Current issue: 53(2)

Under compilation: 53(3)

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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
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Acta Forestalia Fennica
1953-1968
1933-1952
1913-1932

Articles containing the keyword 'Kiefer'.

Category: Article

article id 7465, category Article
Leo Heikurainen. (1955). Ü̈ber Veränderungen in den Wurzelverhältnissen der Kiefernbestände auf Moorböden im Laufe des Jahres. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 65 no. 2 article id 7465. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7465
English title: On the seasonal changes of root system of a pine stands on the peatlands.
Original keywords: Kiefer; Moor; Wurzelverhältnis; Jahreszeit

The seasonal changes of the roots systems of a pine stand on the peatlands have been studied with samples collected during summers 1952-1954 and winter 1955. There are altogether seven sample areas that are located in the district of Korkeakoski.  

The amount of roots is at the smallest in the spring, increasing then rapidly and peaking at the end of July. After that the amount of roots decreases again against the winter to the same size than in the spring. Variations seem to be similar in every year and also similar to other studies on mineral soils.

The PDF contains a summary in Finnish. 

  • Heikurainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7464, category Article
Erkki K. Kalela. (1956). Ü̈ber Veränderungen in den Wurzelverhältnissen der Kiefernbestände im Laufe der Vegetationsperiode. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 65 no. 1 article id 7464. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7464
English title: Variations of the root systems of a pine stand during the growing period.

The article presents the results of the studies about the horizontal root systems of pine. The results have been obtained with the method developed by the author.

The size of the root system varies very strongly during the growing period. The amount of roots is at the smallest in the spring, increasing then rapidly and peaking at the end of July. After that the amount of roots decreases again against the winter to the same size than in the spring. The differences are due the changes in the amount of the smallest roots. There seem to be no big differences in the amount of roots between stand of different ages.

After the thinning there is a drop in the amount of roots on the stand level, but after two growing periods then standing trees have taken over the unused land. However after selection felling the less vital trees are not capable of utilizing the vacant resource as effectively.     

The PDF contains a summary in Finnish. 

  • Kalela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7307, category Article
Erik Lönnroth. (1934). Zur Frage der Volumengeraden des Waldbestandes. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 30 article id 7307. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7307
English title: On the straight line describing volume of a forest stand.

The article describes the method of improving the leveling line of the volume of sample trees so that the volume figures themselves indicate the best leveling. The original method of leveling line originates from Kopezky. Here the method is illustrated with a data from Finnish pine forest.

The PDF contains a summary in Finnish.  

  • Lönnroth, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7283, category Article
Esko Kangas. (1934). Über entomologische Analysen und ihre Anwendung. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 6 article id 7283. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7283
English title: Entomological analyses and their applications.

The article discusses entomological analyses and their applications. Recent improvements in the methodology are presented and examples of application in the field of pines drying up standing are discussed. Further improvements to the method are proposed. The results of the studies so far indicate that there is need for further studies on duration of the generation of pine weevils (Pissodes sp.)

The PDF contains a summary in Finnish.  

  • Kangas, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7263, category Article
I. Lassila. (1931). Untersuchungen über den Einfluss des Waldtyps auf die Qualität der Kiefer. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 37 no. 1 article id 7263. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7263
English title: Studies on the influence of the forest type on the quality of pine.

The quality of timber is very important in trade and dependable on the purpose of the timber. The article describes the influence of the forest type on the mechanic-technical properties of the timber. The studied properties are weight, the mean breadth of the annual growth rings, and the compression strength.

The percentage of the annual growth rings that is formed during the autumn is characteristic for the compression strength, and it varies accordingly on different forest types. The result from the formula of Janka depends on the forest type.

Being able to classify the timber according its quality makes it possible to have better price for it. it is also important when deciding for what purpose the timber can be used.

The PDF contains a summary in Finnish. 

  • Lassila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7255, category Article
M. Lappi-Seppälä. (1929). Untersuchungen über die Schlankheit der Kiefer. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 42 article id 7255. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7255
English title: Studies on the slenderness of the pine.

In practical forestry being able to divide the stem into timber assortments in the best possible way is very important.  Defining the decrease in diameter of the stem plays an important role in that. The article aims to define the slenderness as the relation of the tree height to its breast height diameter. The decrease in diameter is taken into account by measurements of diameter above the breast height. The study is based on the measurements conducted in 1924 for the inventory of forest resources of Finland.

