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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
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Acta Forestalia Fennica
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Articles containing the keyword 'Alnus incana'.

Category: Research article

article id 490, category Research article
Veiko Uri, Hardi Tullus, Krista Lõhmus. (2003). Nutrient allocation, accumulation and above-ground biomass in grey alder and hybrid alder plantations. Silva Fennica vol. 37 no. 3 article id 490. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.490
The aim of the present work was to investigate the nutrient (N,P,K) allocation and accumulation in grey alder (Alnus incana (L.) Moench) and hybrid alder (Alnus incana (L.) Moench x Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.) plantations growing on former agricultural land and to estimate the above-ground biomass production during 4 years after establishment. In August of the 4th year, when leaf mass was at its maximum, the amount of nitrogen accumulated in above-ground biomass of grey alder stand was 142.0 kg ha–1, the amount of phosphorus 16.3 kg ha–1 and the amount of potassium 49.5 kg ha–1. The amount of nitrogen accumulated in a hybrid alder stand totalled 76.8 kg ha–1, that of phosphorus 6.2 kg ha–1 and that of potassium 28.2 kg ha–1. The smaller amounts of N,P and K bound in the hybrid alder plantation are related to the smaller biomass of the stand. Still, the amounts of N,P and K consumed for the production of one ton of biomass were similar in the case of up to 4-year-old grey alder and hybrid alder stands. In the 4th year, the amount of nutrients consumed in one ton of biomass produced were: 16.0 kg N, 1.6 kg P and 5.4 kg K for grey alder and 14.6 kg N, 1.1 kg P and 5.2 kg K for hybrid alder. In the 4th year the total above-ground biomass (dry mass) of grey alder (15750 plants ha–1) amounted to 12.3 t ha–1, current annual increment being 6.7 t ha–1. In hybrid alder stands (6700 plants ha–1), the respective figures were 6.1 t ha–1 and 4.5 t ha–1. Comparison of the production capacity on the basis of mean stem mass in the 4th year revealed that the stem mass of grey alder exceeded that of hybrid alder (0.64 kg and 0.58 kg, respectively). Grey alder outpaced hybrid alder in height growth; in the 4th year after establishment, the mean height of the grey alder stand was 4.6 ± 0.9 m and that of the hybrid alder plantation 3.5 ± 0.9 m.
  • Uri, Institute of Silviculture, Estonian Agricultural University, Kreutzwaldi 5, 51014 Tartu, Estonia ORCID ID:E-mail: vuri@eau.ee (email)
  • Tullus, Institute of Silviculture, Estonian Agricultural University, Kreutzwaldi 5, 51014 Tartu, Estonia ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Lõhmus, Institute of Geography, University of Tartu, Vanemuise 46, 51014 Tartu, Estonia ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 490, category Research article
Veiko Uri, Hardi Tullus, Krista Lõhmus. (2003). Nutrient allocation, accumulation and above-ground biomass in grey alder and hybrid alder plantations. Silva Fennica vol. 37 no. 3 article id 490. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.490
The aim of the present work was to investigate the nutrient (N,P,K) allocation and accumulation in grey alder (Alnus incana (L.) Moench) and hybrid alder (Alnus incana (L.) Moench x Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.) plantations growing on former agricultural land and to estimate the above-ground biomass production during 4 years after establishment. In August of the 4th year, when leaf mass was at its maximum, the amount of nitrogen accumulated in above-ground biomass of grey alder stand was 142.0 kg ha–1, the amount of phosphorus 16.3 kg ha–1 and the amount of potassium 49.5 kg ha–1. The amount of nitrogen accumulated in a hybrid alder stand totalled 76.8 kg ha–1, that of phosphorus 6.2 kg ha–1 and that of potassium 28.2 kg ha–1. The smaller amounts of N,P and K bound in the hybrid alder plantation are related to the smaller biomass of the stand. Still, the amounts of N,P and K consumed for the production of one ton of biomass were similar in the case of up to 4-year-old grey alder and hybrid alder stands. In the 4th year, the amount of nutrients consumed in one ton of biomass produced were: 16.0 kg N, 1.6 kg P and 5.4 kg K for grey alder and 14.6 kg N, 1.1 kg P and 5.2 kg K for hybrid alder. In the 4th year the total above-ground biomass (dry mass) of grey alder (15750 plants ha–1) amounted to 12.3 t ha–1, current annual increment being 6.7 t ha–1. In hybrid alder stands (6700 plants ha–1), the respective figures were 6.1 t ha–1 and 4.5 t ha–1. Comparison of the production capacity on the basis of mean stem mass in the 4th year revealed that the stem mass of grey alder exceeded that of hybrid alder (0.64 kg and 0.58 kg, respectively). Grey alder outpaced hybrid alder in height growth; in the 4th year after establishment, the mean height of the grey alder stand was 4.6 ± 0.9 m and that of the hybrid alder plantation 3.5 ± 0.9 m.
  • Uri, Institute of Silviculture, Estonian Agricultural University, Kreutzwaldi 5, 51014 Tartu, Estonia ORCID ID:E-mail: vuri@eau.ee (email)
  • Tullus, Institute of Silviculture, Estonian Agricultural University, Kreutzwaldi 5, 51014 Tartu, Estonia ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Lõhmus, Institute of Geography, University of Tartu, Vanemuise 46, 51014 Tartu, Estonia ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 647, category Research article
Tapio Linkosalo. (1999). Regularities and patterns in the spring phenology of some boreal trees. Silva Fennica vol. 33 no. 4 article id 647. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.647
Phenological time series of flowering and bud burst of Populus tremula (L.) and Betula sp., and the flowering of Pinus sylvestris (L.), Alnus glutinosa (L.) and Alnus incana (L.) were constructed from data collected in Finland during the period 1896–1955. The resulting combined time series were examined with two aims in mind: first, to determine the phenological regularities between different species and, second, to detect patterns of spring advancement over a geographically large area. The results indicate that the geographical pattern of spring advancement is rather uniform from year to year, and between different species. Furthermore, the mechanisms regulating the timing of phenological events in different species seem to function in a similar way, suggesting an unanimous optimal response to climatic conditions.
  • Linkosalo, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Ecology, Unioninkatu 40 B, P.O. Box 24, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: tapio.linkosalo@helsinki.fi (email)

