Current issue: 53(2)

Under compilation: 53(3)

Impact factor 1.683
5-year impact factor 1.950
Silva Fennica 1926-1997
1990-1997
1980-1989
1970-1979
1960-1969
Acta Forestalia Fennica
1953-1968
1933-1952
1913-1932

Articles containing the keyword 'Germany'.

Category: Article

article id 7446, category Article
K. Mantel. (1954). Der Bauernwald als Objekt der landbau- und forstwissenschaftlichen Forschung. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 34 article id 7446. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7446
English title: Farm forest holding as an object of agriculture and forestry related research.

Small-scale forest holdings are a specific research interest of forest research as they have many special questions in the sense of forest management. The article presents the characters of small-scale forest holdings in Germany. In connection to agricultural activities three different forms of forest use can be distinguished. They are forest-agriculture holdings, where forestry has an equal meaning with the agriculture; agricultural holdings with small areas of forest used only for fire wood or other household purposes; and thirdly farms with very small parcels of forest with no economic meaning and also minor household use.   

Forest research disciplines concerning these small-scale forest holdings and the policy instruments to enhance the sustainable management of these forests are discussed.

 

  • Mantel, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7438, category Article
Karl Abetz. (1954). Die Herleitung des Steuerwerts des Waldes in der Deutschen Bundesrepublik. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 25 article id 7438. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7438
English title: Derivation of the taxation value of forest in the Federal Republic of Germany.
Original keywords: Steuerwert; Einheitswert; Deutschland
English keywords: taxation; unit value; inventory; Germany

In the year 1925 harmonization of the forest taxation practices took place in the Federal Republic of Germany. The values are checked and renewed every six year, excluding the time of war. This unit value is a basis for many taxes and other payments, e.g. in cases of succession.

The article describes the ways the unit values have been historically calculated and the current practices. Also the forest inventory practices are discussed.    

  • Abetz, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5104, category Article
H. D. Brabänder. (1981). Subsidies and efficiency in forestry co-operatives. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 1 article id 5104. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15045

Private forestry in the Federal Republic of Germany mainly consists of small holdings. Out of 534,000 proprietors 97% own 0.01–10.0 ha. This category covers 45% (1.4 million ha) of private woodlands in total. During the last decades cooperation has increased so that now about 50% of the small woodland is managed by voluntary cooperatives. The main aim of the cooperatives is the improvement of management by trying to overcome the disadvantages arising from small size, unfavourable location and splitting up, as well as from insufficient accessibility and other structural difficulties.

An economic analysis of forestry cooperatives was conducted by using a combination of model calculations and field investigations of 20 forestry cooperatives which represented different types of cooperation in all regions of the country. The theoretical calculations showed the amplitude of efficiency improvement in small holdings by means of cooperation. It was shown that there were relatively poor results in the beginning and success could be achieved only in the long-term view by improving quality of stands. According to the analysis of the 20 cooperatives, the possible annual cutting rate was 4.1 m3/ha, but the actual cutting rate reached only 3.7 m3/ha. Aims of the cooperatives manly concerned coordination of production, mechanization, material acquisition and timber sales. The subsidization of forestry cooperatives proved, in general, to be insufficient. A discussion of different ways of subsidization showed that from the microeconomic point of view direct product subsidies of timber production may be more favourable than area-based grants.

  • Brabänder, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5104, category Article
H. D. Brabänder. (1981). Subsidies and efficiency in forestry co-operatives. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 1 article id 5104. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15045

Private forestry in the Federal Republic of Germany mainly consists of small holdings. Out of 534,000 proprietors 97% own 0.01–10.0 ha. This category covers 45% (1.4 million ha) of private woodlands in total. During the last decades cooperation has increased so that now about 50% of the small woodland is managed by voluntary cooperatives. The main aim of the cooperatives is the improvement of management by trying to overcome the disadvantages arising from small size, unfavourable location and splitting up, as well as from insufficient accessibility and other structural difficulties.