The influence of the stand density to the relationship between height of the pine and the breast height diameter is smaller in the more fertile sites than in the less fertile sites. In the more dense stands are pines more slender than in the sparser stand on all forest types.  

 The volume 34 of Acta Forestalia Fennica is a jubileum publication of professor Aimo Kaarlo Cajander.
  • Lappi-Seppälä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7196, category Article
Erik Lönnroth. (1925). Untersuchungen über die innere Struktur und Entwicklung gleichaltriger naturnormaler Kiefernbestände : basiert auf Material aus der Südhälfte Finnlands. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 30 no. 1 article id 7196. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7196
English title: Studies on internal structure and development of even aged natural normal pine stands: based on the data from southern part of Finland.

Study is based on the strip-wise survey of forests in southern Finland. From that information the 30 sample plots were chosen, 10 of each of most typical forest site types, MT, VT and CT. The stands are of different ages and development classes, varying from 14 to 159 years.

The article discusses the earlier literature on the factors effecting forest stands and presents the data in detail. The results section is divided into paragraphs on number of stems of the stand, height, crown, breast height diameter, basal area and volume. The statistical numbers are calculated and presented.    

  • Lönnroth, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7092, category Article
August Renvall. (1923). Beobachtungen über die Exzentrizität des lappländischen Kiefernstammes. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 26 no. 4 article id 7092. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7092
English title: Observations on the eccentricity of pine trunks in Lapland.

The hard climate and other environmental conditions cause irregularities in the growth of trees in Lapland. Those changes weaken the characteristics of the tree for industrial use and hence lowers the timber price. The eccentricity is mainly caused by the strong wind burden.

The data for the article consists of 428 increment core samples from pine trees different ages, sizes and growth rate. There were collected in years 1910-1912 in Finnish Lapland, regions Utsjoki and Inari. The increment cores were collected on the height of 1.3 meters in south-north direction straight crosswise through the whole tree. The difference of length was measured between southern and northern half rays. Earlier studies show that the eccentricity remains the same in different heights of the tree. Hence studying the variations only on the breast height radiuses is possible.

The mean eccentricity is 12.3% and its maximum varies mostly between 20 and 25%. There are no differences in eccentricity between trees of different age classes or diameter. 

  • Renvall, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7091, category Article
August Renvall. (1923). Das radiale Schwindmass des lappländischen Kiefernstammholzes gemäss dem Verhalten von Bohrspänen. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 26 no. 3 article id 7091. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7091
English title: The degree of radial shrinkage of pine stem wood from Lapland according to behavior of increment cores.
English keywords: increment core; shrinkage; stem wood; pine

Shrinking of timber when drying is a phenomenon that causes variation in measuring of timber in timber trade and on using the timber for construction or other purposes.   

The data for the article consists of 332 increment core samples from pine trees different ages, sizes and growth rate. There were collected in years 1910-1912 in Finnish Lapland, regions Utsjoki and Inari. The increment cores were collected on the height of 1.3 meters in south-north direction straight crosswise through the whole tree. The samples are 6mm thick. The diameter of the samples was measured immediately after making the sample and after several years’ storage in room temperatures. Also the age of the trees was determined.

The results are presented in tables. The degree of shrinkage varies heavily between the samples but stays anyhow between 1.5 and 3.9%. The mean degree of shrinkage for 314 samples was 2.9%. The results seem to indicate that the bigger the shrinkage the denser the annual growth ring system of the tree, meaning the slower the growth has been.  The older and of diameter bigger trees shrink less than younger and smaller trees. 

  • Renvall, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7086, category Article
P. Kokkonen. (1923). Beobachtungen über das Wurzelsystem der Kiefer im Moorböden. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 25 no. 11 article id 7086. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7086
English title: Observations on the root system of pine on marshy soils.
English keywords: peatlands; root system; root growth; pine

The data has been collected during 1919 and 1920 in different region of Finland. The studied peatlands varied from fuscum pine swamps to pine swamps and partly to better sedge pine swamps.