Category: Article

article id 7118, category Article
Paavo J. Ollinmaa. (1959). Reaktiopuututkimuksia. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 72 no. 1 article id 7118. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7118
English title: Study on reaction wood.

Compression wood of the tree species studied in this investigation, Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) and common juniper (Juniperus communis L.), was found to be characterized in its cross section by the thick walls and rounded shape of its tracheids and the profuse occurence of spaces. Tension wood of aspen (Populus tremula L.) and alder (Alnus incana (L.) Moench) was found in microscopic examination to be characterized by the gelatinous appearance of the wood fibres, by its small cell cavities and by the thickness and buckling of the inner layer of the cecondary wall. Tracheids of the compression wood were found to have shorter length than normal on an average, while the tension wood fibres were found to be longer.

The microchemical studies suggest a higher than normal lignin content in compression wood and lower than normal lignin content in tension wood, as compared to normal wood. The reverse would be true for the cellulose contents. Volume weight of absolute dry reaction wood was distinctly higher than that of normal wood. The longitudinal shrinkage of reaction wood, particularly of compression wood, is several times that of normal wood. Transversal shrinkage of compression wood is much less than normal wood. Swelling tests revealed pushing effect of compression wood on elongation and pulling effect on tension wood on constraction. Volume shrinkage of compression wood is less than that of normal wood, in contrast to tension wood. The strength of compression wood in absolutely dry condition was nearly same as that of normal wood.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ollinmaa, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7330, category Article
Erkki K. Kalela. (1936). Tutkimuksia Itä-Suomen kuusi-harmaaleppä-sekametsiköiden kehityksestä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 44 no. 2 article id 7330. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7330
English title: Studies on the development of mixed forest of Norway spruce and grey alder in Eastern Finland.

