Current issue: 55(2)

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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
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Acta Forestalia Fennica
1953-1968
1933-1952
1913-1932

Articles containing the keyword 'Holz'.

Category: Article

article id 7419, category Article
Paavo Aro. (1954). Über die Ursachen der Massunterschiede beim Ausfuhrpapierholz. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 7 article id 7419. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7419
English title: On the reasons for differences in the measurements of exported pulpwood.
Original keywords: Papierholz; Export; Ausfuhr; Abmessung; Messen
English keywords: pulpwood; paper wood; export; measurement

Exported wood is measured at the port in Finland by certified measurers. Wood is paid according to these measuring certificates. However, in many cases the buyer measures the wood again in the country of destination, and gets smaller amounts. This sometimes causes awkward situations.

To examine the phenomenon one lot of pulpwood was measured both in Finland and in the destination country Germany. Several differences were found for the amounts of wood, and the author discussed the possible reasons for these differences.

However, because of the possible scattering in the measurements, several reductions are always made to the measurements. Hence it was proved that the buyer got the amount of wood they paid for. It is clear that the current practices and tools used to measure the amount of wood do not allow for any more accurate measures.     

The PDF contains a summary in Finnish. 

  • Aro, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7409, category Article
Eino Saari. (1954). Wald- und Holzbilanzen. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 60 no. 2 article id 7409. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7409
English title: On forest and timber balances.
Original keywords: Bilanz; Holz; Ökonomie
English keywords: balance; calculations; timber; economic

Literature knows a variety of forest and timber related balances and even wider variety of calculations concerning the themes. The article presents forest and timber balances divided into three categories, based on their purpose.

The three categories are: 1) (national) economic balances for calculating the sustainability of forest use and sufficiency of forest resources; 2) balances of yearly harvesting rates for mostly commercial purposes, but also economic uses; and 3) balances of timber demand and those for balance between supply and demand, especially for foreign trade.

Finally the author critically views the use of balances to describe the amounts of wood used in industry.

The PDF contains a summary in Finnish.
  • Saari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7358, category Article
Arvo Ylinen. (1942). Über den Einfluss des Spätholzanteils und der Rohwichte auf die Festigkeits- und elastischen Eigenschaften des Nadelholzes. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 5 article id 7358. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7358
English title: The effect of the amount of the summer wood on the elastic and tensile properties of coniferous trees.

The dependence of elastic and tensile properties of coniferous trees on the share of summer wood can be presented as linear functions, if the soft wood is considered as a statically indefinite structure. By eliminating the share of summer wood by a certain function presented in the article, the elastic and tensile properties are the linear functions of density.

The functions are proved right by conducting strength tests on pine. Practical implications of the derived functions in rating the quality of wood are also presented.

The PDF contains a summary in Finnish. 

  • Ylinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7358, category Article
Arvo Ylinen. (1942). Über den Einfluss des Spätholzanteils und der Rohwichte auf die Festigkeits- und elastischen Eigenschaften des Nadelholzes. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 5 article id 7358. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7358
English title: The effect of the amount of the summer wood on the elastic and tensile properties of coniferous trees.

The dependence of elastic and tensile properties of coniferous trees on the share of summer wood can be presented as linear functions, if the soft wood is considered as a statically indefinite structure. By eliminating the share of summer wood by a certain function presented in the article, the elastic and tensile properties are the linear functions of density.

The functions are proved right by conducting strength tests on pine. Practical implications of the derived functions in rating the quality of wood are also presented.

The PDF contains a summary in Finnish. 

  • Ylinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7358, category Article
Arvo Ylinen. (1942). Über den Einfluss des Spätholzanteils und der Rohwichte auf die Festigkeits- und elastischen Eigenschaften des Nadelholzes. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 5 article id 7358. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7358
English title: The effect of the amount of the summer wood on the elastic and tensile properties of coniferous trees.

The dependence of elastic and tensile properties of coniferous trees on the share of summer wood can be presented as linear functions, if the soft wood is considered as a statically indefinite structure. By eliminating the share of summer wood by a certain function presented in the article, the elastic and tensile properties are the linear functions of density.

The functions are proved right by conducting strength tests on pine. Practical implications of the derived functions in rating the quality of wood are also presented.

The PDF contains a summary in Finnish. 

  • Ylinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7280, category Article
Gust. Komppa. (1934). Zur Kenntnis der Nadelöle einiger in Finnland gewachsener ausländischer Nadelhölzer. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 3 article id 7280. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7280
English title: Knowledge on the needle oil of certain exotic coniferous trees growing in Finland.

The aim of the study was to find out firstly whether there are differences between the etheric oils of botanically alike but in different climatic conditions growing trees, and secondly whether the oils from alike trees are also alike. This article shortly describes the chemical composition of  Pseudotsuga Douglasii cecian Schwerin and Pinus Murrayana Engelm. The needle samples are from Mustiala Arboretum.