The study presents five different forms of root systems. The root growth of pine on peatlands seems to vary strongly from the root form on mineral soils. On the peatlands, where the ground water near to soil cover is, can the roots grow only near the soil surface where the conditions are suitable. For the pine typical tap root is in most cases absent or grows along the soil surface. Also the frost heaving, snow and characteristics of peat affect the root system.   

  • Kokkonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7067, category Article
Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. (1921). Einige Reflexionen über die Entstehung der Arten inbesondere innerhalb der Gruppe der Holzwächse. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 21 no. 3 article id 7067. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7067
English title: Reflections on the evolution of the species, especially on arborescent plants.

The most abundant tree species occur in different variants in different geographical regions. They differ in their genetic, biological and partly also in morphological characters, however making clear difference between these subspecies is not possible. The different subspecies have developed according the respective areas' climatic and soil conditions, developing adaptive characters. These subspecies play a great role in practical forest management, since they differ in for forestry important characters, such as cold tolerance or stem form. 

The subspecies hybridize with each other in areas where their distribution areas overlap. In these areas the subspecies cannot be always clearly defined.   

  • Cajander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7034, category Article
V. T. Aaltonen. (1920). Über die Ausbreitung und den Reichtum der Baumwurzeln in den Heidewäldern Lapplands. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 14 no. 1 article id 7034. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7034
English title: The distribution and abundance of the tree roots in the heathy forests on Lapland.

The study presents and describes the abundance and distribution of tree roots in specific stands of heathy forest types in Lapland. The data was collected in the Sodankylä commune.  

Due to the shortcomings in the data, conclusions can be drawn only regarding pine forests. The result of study states that the root competition plays an important role in the development of the forests, and most of the other observed phenomena are linked with root competition. The more infertile the soil the vertically and horizontally wider and more abundant the root system. It seems that the abundance of the root system is similar in forest of same fertility class and same density and age.      

  • Aaltonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7027, category Article
Olli Heikinheimo, August Renvall. (1921). Über die Schutzwaldfrage. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 11 no. suppl. article id 7027. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7027
English title: About the protection forests.

The article is based on observations made during a decade in the parishes of Utsjoki and northern, middle and eastern parts of Inari in Finnish Lapland. At the timber line the pine regenerates very slowly. The amount and quality of pine forests on their timber line has been diminishing because of forestry, expansion of settlements and reindeer pasturing.  

Assigning the pine forests on the timber line as protection forests would serve the nature protection purposes as well as the wellbeing of the inhabitants and the state. Protection of areas where the regeneration is weak as well as the birch forests that serve as source of firewood for local people is of particular important. Measures against forest fires need to be taken. Extensive use of forests for reindeer pastures have caused a threat to existence of those forests.

When it comes to forest management, securing the seed yield and the survival of the seedlings need to be taken care. The productivity of the forests must be increased. For growing amount of people living in the area, the need for firewood and timber for other purposes must be fulfilled without increasing pressure to nearby forests.    

  • Heikinheimo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Renvall, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7536, category Article
Karl Oskar Elfving. (1915). Cronartium Peridermium Strobi Kleb, auf Pinus Cembra in Finnland gefunden. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 4 no. 4 article id 7536. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7536
English title: White pine blister rust (Cronartium Peridermium Strobi Kleb) (Cronartium ribicola) found on stone pine (P. cembra) in Finland.

An occurrence of Cronartium Peridermium Strobi Kleb has been found in a privately owned garden in Tampere. They are found in several types of currant that the fungus uses as alternate host. The fungi have earlier been found on eastern white pine and now seemingly for the first time on stone pine. 

  • Elfving, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7536, category Article
Karl Oskar Elfving. (1915). Cronartium Peridermium Strobi Kleb, auf Pinus Cembra in Finnland gefunden. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 4 no. 4 article id 7536. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7536
English title: White pine blister rust (Cronartium Peridermium Strobi Kleb) (Cronartium ribicola) found on stone pine (P. cembra) in Finland.

An occurrence of Cronartium Peridermium Strobi Kleb has been found in a privately owned garden in Tampere. They are found in several types of currant that the fungus uses as alternate host. The fungi have earlier been found on eastern white pine and now seemingly for the first time on stone pine. 

  • Elfving, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7529, category Article
Lauri Ilvessalo. (1913). Versuche mit ausländischen Holzarten im Staatsforst Vesijako. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 2 no. 2 article id 7529. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7529
English title: Experiments with foreign tree species in state forest Vesijako, Finland.