Shifting cultivation, practiced earlier in Finland, was beneficial for grey alder (Alnus incana (L.) Moench). It can produce seeds early and the early growth of the seedlings is fast. Areas where shifting cultivation was intensive, the areas next to the fields were pure alder stands, next circle was Betula sp. dominated, beyond that could be found Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), and finally Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.). When shifting cultivation ended, Norway spruce became more common. Many young mixed stands had Norway spruce undergrowth and alder overgrowth. The aim of the study was to find out how the stands develop to spruce dominated stands, and how they should be managed.

The density of spruce undergrowth affects the further development of both spruce and alder. The number of alder stems decreases the faster the denser the spruce undergrowth is. Alder overgrowth slow down the early diameter and height growth of spruce compared to pure stands. Also the diameter and height growth of alder remains smaller in mixed stands. The basal area of spruce develops slowly in the beginning, increases significantly by the age of 30, and surpasses the growth of pure spruce stands in Oxalis-Myrtillus site type. Thus, Norway spruce do not suffer from growing in the undergrowth. In the first years, fast growing alder seedlings limits growth of ground vegetation and protects spruce seedlings from frost.  Later thinning or removal of alder benefits spruce growth. The density of spruce undergrowth decides how much alder can be leaved in the stand. If the spruce undergrowth is thin, more alder can be left in the stand.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Kalela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7297, category Article
A. L. Backman. (1934). Om den Åländska skogens förhistoria. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 20 article id 7297. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7297
English title: Early history of forests in Åland, Finland.

The paper presents preliminary results of paleobotanical studies on vegetation in Åland, south-west Finland. The investigations concentrated on studying arrival of tree species and stratigraphy of peatlands. According to the studies, some plant fossils found in the peat (Ceratophyllum submersum, Sparagnium neglectum, Najas flexilis) indicate that climate of the region has earlier been warmer than at the present. The present forests in Åland are dominated by coniferous species, but the pollen analysis of the peat indicate that Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) became a common species in the region about by the time of Christ’s birth. The species has reached its present distribution in Åland relatively late. The pollen analyses give relatively little information about the arrival of birch (Betula sp.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), but it seems obvious that occurrence of birch reached its culmination just before spruce. During the warm period common alder (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.) was the most important species, and also pollen of oak (Quercus robur L.), kinden (Tilia cordata L.) and elm (Ulmus sp.) was relatively common in the peat of some of the studied peatlands. An interesting finding was the pollen of Carpinus betulus in many sites in Åland.

The PDF includes a Finnish and German summary.

  • Backman, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7240, category Article
N. A. Hildén. (1929). Kontusaaren tervalepikkö. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 27 article id 7240. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7240
English title: Common alder forest in Kontusaari.
English keywords: Alnus incana; productivity

The aim of the study was to determine the value of common alder (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.) in forestry by studying an unusually large alder forest in Kontusaari, an island of the size of 75 hectares in the Southern Finland. The forest is grass-herb forest site type. The coastline of the island is partly flooded. Wood has been harvested mainly for fuel wood. The stands have regenerated easily from stump shoots. The annual volume growth is slightly higher than what would be in Norway spruce (Picae abies (L.) Karst.) or Betula sp. stands, estimated based on growth and yield tables made by Ilvessalo. The site is well suited for common alder, and it is difficult to judge what the yield would be for other species on the site.

The volume 34 of Acta Forestalia Fennica is a jubileum publication of professor Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Hildén, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5551, category Article
Jyrki Hytönen, Pekka Rossi, Anna Saarsalmi. (1995). Biomass production and nutrient uptake of short-rotation plantations. Silva Fennica vol. 29 no. 2 article id 5551. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9202

The biomass production and nutrient uptake of silver birch (Betula pendula Roth), downy birch (Betula pubescens Erhr.), grey alder (Alnus incana (L.) Moench), native willows Salix triandra L. and S. phylicifolia L. and exotic willows S. x dasyclados and S. ’Aquatica’ growing on a clay mineral soil field (Sukeva) and on two cut-away peatland areas (Piipsanneva, Valkeasuo) were investigated.

