Current issue: 53(4)

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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
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Acta Forestalia Fennica
1953-1968
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1913-1932

Articles containing the keyword 'Boden'.

Category: Article

article id 7132, category Article
Juhani Sarasto. (1961). Über die Klassifizierung der für Walderziehung entwässerten Moore. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 74 no. 5 article id 7132. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7132
English title: On classification of peatlands drained for forestry purposes.

The aim of the study is to find out 1) whether and how the original moor type can be found out based on vegetation regardless the phase of drainage; 2) whether the different phases of draining can be distinguished based on the vegetation; and 3) is it possible to classify the well drained moors into vegetation types that would reflect the productive capacity of the land.

The data consists of samples collected from ditched areas. There are 11 moor types from two climatic ditching zones. The results show that the original moor type can be determined based on vegetation, the phase of drainage can be determined under some limitations, and the classification for productivity can be done for practical purposes.    

The PDF contains a summary in Finnish. 

  • Sarasto, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7129, category Article
Erkki K. Kalela. (1961). Über die natürliche Bewaldung der Kulturböden im sog. Porkkala-Pachtgebiet. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 74 no. 2 article id 7129. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7129
English title: Natural regeneration of agricultural lands in so-called Porkkala-area of leased land.

The size of the field and the ditching on it as well as the condition of the field at the time of the surrender of Porkkala area (from Finland to Russia) play an important role on how far the natural regeneration of the fields has progressed.

Larger open fields have naturally regenerated only on sides where the surrounding forest can spread the seeds or the thicket of saplings has reached, whereas small parcels of fields have normally been fully forested. Most important species have been e.g. silver birch and pubescent birch, grey and common alders and European aspen as well as pine and spruce. The broad leaved species are dominant.     

The PDF contains a summary in Finnish.

 

  • Kalela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7375, category Article
P. Kokkonen. (1942). Beobachtungen über den Bodenfrost des Winters 1941 - 1942. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 22 article id 7375. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7375
English title: Observations on the soil frost of the winter 1941-1942.
Original keywords: Bodenfrost; Formation
English keywords: soil frost; formation

Soil frost from the winter 1941-1942 was of a special form. To create such a strong soil frost there need to be capillary soil form and long period of permanent and intense cold, meaning minus temperatures.  The frost layer was thicker than normally.

Such a frost causes many problems on the fields and roads when the soil rises because of the frost and then falls unevenly back when the frost melts.

The PDF contains a summary in Finnish.
  • Kokkonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7329, category Article
V. E. Svinhufvud. (1937). Untersuchungen über die bodenmikrobiologischen Unterschiede der Cajander'schen Waldtypen. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 44 no. 1 article id 7329. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7329
English title: Studies on the microbiological differences in soil between the forest types.

Earlier studies show that different kind of biological processes occur in the soil of different forest types. These differences may be due differences in microbiology of those soils. This article studies these differences.

Soil samples from five different forest types were collected from the Ruotsinkylä research forest in three different seasons: in January, March and September.

The amount of bacteria in the samples is at the lowest in March and highest in September.   During the winter more anaerobic bacteria were found. The amount of denitrifying bacteria is higher in the soil than amount of nitrifying bacteria.

The results indicate that the species composition of soil varies between the forest types in the same manner than the vegetation composition above the soil. However, this study is only a preliminary and more knowledge is needed about the discipline before practical implications can be drawn.

The PDF contains a summary in Finnish.  

  • Svinhufvud, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7241, category Article
V. T. Aaltonen. (1929). Über die Möglichkeit einer Bonitierung der Waldstandorte mit Hilfe von Bodenuntersuchungen. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 28 article id 7241. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7241
English title: On the possibility to classify forest sites by means of soil studies.

After critically reviewing earlier studies on soil properties and their influence on forest growth and yield, it seems that defining the forest yield could be possible by means of soil properties. To be able to do so, the site needs to be defined and delineated in some other way. It is also necessary to decide the right soil properties to study for the purpose.

