen Wallerman, Johan Holmgren & Tomas Lämås. (2016). Local pivotal method sampling design combined with micro stands utilizing airborne laser scanning data in a long term forest management planning setting. Silva Fennica vol. 50 no. 2 article id 1414. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1414
Highlights: Most similar neighbor imputation was used to estimate forest variables using airborne laser scanning data as auxiliary data; For selecting field reference plots the local pivotal method (LPM) was compared to systematic sampling design; The LPM sampling design combined with a micro stand approach showed potential for improvement and has the potential to be a competitive method when considering cost efficiency.

A new sampling design, the local pivotal method (LPM), was combined with the micro stand approach and compared with the traditional systematic sampling design for estimation of forest stand variables. The LPM uses the distance between units in an auxiliary space – in this case airborne laser scanning (ALS) data – to obtain a well-spread sample. Two sets of reference plots were acquired by the two sampling designs and used for imputing data to evaluation plots. The first set of reference plots, acquired by LPM, made up four imputation alternatives (varying number of reference plots) and the second set of reference plots, acquired by systematic sampling design, made up two alternatives (varying plot radius). The forest variables in these alternatives were estimated using the nonparametric method of most similar neighbor imputation, with the ALS data used as auxiliary data. The relative root mean square error (RelRMSE), stem diameter distribution error index and suboptimal loss were calculated for each alternative, but the results showed that neither sampling design, i.e. LPM vs. systematic, offered clear advantages over the other. It is likely that the obtained results were a consequence of the small evaluation dataset used in the study (n = 30). Nevertheless, the LPM sampling design combined with the micro stand approach showed potential for improvement and might be a competitive method when considering the cost efficiency.

  • Saad, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Department of Forest Resource Management, Skogsmarksgränd, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: rami.saad@slu.se (email)
  • Wallerman, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Department of Forest Resource Management, Skogsmarksgränd, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: jorgen.wallerman@slu.se
  • Holmgren, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Department of Forest Resource Management, Skogsmarksgränd, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: johan.holmgren@slu.se
  • Lämås, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Department of Forest Resource Management, Skogsmarksgränd, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: tomas.lamas@slu.se
article id 1410, category Research article
Seppo Nevalainen, Juho Matala, Kari T. Korhonen, Antti Ihalainen & Ari Nikula. (2016). Moose damage in National Forest Inventories (1986–2008) in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 50 no. 2 article id 1410. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1410
Highlights: Almost 100 000 stands were studied; The proportion of damage doubled during the study period; Tree species mixture had a clear effect on the damage frequency; The damage was more common in mineral soils than in peatlands, in artificially than in naturally regenerated stands and in stands that needed thinning or clearing or in which soil preparation was used.

The occurrence of moose damage was studied using data from three National Forest Inventories (NFIs) accomplished between 1986 and 2008 in Finland. The combined data included a total of 97 390 young stands. The proportion of moose damage increased from 3.6% to 8.6% between the 8th NFI (1986–1994) and the 10th NFI (2004–2008). The majority (75%) of the damage occurred in Scots pine-dominated stands. The proportion of damage was higher in aspen-dominated stands than in stands dominated by any other tree species. The tree species mixture also had a clear effect on the occurrence of damage. Pure Scots pine stands had less damage than mixed Scots pine stands, and moose damage decreased linearly with the increasing proportion of Scots pine. Stands on mineral soil had more frequent moose damage than stands on peatlands. The fertility class of the site had no straightforward effect on the damage frequency. Artificially regenerated stands had more damage than naturally regenerated stands. Accomplished soil preparation measures and the need for thinning or clearing operations increased moose damage. High proportions of moose damage in young stands were found around the country. In the 10th NFI, the largest concentration of damage was found in southwestern Finland. Our study shows the temporal and spatial changes in the occurrence of moose damage and pinpoints some important silvicultural factors affecting the relative risk of young stands over a large geographical area.