Biomass production of downy birch was greater than that of silver birch, and the biomass production of the native willows greater than that of the exotic ones. The performance of S. phylicifolia was the best of the studied willow species. Exotic willows were susceptible to frost damage and their winter hardiness was poor. The production of all species was lower on the clay mineral soil field than on the cut-away peatland areas. Fertilization of birches and alder – on the double dose given to the willows – increased biomass production. After 6 growing seasons the leafless biomass production of fertilized silver birch at Piipsanneca was 21 t ha-1 (at Valkeasuo 34 t ha-1) and of grey alder 24 t ha-1, and that of S. triandra after five growing seasons 31 t ha-1, S. phylicifolia 38 t ha-1 and of S. x dasyclados 16 t ha-1.

6-year-old stands of silver birch bound more nutrients per unit biomass than downy birch stands. Grey alder bound more N, Ca and Co but less Mn and Zn per unit biomass than silver and downy birch. On the field more P was bound in grey alder per unit biomass compared to downy birch. The willows had more K per unit biomass than the other tree species, and the exotic willow species more N than the native ones. Less N, K and Mg were bound per unit biomass of S. phylicifolia compared to the other tree species.

  • Hytönen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Rossi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Saarsalmi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5255, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen, Jukka Pietilä, Raili Vihola. (1985). Suomalaisten puulajien iskutaivutuslujuus tuoreena. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 4 article id 5255. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15434
English title: Impact bending strength of Finnish tree species in green condition.

There are great impact forces in mechanized harvesting and wood yard in the mills which can cause breaks in timber. The impact strength of timber in green condition was tested in temperatures of +18°C and -18°C using sawn pieces (20 x 20 x 300 mm) of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.), birch (Betula pendula Roth and B. pubescens Ehrh.), grey alder (Alnus incana L.) and aspen (Populus tremula L.). In addition, unbarked naturally round sticks (length 300 mm, diameter 15 and 35 mm) of the same species were tested.

The impact strength of round sticks was 1.5–4.4 times as great as that of sawn pieces. The reasons are possibly the avoidance of cell breaks at the surface as well as growth stresses. The frozen samples were clearly weaker than the unfrozen ones. As a rule, the impact bending strength increased with increased density of the species. However, the correlation varied greatly between species. If density was kept constant, an increase in the growth ring width decreased the impact strength. The reason may lie in the fracture mechanism.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pietilä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Vihola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5254, category Article
Kristina Palmgren, Anna Saarsalmi, Assi Weber. (1985). Nitrogen fixation and biomass production in some alder clones. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 4 article id 5254. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15433

In a greenhouse experiment that lasted for two years, nitrogenase activity, height growth and biomass production was compared in six clones of alder of which four were clones of Alnus incana and two A. incana x A. glutinos hybrids. In addition, the effect of a fertilizer nitrogen gradient was tested on one of the clones.

Clonal differences in height growth and nitrogenase activity were recorded at the end of the first growing season. The growth rhythm of some of the clones changed markedly during the second growing season but differences in nitrogenase activity between clones levelled out. Nitrogen fertilization suppressed nodulation during the first growing season, and also the following year the nitrogenase activity was significantly higher in alders grown without nitrogen supplement. Height growth and total biomass production was also depressed at rather low nitrogen levels.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Palmgren, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Saarsalmi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Weber, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4930, category Article
Tapio Lehtiniemi. (1976). Ionisoivan säteilyn vaikutus varastokuivien ja liotettujen metsäpuiden siementen idäntään ja taimien alkukehitykseen. Silva Fennica vol. 10 no. 1 article id 4930. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14772
English title: Effect of ionizing radiation on the germination of storage-dry and soaked forest tree seeds and on the initial development of seedlings.