For the classification of forest sites the results of soil analyses need to be compared with growth and yield data from the site. To further the practice of classification of forest sites by means of soil studies, four aspects need to be taken into account:

1)  the site needs to be delineated beforehand according its vegetation, preferable with Cajander’s forest type classification

2) the experiments about soil needs to be done for as many properties as possible

3) the studied sites need to be as representative as possible in their class

4) there are as many samples for one site as possible studied

The volume 34 of Acta Forestalia Fennica is a jubileum publication of professor Aimo Kaarlo Cajander.

  • Aaltonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7227, category Article
D. Fehér. (1929). Die Biologie des Waldbodens und ihre physiologische Bedeutung im Leben des Waldes. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 14 article id 7227. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7227
English title: Biology of forest soil and its physiological meaning in the life of forest.

The article presents three studies about different aspects of the bio-chemical functions of forest soil. The three studies are i) research on microflora and microfauna of forest soils; ii) study on carbon nutrition of forests in relation to microbial functions of soil and effecting site factors and iii) study on nitrogen metabolism of forest soil. The results of the studies are summarized by every study.

The article discusses the meaning of the results for forest management in practice. The good biological and physiological condition of forest soil is important for the forest growth and it needs to be taken care in regeneration and other forest management. The natural regeneration seems to be better for soil functions. Favoring broadleaved trees as undergrowth enhances the biological processes of forest soil.   

The volume 34 of Acta Forestalia Fennica is a jubileum publication of professor Aimo Kaarlo Cajander.

  • Fehér, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7227, category Article
D. Fehér. (1929). Die Biologie des Waldbodens und ihre physiologische Bedeutung im Leben des Waldes. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 14 article id 7227. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7227
English title: Biology of forest soil and its physiological meaning in the life of forest.

The article presents three studies about different aspects of the bio-chemical functions of forest soil. The three studies are i) research on microflora and microfauna of forest soils; ii) study on carbon nutrition of forests in relation to microbial functions of soil and effecting site factors and iii) study on nitrogen metabolism of forest soil. The results of the studies are summarized by every study.

The article discusses the meaning of the results for forest management in practice. The good biological and physiological condition of forest soil is important for the forest growth and it needs to be taken care in regeneration and other forest management. The natural regeneration seems to be better for soil functions. Favoring broadleaved trees as undergrowth enhances the biological processes of forest soil.   

The volume 34 of Acta Forestalia Fennica is a jubileum publication of professor Aimo Kaarlo Cajander.

  • Fehér, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7220, category Article
T. Heikkilä. (1929). Der forstliche Zinsfuss. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 7 article id 7220. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7220
English title: The interest rate of forest.

The result of forest valuation depends heavily on the interest rate and hence determining the rate of interest for forest is the one of the most important tasks of forest valuation.

When defining the interest rate for forests, we need to take into account not only the common interest rate in the country, but also other factors. Those are for example the increase in timber price. By calculating the land expectation value we assume that costs for felling, regeneration and other management will rise by same percent.

The article presents the common formula of land expectation value and discusses its pros and cons. Because of the bad condition of Finnish forests, the forest valuation has not been used widely in practice and hence also the research on theme has been minor. The development of the forests in future will make the theme more relevant. 

The volume 34 of Acta Forestalia Fennica is a jubileum publication of professor Aimo Kaarlo Cajander.

  • Heikkilä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7198, category Article
P. Kokkonen. (1926). Beobachtungen über die Struktur des Bodenfrostes. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 30 no. 3 article id 7198. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7198
English title: Observations on the structure of soil frost.

The article presents some basic elements of soil frost and its occurrence.  The data contains observations from different regions and soil types in Finland. Different forms of soil frost and factors affecting its formulation are discussed. 

The article concludes with the factors effecting soil frost.  There are three issues. By the single grain soils the water content determines whether the frost becomes massive or layered. The structure of soil determines the occurrence of hollow formed frost. Within the soils with crumb structure both layered and hollow formed frost may occur. Layered frost may occur in soils with homogeneous crumb structure in which two kinds of ice layers occur: irregular and solid. The hollow-formed frost may occur in locker soils.
  • Kokkonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7198, category Article
P. Kokkonen. (1926). Beobachtungen über die Struktur des Bodenfrostes. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 30 no. 3 article id 7198. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7198
English title: Observations on the structure of soil frost.

The article presents some basic elements of soil frost and its occurrence.  The data contains observations from different regions and soil types in Finland. Different forms of soil frost and factors affecting its formulation are discussed. 