  • Nevalainen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Management and Production of Renewable Resources, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: seppo.nevalainen@luke.fi (email)
  • Matala, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Management and Production of Renewable Resources, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: juho.matala@luke.fi
  • Korhonen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Economics and society, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: kari.t.korhonen@luke.fi
  • Ihalainen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Economics and society, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: antti.ihalainen@luke.fi
  • Nikula, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Economics and society, P.O. Box 16, FI-96301 Rovaniemi, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: ari.nikula@luke.fi
article id 1386, category Research article
Håkan Lideskog & Magnus Karlberg. (2016). Simulated continuous mounding improvements through ideal machine vision and control. Silva Fennica vol. 50 no. 2 article id 1386. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1386
Highlights: Different strategies for how to utilise machine vision to streamline the mounding head movements were developed and evaluated; The theoretical minimum rate of encountered obstacles while utilising machine vision in continuous mounding is presented, provided that an optimal continuous mounding has been performed; The needed minimum resolution of a machine vision system at work on a clearcut area was found.

To promote the growth and survival of regenerated forests, site preparation prior to tree planting on clearcuts is necessary. This is often performed with scarifiers, either through trenching or mounding. Mounding is generally considered better in a plant survival perspective but is inefficient on obstacle-rich clearcuts. By utilising machine vision through e.g. remote sensing methods, new strategies can enable efficient mound positioning. In this paper, three realistic strategies utilizing ideal clearcut object identification through machine vision have been developed that can be used for more efficient mounding. The results show that mounding efficiency can be significantly improved with a new mound positioning strategy that employs ideal object identification, especially on obstacle-rich clearcuts.

 

 

  • Lideskog, Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Division of Product and Production Development, SE-971 87 Luleå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: hakan.lideskog@ltu.se (email)
  • Karlberg, Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Division of Product and Production Development, SE-971 87 Luleå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: magnus.karlberg@ltu.se
article id 1323, category Research article
Tiina Laine, Kalle Kärhä & Antti Hynönen. (2016). A survey of the Finnish mechanized tree-planting industry in 2013 and its success factors. Silva Fennica vol. 50 no. 2 article id 1323. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1323
Highlights: In 2013, 31 planting machines were operated by 22 businesses and planted 4.7 million seedlings on 2663 hectares in Finland; Critical success factors included expertise of planting machine operators, high quality planting, adequate amount of work, stoniness, and removal of slash; Growth of the industry will depend on improved cost-efficiency, appropriate worksites, marketing, development of planting machines.

The aim of the study was to update the information pertaining to mechanized tree-planting activity in Finland in 2013 and its success factors. All businesses providing a mechanized tree-planting service were interviewed and asked to describe their equipment and activities, identify critical success factors (CSFs), and suggest areas for improvement. In 2013, 31 planting machines (18 Bracke P11.a, 11 M-Planter and 2 Risutec) operated by 22 businesses planted approximately 4.7 million seedlings on 2663 hectares. CSFs included expertise of planting machine operators, high quality planting, adequate amount of work, stoniness, and removal of slash. Based on the survey, some recommendations for improving mechanized planting work can be made. Firstly, improving the cost-efficiency of mechanized planting is necessary to enhance businesses’ profitability. Secondly, worksite selection is crucial as stoniness, stumps and slash debris diminish productivity. Lastly, the popularity of mechanized planting in the future will benefit from more marketing. Many businesses were unwilling to increase the area of service, invest in new equipment, or increase the volume of planting work but they believed that mechanized planting will become more popular in the near future.

  • Laine, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Management and Production of Renewable Resources, Juntintie 154, FI-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: tiina.laine@luke.fi (email)
  • Kärhä, Stora Enso Wood Supply Finland, P.O. Box 309, FI-00101 Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: kalle.karha@storaenso.com
  • Hynönen, University of Eastern Finland, Faculty of Science and Forestry, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: hynonena@gmail.com

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