The study was carried out in order to find out the changes taking place in germination of seeds in certain tree species as a function of gamma irradiation, the height growth of the seedlings produced and the types of phenotypic mutants possibly found in the generation that had received radiation. The tree species studied were Pinus sylvestris L., Picea abies (L.) H. Karst., Betula verrucosa (Betula pendula Roth), B. Pubescens Ehrh., Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn. and Alnus incana (L.) Moench.

Soaked seeds that had received a rather small dose of radiation germinated usually better than storage-dry seeds, B. pubescens being an exception. The damages observed in germination, height growth and the relative number of mutants were greater the higher the irradiation doses. The LD50 dose (germination, 28 days) was as follows in the case of the different tree species (storage dry/soaked): P. Sylvestris 1,500-2,000/2500-3,000, P. abies 1,000-1,500/4,000-4,500, B. pendula 9,500-10,000/7,000-7,500, B. pubescens >10,000/7,500-8,000 and A. Glutinosa 10,000/8,500-9,000 rad. Mass production of different mutants of deciduous trees for ornamental purposes, for example, appears to be easy using gamma-irradiation. On the other hand, the possibility of increasing tree growth remains open for further study.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lehtiniemi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4901, category Article
Veli Pohjonen. (1974). Istutustiheyden vaikutus eräiden lyhytkiertoviljelyn puulajien ensimmäisen vuoden satoon ja pituuskasvuun. Silva Fennica vol. 8 no. 2 article id 4901. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14745
English title: Effect of spacing on the first-year yield and height increment of some species undergoing short rotation culture.

The effect of spacing on the first-year yield and height increment of Alnus incana (L.) Moench, Populus tremula L. x Populus tremuloides Michx. (Populus x wettsteinii), Salix ’Aquatica Gigantea’, and Salix phylicifolia L. was studied at the Arctic Circle Agricultural Experimental Station in Northern Finland. S. ’Aquatica Gigantea’ gave yields which were twice as high as those of the other species in the study. The highest yields were of the order of 60 tons per hectare (fresh yield including foliage). The annual height growth in S. ’Aquatica Gigantea’ was about 100 cm, in the others about 30–50 cm. S. ’Aquatica Gigantea’ had a maximal height growth when the distance between the seedlings was 25 cm.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Pohjonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7528, category Article
Einari Vuori. (1913). Die durch Brandkultur entstandenen Nadelholzbestände des Staatsforstes Vesijako. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 2 no. 1 article id 7528. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7528
English title: Coniferous tree stands of the state forest “Vesijako” reforested through controlled burning.

The study area is state owned forest of Vesijako in southern middle Finland that has earlier been intensively managed with slash-and-burn agriculture. Reforestation of broad-leaved forests into coniferous forest with controlled burning has been studied on 76 sample plots.

The article describes the practice of leasing forest stands to leaseholders who executed the controlled burning and forest regeneration and management according a leasing contract. The results of the reforestation with coniferous trees shows that sowed pine (Pinus silvestris) stands give good results but spruce (Picea abies) must be planted as a seedling.  For the state this method of forest improvement is cost effective  and should be used more widely. 

  • Vuori, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7528, category Article
Einari Vuori. (1913). Die durch Brandkultur entstandenen Nadelholzbestände des Staatsforstes Vesijako. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 2 no. 1 article id 7528. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7528
English title: Coniferous tree stands of the state forest “Vesijako” reforested through controlled burning.

The study area is state owned forest of Vesijako in southern middle Finland that has earlier been intensively managed with slash-and-burn agriculture. Reforestation of broad-leaved forests into coniferous forest with controlled burning has been studied on 76 sample plots.

The article describes the practice of leasing forest stands to leaseholders who executed the controlled burning and forest regeneration and management according a leasing contract. The results of the reforestation with coniferous trees shows that sowed pine (Pinus silvestris) stands give good results but spruce (Picea abies) must be planted as a seedling.  For the state this method of forest improvement is cost effective  and should be used more widely. 

  • Vuori, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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