The article concludes with the factors effecting soil frost.  There are three issues. By the single grain soils the water content determines whether the frost becomes massive or layered. The structure of soil determines the occurrence of hollow formed frost. Within the soils with crumb structure both layered and hollow formed frost may occur. Layered frost may occur in soils with homogeneous crumb structure in which two kinds of ice layers occur: irregular and solid. The hollow-formed frost may occur in locker soils.
  • Kokkonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7086, category Article
P. Kokkonen. (1923). Beobachtungen über das Wurzelsystem der Kiefer im Moorböden. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 25 no. 11 article id 7086. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7086
English title: Observations on the root system of pine on marshy soils.
English keywords: peatlands; root system; root growth; pine

The data has been collected during 1919 and 1920 in different region of Finland. The studied peatlands varied from fuscum pine swamps to pine swamps and partly to better sedge pine swamps.

The study presents five different forms of root systems. The root growth of pine on peatlands seems to vary strongly from the root form on mineral soils. On the peatlands, where the ground water near to soil cover is, can the roots grow only near the soil surface where the conditions are suitable. For the pine typical tap root is in most cases absent or grows along the soil surface. Also the frost heaving, snow and characteristics of peat affect the root system.   

  • Kokkonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7085, category Article
Yrjö Ilvessalo. (1923). Ein Beitrag zur Frage der Korrelation zwischen den Eigenschaften des Bodens und dem Zuwachs des Waldbestandes. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 25 no. 10 article id 7085. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7085
English title: Paper on the correlation between the characteristics of the soil and the growth of forest stand.

The study is based on the results of the soil studies by Valmari (1921) and the growth inventories of respective areas. The aim is to show the connection of soil fertility (nutrient content) and forest growth with means of correlation calculations. The examined nutrients were nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus, also the electrolyte content was studied.

The results show that with increase of nitrogen content of the soil the growth of pine stand increases as well. The correlation is clearly identified. The number of birch and spruce stands is too small for systematic review. For calcium there is a similar kind of relation. With phosphorus content or amount of electrolytes the correlation with doesn’t exist. Also the loss on ignition test was conducted. The relation found is somewhat weak.
  • Ilvessalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7085, category Article
Yrjö Ilvessalo. (1923). Ein Beitrag zur Frage der Korrelation zwischen den Eigenschaften des Bodens und dem Zuwachs des Waldbestandes. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 25 no. 10 article id 7085. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7085
English title: Paper on the correlation between the characteristics of the soil and the growth of forest stand.

The study is based on the results of the soil studies by Valmari (1921) and the growth inventories of respective areas. The aim is to show the connection of soil fertility (nutrient content) and forest growth with means of correlation calculations. The examined nutrients were nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus, also the electrolyte content was studied.

The results show that with increase of nitrogen content of the soil the growth of pine stand increases as well. The correlation is clearly identified. The number of birch and spruce stands is too small for systematic review. For calcium there is a similar kind of relation. With phosphorus content or amount of electrolytes the correlation with doesn’t exist. Also the loss on ignition test was conducted. The relation found is somewhat weak.
  • Ilvessalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7083, category Article
V. T. Aaltonen. (1923). Versuche zur Klärung der Schutzwirkungen von wässerigen Humusauszügen. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 25 no. 8 article id 7083. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7083
English title: Experiments on clarification of protective action of watery humus extracts.
Original keywords: Humus; Schutztwirkung; Boden; Ortstein; Versuche

The article deals with laboratory experiments of humus containing soil samples that were tested for leaching of iron and lime. The humus and soil samples were collected in five different areas in Silesian state forests, Germany.

The chemical content of the extracts was measured in the beginning of the test. The flocculation experiments and experiments in glass tubes took place. The stronger or weaker the podsolization, the greater or smaller was the protective action of hums at the respective place. However, more research is needed. The results of the glass tube experiments seem to indicate that with humus there were smaller amounts of Ca and Fe leaching than with merely water. 

  • Aaltonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7082, category Article
V. T. Aaltonen. (1923). Zur Kenntnis der Ausfällung des Eisens im Boden. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 25 no. 7 article id 7082. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7082
English title: Knowledge on precipitation of iron in soil.