The first mentioned contains α-pinene, camphene, bornyl acetate, probably also limonene but no geraniol. Pinus Murraya’s oil contains pinene, camphene, borneol and cadinene.

The PDF contains a summary in Finnish.  

  • Komppa, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7263, category Article
I. Lassila. (1931). Untersuchungen über den Einfluss des Waldtyps auf die Qualität der Kiefer. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 37 no. 1 article id 7263. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7263
English title: Studies on the influence of the forest type on the quality of pine.

The quality of timber is very important in trade and dependable on the purpose of the timber. The article describes the influence of the forest type on the mechanic-technical properties of the timber. The studied properties are weight, the mean breadth of the annual growth rings, and the compression strength.

The percentage of the annual growth rings that is formed during the autumn is characteristic for the compression strength, and it varies accordingly on different forest types. The result from the formula of Janka depends on the forest type.

Being able to classify the timber according its quality makes it possible to have better price for it. it is also important when deciding for what purpose the timber can be used.

The PDF contains a summary in Finnish. 

  • Lassila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7235, category Article
Andr. Teikmanis. (1929). Lettlands Wälder und Holzexport. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 22 article id 7235. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7235
English title: Forests and timber exports of Latvia.
Original keywords: Lettland; Wald; Forstindustrie; Holzexport

After the world war one new states were built and they created their own economies and started foreign trade with different products. Timber is one of the traded articles, and not without meaning. New states, Latvia as one of them, have achieved great interest on international timber market, thanks to its favorable transport conditions.

The article presents the main characters of Latvian forests, ownership structure, and the governance related to felling and timber production. Also the most important branches of forest industry are presented. The most important aspects of the Latvian forestry are summarized in the end of article.       

The volume 34 of Acta Forestalia Fennica is a jubileum publication of professor Aimo Kaarlo Cajander.

  • Teikmanis, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7204, category Article
Erik Lönnroth. (1927). Über Stammkubierungsformeln. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 31 no. 5 article id 7204. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7204
English title: On volume formulas.

Volume formulas have been developed already for long time but there are still some questions to be solved. The volume of a stem can be calculated based on measurements of diameter on various heights or based on mathematic formula. The article presents the formula development for that. The study is based on measurements of 24 pine stands.   

The results of the new formula can be seen satisfactory with the relatively small data of this study. Coincidentally the formally best mean solution of the here compared volume calculation formulas was the one based on Denzin’s formula. There the deviation from total mean is almost zero.   

  • Lönnroth, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7092, category Article
August Renvall. (1923). Beobachtungen über die Exzentrizität des lappländischen Kiefernstammes. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 26 no. 4 article id 7092. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7092
English title: Observations on the eccentricity of pine trunks in Lapland.

The hard climate and other environmental conditions cause irregularities in the growth of trees in Lapland. Those changes weaken the characteristics of the tree for industrial use and hence lowers the timber price. The eccentricity is mainly caused by the strong wind burden.

The data for the article consists of 428 increment core samples from pine trees different ages, sizes and growth rate. There were collected in years 1910-1912 in Finnish Lapland, regions Utsjoki and Inari. The increment cores were collected on the height of 1.3 meters in south-north direction straight crosswise through the whole tree. The difference of length was measured between southern and northern half rays. Earlier studies show that the eccentricity remains the same in different heights of the tree. Hence studying the variations only on the breast height radiuses is possible.

The mean eccentricity is 12.3% and its maximum varies mostly between 20 and 25%. There are no differences in eccentricity between trees of different age classes or diameter. 

  • Renvall, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7091, category Article
August Renvall. (1923). Das radiale Schwindmass des lappländischen Kiefernstammholzes gemäss dem Verhalten von Bohrspänen. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 26 no. 3 article id 7091. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7091
English title: The degree of radial shrinkage of pine stem wood from Lapland according to behavior of increment cores.
English keywords: increment core; shrinkage; stem wood; pine

Shrinking of timber when drying is a phenomenon that causes variation in measuring of timber in timber trade and on using the timber for construction or other purposes.   

The data for the article consists of 332 increment core samples from pine trees different ages, sizes and growth rate. There were collected in years 1910-1912 in Finnish Lapland, regions Utsjoki and Inari. The increment cores were collected on the height of 1.3 meters in south-north direction straight crosswise through the whole tree. The samples are 6mm thick. The diameter of the samples was measured immediately after making the sample and after several years’ storage in room temperatures. Also the age of the trees was determined.

The results are presented in tables. The degree of shrinkage varies heavily between the samples but stays anyhow between 1.5 and 3.9%. The mean degree of shrinkage for 314 samples was 2.9%. The results seem to indicate that the bigger the shrinkage the denser the annual growth ring system of the tree, meaning the slower the growth has been.  The older and of diameter bigger trees shrink less than younger and smaller trees. 

