Current issue: 53(2)

Under compilation: 53(3)

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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
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Acta Forestalia Fennica
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Articles containing the keyword 'Harjavalta'.

Category: Review article

article id 497, category Review article
Oili Kiikkilä. (2003). Heavy-metal pollution and remediation of forest soil around the Harjavalta Cu-Ni smelter, in SW Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 37 no. 3 article id 497. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.497
Heavy metals and sulphur have been emitted from the Cu-Ni smelter at Harjavalta since 1945. This article reviews the work that has been published in scientific journals after 1975 concerning heavy metal deposition and the effects of pollution on forest ecosystem around Harjavalta. The pollution has had diverse effects on boreal forest ecosystem, e.g. vegetation, nutrient cycle mediated by microbiota and soil animals, herbivorous insects and pathogens, resistance mechanisms of vegetation, and birds. The deposition of heavy metals has increased up to 30 km distance from the smelter. At 8 km distance the ecosystem began to approximate an undisturbed ecosystem where only slight changes in the understorey vegetation were observed. At 4 km distance the species composition of different ecosystem components (vegetation, insects, birds, soil microbiota) had changed and the growth of trees was retarded. At 0.5–1 km distance, where the nutrient cycling was disturbed and only the most resistant organisms were surviving, the ecosystem had ceased to carry out its essential functions. Remediation through liming or mulching with organic matter, of forest soil has had some positive effects on the ecosystem.
  • Kiikkilä, Vantaa Research Centre, Finnish Forest Research Institute, P.O. Box 18, FIN-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: oili.kiikkila@metla.fi (email)

Category: Article

article id 5368, category Article
Kari Heliövaara, Rauno Väisänen. (1989). Invertebrates of young Scots pine stands near the industrial town of Harjavalta, Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 23 no. 1 article id 5368. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15527

Invertebrates of young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands were preliminarily studied along a gradient of industrial air pollutants in Harjavalta, south-western Finland. Bark samples and net samples on pine branches and needles were taken in May–June, 1987. The number of aphids on needles was highest near the industrial plants. The number of mites in bark was positively correlated with the increasing distance from the pollutant source. Detrended correspondence analysis ordination calculated according to the bark invertebrates showed that the sampling sites of the zones far from the emission source formed a distinct group while those of the zones near the source were relatively widely dispersed indicating disturbances in faunal structure.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Heliövaara, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Väisänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5367, category Article
Kari Heliövaara, Rauno Väisänen. (1989). Quantitative variation in the elemental composition of Scots pine needles along a pollutant gradient. Silva Fennica vol. 23 no. 1 article id 5367. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15526

Quantitative variation in the elemental composition of living Scots pine needles was studied along an atmospheric pollutant gradient in the surroundings of the industrial town Harjavalta, south-western Finland. Two 9-km-long transects, each with nine sample plots, running to the S and SW from factory complex were delimited in a homogenous Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forest. Needle samples were taken from 10 trees at each site, and from two separate sites in Tuusula near Helsinki. There was considerable spatial variation in the elemental composition of the needles. Heavy metals (Cu, Fe, Zn) showed a clear pattern of exponentially decreasing concentration with increasing distance from the emission source. Sodium and potassium concentrations, as well as the ash weight and air-dry weight, also decreased. Magnesium, manganese and calcium concentrations increased with increasing distance.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Heliövaara, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Väisänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5361, category Article
Kari Heliövaara, Rauno Väisänen. (1988). Interactions among herbivores in three polluted pine stands. Silva Fennica vol. 22 no. 4 article id 5361. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15518

Succession of insect attacks on young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) was studied in heavily, moderately and slightly polluted pine stands within a three-kilometre distance from a prominent emission source in Western Finland. The total number of pest species was highest in the moderately polluted stand, but unlike other herbivores, aphids were also abundant in the heavily polluted stands. A few positive but no negative interactions were detected between herbivores, which suggests that insect species may benefit from a previous occurrence of other species in the same tree.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Heliövaara, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Väisänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5264, category Article
Kari Heliövaara. (1986). Occurrence of Petrova resinella (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) in a gradient of industrial air pollutants. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 2 article id 5264. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15443

The relationship between industrial air pollutants and the occurrence of galls of Petrova resinella (Lepidoptera, Torticiadae) was studied around the industrialized town of Harjavalta in Western Finland. There were 44 sampling sites set out at logarithmic distances along five transects (NW, W, SW, SE) froma a distive source of emissions. Each site consisted of three circular sample plots (30 m2) in young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands. The number of galls, including cankers from several years earlier, was highest in the vicinity of the factory complex on each transect. The highest number of two-year-old galls containing living larvae was usually recorded at the ends of the transects several kilometres from the factories. However, the significance of the differences both between zones and transects was rather low. Correlations between the deposition of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn), used as an indication of the general level of air pollution, and the total number of galls, were positive and generally highly significant. It is concluded that P. resinella has benefitted from air pollution although perhaps to less extent than some sap-sucking species.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Heliövaara, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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