This is a working paper. It presents the laboratory experiments with soil samples from northern Finland, in which the precipitation of iron (Fe) was tested with limewater (Ca). There was no clear difference between samples with limewater and samples without limewater. However, the lime prevented the infiltration of iron almost totally.

The mineral content of soil effects the forest growth and yield and hence it is of interest for forestry. More research is needed both as field experiments and in the laboratory. 

  • Aaltonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7081, category Article
V. T. Aaltonen. (1923). Über die räumliche Ordnung der Pflanzen auf dem Felde und im Walde. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 25 no. 6 article id 7081. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7081
English title: On the spatial order of plants on fields and in forests.
Original keywords: Wurzeln; Feldversuche; Mais; Waldtypen; Boden

The article contains a literature review about the spatial order of plants and a description of the small-scale experiments with corn. The literature is primarily of German origin. The question of the spatial conditions of trees in forest is important for practice of silviculture. The first part of the article illustrates based on the literature the importance of roots and root concurrence for the development of plants or forest stands. The second and third part deepens the methodological knowledge on root research. Fourth part is the field experiments with corn. There are no clear relation to be found between yield and the number of plants.  

  • Aaltonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7078, category Article
Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. (1923). Über die Verteilung des fruchtbaren Bodens in Finnland und über den Einfluss dieser Verteilung auf die wirtschaftlichen Verhältnisse im Lande. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 25 no. 3 article id 7078. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7078
English title: On the division of fertile soils in Finland and its influence on the economic conditions.

The article is a presentation given by the author on occasion of visit from Austrian timber industry and foresters (August 17th 1923) in Punkaharju, Finland.

The article presents the classification of soils as forest types to describe their fertility and their occurrence in different parts of Finland. The economic conditions are only shortly mentioned: the more fertile areas in southern and western Finland have been taken for agriculture and the less fertile soils have stayed forested.   

  • Cajander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7072, category Article
K. Linkola. (1922). Zur Kenntnis der Verteilung der landwirtschaftlichen Siedlungen auf die Böden verschiedener Waldtypen in Finnland. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 22 no. 3 article id 7072. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7072
English title: Distribution of the agricultural settlements on different forest soils in Finland.

The paper studies the relationship of settlements to the forest types and forest soil. The observations have been done and data collected in southern Finland, around lakes Päijänne and Saimaa during summer 1917. Because of the shortcomings in the data, the results in the paper can be seen only as indicative.

The settlements have spread out firstly to areas of grove alike soils and herb-rich forests. The human settlements are still on these days concentrated on those areas. When more land is needed for agricultural purposes, the more fertile areas were introduced first. With forest type classification this means moving from herb-rich Oxalis-Myrtillus-type to Pyrola-type and to some extent Myrtillus-type. The more barren types are used as fields only very seldom. The differences in the fertility of the soils affects strongly the welfare and development of the people and the communes. 

The study shows that when considering the soil and vegetation, preconditions for agriculture are very different in different part of Finland. Also the climate and the geographical characters vary. To win more agricultural land, the fertile peatlands should be considered.  

  • Linkola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7072, category Article
K. Linkola. (1922). Zur Kenntnis der Verteilung der landwirtschaftlichen Siedlungen auf die Böden verschiedener Waldtypen in Finnland. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 22 no. 3 article id 7072. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7072
English title: Distribution of the agricultural settlements on different forest soils in Finland.

The paper studies the relationship of settlements to the forest types and forest soil. The observations have been done and data collected in southern Finland, around lakes Päijänne and Saimaa during summer 1917. Because of the shortcomings in the data, the results in the paper can be seen only as indicative.

The settlements have spread out firstly to areas of grove alike soils and herb-rich forests. The human settlements are still on these days concentrated on those areas. When more land is needed for agricultural purposes, the more fertile areas were introduced first. With forest type classification this means moving from herb-rich Oxalis-Myrtillus-type to Pyrola-type and to some extent Myrtillus-type. The more barren types are used as fields only very seldom. The differences in the fertility of the soils affects strongly the welfare and development of the people and the communes. 

The study shows that when considering the soil and vegetation, preconditions for agriculture are very different in different part of Finland. Also the climate and the geographical characters vary. To win more agricultural land, the fertile peatlands should be considered.  