An economic analysis of forestry cooperatives was conducted by using a combination of model calculations and field investigations of 20 forestry cooperatives which represented different types of cooperation in all regions of the country. The theoretical calculations showed the amplitude of efficiency improvement in small holdings by means of cooperation. It was shown that there were relatively poor results in the beginning and success could be achieved only in the long-term view by improving quality of stands. According to the analysis of the 20 cooperatives, the possible annual cutting rate was 4.1 m3/ha, but the actual cutting rate reached only 3.7 m3/ha. Aims of the cooperatives manly concerned coordination of production, mechanization, material acquisition and timber sales. The subsidization of forestry cooperatives proved, in general, to be insufficient. A discussion of different ways of subsidization showed that from the microeconomic point of view direct product subsidies of timber production may be more favourable than area-based grants.

  • Brabänder, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4961, category Article
Helmut Schmidt-Vogt. (1977). Keski-Euroopan metsänhoidon kehityssuuntia. Silva Fennica vol. 11 no. 1 article id 4961. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14812
English title: Trends in the forest management in Central Europe.

In the densely populated Central Europe, forestry has always had different functions than in Scandinavia or Canada. Today the increasing pressures on the environment and more numerous demands of the people have put emphasis on environmental management and the demands of recreation in forest management practiced in the area. This paper outlines the trends in the utilization of forests in Central Europe, and especially in the Federal Republic of Germany, due to these changing targets. The regulations concerning forestry in Baden-Würtenber, and the forest plan of the Bavarian state forests are used as an example to clarify the principals of forest management and planning.

  • Schmidt-Vogt, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4855, category Article
Peitsa Mikola. (1971). Puuntuotannon ja metsien virkistyskäytön koordinointi Saksan liittotasavallassa. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 4 article id 4855. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14657
English title: Integration on timber production and forest recreation in the German Federal Republic.

The article is a report of a study tour of five Finnish foresters in Germany on September 27 – October 2. 1971. As in most industrial countries, the recreation use of forests is rapidly expanding and, therefore, its needs are considered in the management of forests. Two examples of intensively used recreation forests are described, Schönbuch near Stuttgart and the Bavarian Forest National Park at the Czechoslovakian border. These forests are effectively used for both timber production and recreation at the same time. Some other effects of urbanization on forests also are discussed in the article.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Mikola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4678, category Article
W. Wittich. (1958). Kasvupaikkaopin kehitys ja merkitys metsänhoidolle Saksassa. (Helsingin yliopistossa 26.4.1958 pidetty esitelmä, suomentanut Peitsa Mikola). Silva Fennica no. 96 article id 4678. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9124
English title: Development and significance of the knowledge of site factors and site types in forestry in Germany.

The article is a summary of a presentation by W. Wittich, held in the University of Helsinki in 26.4.1958.
The significance of fertility of the site in tree growh was known already for over 100 years ago in Germany, but after the First World War the view was abandoned in forestry. According to the Dauerwald system of managing forests that was introduced at the time, the type of site was considered relatively insignificant in forest management. Therefore, similar practices were used in all kinds of sites. The opposition against the use of this method resulted in new research on the site factors.
Knowledge of the relation of the site types and vegetation makes it possible to improve productivity: in regional planning the production that is considered to be necessary is assigned to the sites that have best conditions for it. For instance, in Niedersachsen county about 6% of the forest lands are reserved for cultivation of oak.
Another line of soil science studies the root causes behind the hands-on experiences of forest management. The aim is to abandon rigid approaches in forestry. Studying the effects of forest management practices on soil has been targeted, for instance, on effects of clear cutting on decomposition and vegetation, how the soil affects choice of tree species, and decomposition of litter from different tree species. Knowledge of soil and the trees’s demand of nutrients helps to mend disturbancies, such as nutrient deficiensies. Consequently, fertilization has become a new tool to improve productivity in forestry.
The article includes a German summary.

  • Wittich, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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