  • Renvall, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7077, category Article
Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. (1923). Über das Verhältnis zwischen Waldzuwachs und Holzverbrauch in Finnland. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 25 no. 2 article id 7077. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7077
English title: On the relation between forest growth and timber consumption in Finland.

The article is a presentation given by the author on occasion of visit from Austrian timber industry and foresters (August 17th 1923), and again for the German visitors (August 20th 1923) in Punkaharju, Finland. The speech deals with the question of the overuse of Finnish forest compared to their growth. The developments of slash-and-burn-culture and forest inventories are described. The results of the inventories show, though still in preliminary state, that there is no nationwide overuse in total, though there are some locations where the felling are bigger than growth. 

  • Cajander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7074, category Article
Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. (1923). Der Anbau ausländischer Holzarten als forstliches und pflanzengeographisches Problem. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 24 no. 1 article id 7074. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7074
English title: Cultivation of exotic tree species as forestry and plant geographic problem.
Original keywords: ausländisch; Holzarten; Provenienz

The distribution and occurrence of plant species, including trees, in the nature show that living and splendor of them is constrained by climatic factors. They have their minimum, optimum and maximum for the temperatures they can survive in. The tree species, at least mostly are divided into different varieties in different areas of the world so that the species are most suitable for the climatic conditions of their site.

The article presents the main climatic zones with their tree species according L. Ilvessalo and they suitability to Finland. More accurate areas of suitable species are also listed. 

The referred results show that alongside the climatic conditions, the conditions of soil and relief must be taken into account when using exotic tree species for forestry purposes.  

  • Cajander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7067, category Article
Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. (1921). Einige Reflexionen über die Entstehung der Arten inbesondere innerhalb der Gruppe der Holzwächse. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 21 no. 3 article id 7067. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7067
English title: Reflections on the evolution of the species, especially on arborescent plants.

The most abundant tree species occur in different variants in different geographical regions. They differ in their genetic, biological and partly also in morphological characters, however making clear difference between these subspecies is not possible. The different subspecies have developed according the respective areas' climatic and soil conditions, developing adaptive characters. These subspecies play a great role in practical forest management, since they differ in for forestry important characters, such as cold tolerance or stem form. 

The subspecies hybridize with each other in areas where their distribution areas overlap. In these areas the subspecies cannot be always clearly defined.   

  • Cajander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7067, category Article
Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. (1921). Einige Reflexionen über die Entstehung der Arten inbesondere innerhalb der Gruppe der Holzwächse. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 21 no. 3 article id 7067. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7067
English title: Reflections on the evolution of the species, especially on arborescent plants.

The most abundant tree species occur in different variants in different geographical regions. They differ in their genetic, biological and partly also in morphological characters, however making clear difference between these subspecies is not possible. The different subspecies have developed according the respective areas' climatic and soil conditions, developing adaptive characters. These subspecies play a great role in practical forest management, since they differ in for forestry important characters, such as cold tolerance or stem form. 

The subspecies hybridize with each other in areas where their distribution areas overlap. In these areas the subspecies cannot be always clearly defined.   

  • Cajander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7535, category Article
Olli Heikinheimo. (1915). Einige Beobachtungen über die Aufarbeitung und Verwahrung des Brennholzes. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 4 no. 3 article id 7535. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7535
English title: Observations about manufacturing and storage of firewood.
Original keywords: Brennholz; Wassergehalt; Versuche

The moisture content of the wood has negative impact on transport, storage and use of wood, particularly this can be noticed on firewood. The moister the wood the harder is the transportation and storing. The high percentage of moisture also reduces the heating power of fire wood.

Drying of the wood of different tree species was studied at the forestry institute Tuomarniemi with following experiment setup: pines, spruces, birches, aspens and alders were logged and cut into one-meter split billets. Then they were dices according Huber’s formula. The wood was stacked in three similar ricks (stacks), varying the direction of the cut surface. The various tree species were distributed evenly to every rick. The split billets were weighted straight after manufacturing and after every month.

The wood dries fastest during spring and summer months. The direction of the cut surface of split billets in the rick makes no big differences in drying. The coniferous wood dries up to lower moisture content than broadleaved   woods.
  • Heikinheimo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7528, category Article
Einari Vuori. (1913). Die durch Brandkultur entstandenen Nadelholzbestände des Staatsforstes Vesijako. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 2 no. 1 article id 7528. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7528
English title: Coniferous tree stands of the state forest “Vesijako” reforested through controlled burning.

The study area is state owned forest of Vesijako in southern middle Finland that has earlier been intensively managed with slash-and-burn agriculture. Reforestation of broad-leaved forests into coniferous forest with controlled burning has been studied on 76 sample plots.

The article describes the practice of leasing forest stands to leaseholders who executed the controlled burning and forest regeneration and management according a leasing contract. The results of the reforestation with coniferous trees shows that sowed pine (Pinus silvestris) stands give good results but spruce (Picea abies) must be planted as a seedling.  For the state this method of forest improvement is cost effective  and should be used more widely. 

  • Vuori, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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