  • Linkola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7065, category Article
Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. (1921). Zur Frage der gegenseitigen Beziehungen zwischen Klima, Boden und Vegetation. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 21 no. 1 article id 7065. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7065
English title: The mutual relationship between the climate, the soil and the vegetation.

The article is based on the work “Metsänhoidon perusteet I” [The fundamentals of Forest management I] by the author (1919 in Finnish). The different processes of the soil and the vegetation are dependent on the climatic conditions, but also affect each other. The article presents the climatic zones of the earth and their most important characteristics in regard of cultivation of (to respective zone) exotic trees species and agriculture. 

  • Cajander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7064, category Article
J. Valmari. (1921). Beiträge zur chemischen Bodenanalyse. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 20 no. 4 article id 7064. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7064
English title: Paper on chemical soil analyses.

The article tries to develop the method for defining the requirements of fertilizers for soil. The chemical soil analysis is also seen as the requirement for exact site classification based on height over age. The study is based on 1500 soil samples, one half of them from forest soils, the other half from arable land soils.    

The productivity of different forest types and the results of soil analyses are in line with each other. The most important growth factors are discerned.  Some shortcomings of the method are discussed.  Combining the soil analysis and the plant analyses of the sample plots seems to give the most accurate about the amount of nutrients that are available for the plants.

  • Valmari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7064, category Article
J. Valmari. (1921). Beiträge zur chemischen Bodenanalyse. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 20 no. 4 article id 7064. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7064
English title: Paper on chemical soil analyses.

The article tries to develop the method for defining the requirements of fertilizers for soil. The chemical soil analysis is also seen as the requirement for exact site classification based on height over age. The study is based on 1500 soil samples, one half of them from forest soils, the other half from arable land soils.    

The productivity of different forest types and the results of soil analyses are in line with each other. The most important growth factors are discerned.  Some shortcomings of the method are discussed.  Combining the soil analysis and the plant analyses of the sample plots seems to give the most accurate about the amount of nutrients that are available for the plants.

  • Valmari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7035, category Article
V. T. Aaltonen. (1920). Wasserverbrauch der Bäume und Feuchtigkeitsverhältnisse des Bodens. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 14 no. 2 article id 7035. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7035
English title: Use of water of the trees and the moisture conditions in the soil.

The data has been collected in the dry heathy forests in Harjavalta commune in south-west Finland and in Sodankylä commune in Lapland in summer time 1918 and 1919. The aim to the study was to find out how does the water consumption of the trees affect the moisture conditions of the soil and how they are linked to the regeneration of the forest.

Trees in one age class have a certain spatial distribution: the greater the distance between trees the older the trees and the smaller the distance, the younger the trees. This seem to rather be due to the development of the root system and the nutrition intake of a tree than the competition for light. The moisture content of the upper soil layers is higher in the open areas than in the closed canopy stands. Hence there are more seedlings growing in open areas.   However, it is not clear whether the results apply for other forest site types as well, and more research is needed.     

  • Aaltonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7010, category Article
O. J. Lakari. (1915). Studien über die Samenjahre und Altersklassenverhältnisse der Kiefernwälder auf dem nordfinnischen Heideboden. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 5 no. 1 article id 7010. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7010
English title: Studies on seed years and age-class distribution of pine forests on heathlands of northern Finland.

The data has been collected from northern Finland between about 64th and 68th north latitudes, excluding the polar tree line areas. The sample plots have been selected to represents greatest variation of the habitats in altitude, rainfall and other site factors. The selected trees were cut, their age, height, and diameter at various heights examined and possible signs of forest fires noticed. The age of the trees was examined also with microscope. The age class distribution of the sample plots was studied. The determination of historical seed years was based on age class distribution of the sample plots.  

Grouping of the trees into different age classes was too weak a method to make any conclusions about the periodicity or even less about the frequency of the seed years.  There were also noticeable differences in determining the age of the trees between macroscopic and microscopic age examination. There are also differences in the amount of seedlings between different forest types.

The growth of pines in northern Finland is very slow particularly in the young ages but the growth increases after they reach 1,3 meters, which may take up to 30 years. The development of the forest has been similar through last centuries
  • Lakari, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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