The study area is state owned forest of Vesijako in southern middle Finland that has earlier been intensively managed with slash-and-burn agriculture and then partly reforested with foreign coniferous tree species after controlled burnings. The total area planted with foreign species consists of 66 sample areas, altogether 28 hectares. The data has been collected in summer 1909. 

The most of studied sample areas have been unsuccessful, but there are still many areas that are too young to be assessed. The originally with foreign species reforested areas are now pine stands. The tree species in experiments have been e.g. larch (Larix sibirica and L. europaea), Siberian stone pine (Pinus cembra sibirica), Siberian fir (Abies sibirica o. pichta), balsam fir (Abies balsamea), white fir (Abies pectinate also Abies alba), white spruce (Picea alba also Picea glauca), Weymouth pinen (Pinus strobus) and European / Swiss mountain pine (Pinus montana  also P. mugo, P. mugho).

The most important result of the experiments with controlled burning is that stand of grey alder (Alnus incana) with only low economic value can be effectively altered into coniferous forests (Pinus silvestris).
  • Ilvessalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7529, category Article
Lauri Ilvessalo. (1913). Versuche mit ausländischen Holzarten im Staatsforst Vesijako. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 2 no. 2 article id 7529. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7529
English title: Experiments with foreign tree species in state forest Vesijako, Finland.

The study area is state owned forest of Vesijako in southern middle Finland that has earlier been intensively managed with slash-and-burn agriculture and then partly reforested with foreign coniferous tree species after controlled burnings. The total area planted with foreign species consists of 66 sample areas, altogether 28 hectares. The data has been collected in summer 1909. 

The most of studied sample areas have been unsuccessful, but there are still many areas that are too young to be assessed. The originally with foreign species reforested areas are now pine stands. The tree species in experiments have been e.g. larch (Larix sibirica and L. europaea), Siberian stone pine (Pinus cembra sibirica), Siberian fir (Abies sibirica o. pichta), balsam fir (Abies balsamea), white fir (Abies pectinate also Abies alba), white spruce (Picea alba also Picea glauca), Weymouth pinen (Pinus strobus) and European / Swiss mountain pine (Pinus montana  also P. mugo, P. mugho).

The most important result of the experiments with controlled burning is that stand of grey alder (Alnus incana) with only low economic value can be effectively altered into coniferous forests (Pinus silvestris).
  • Ilvessalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7527, category Article
August Renvall. (1913). Die periodischen Erscheinungen der Reproduktion der Kiefer an der polaren Waldgrenze. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 1 no. 2 article id 7527. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7527
English title: The periodic variation of the regeneration of pine (Pinus sylvestris) at the polar tree line.

The study deals with the preconditions for natural regeneration of the pine at the polar tree line in northern Finland and Sweden. The data has been collected in three summers from 1909 to 1911 in areas of Inari and Utsjoki in Finland and Kaaresuvanto, Jukkasjärvi und Pajala in Sweden. The yearly variation of seed production of pine is studied and compared with the age of the stand, site factors and weather conditions.

Intensity of reproduction is dependent on different preconditions for pistils and stamens and hence the total reproduction (formation of cones) can vary very much depending on the weather.

According the study, the formation of cones varies yearly and is particularly strong every three to four years.  Supposedly the same model applies to whole polar tree line of the Fennoscandia. There seem to be no difference between northern and southern parts of Scandinavia when it comes to frequency of good cone years though they not always occur in the same years.
  • Renvall, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4726, category Article
H. Lyr, G. Hoffmann. (1965). Untersuchungen über das Wurzel- und Sprosswachstum einiger Gehölze. Silva Fennica no. 117 article id 4726. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14284
English title: Studies on growth of roots and shoots of certain tree species.
Original keywords: Wachstum; Baumarten; Versuche; Kiefer; Birke; Lärche

Understanding the growth of trees is the prerequisite for meaningful forest management. Hence the studies on the ways the trees grow is important. The growth of roots and sprouts was studied by Larix leptolesis, Pinus silvestris, Betula pendula, Robinia pseudoacasia, Populus euramericana, Pseudotsuga taxifolia, Quercus borealis and some other species. The results of still ongoing experiments on pine, birch and larch are presented for root and shoot growth.

The results indicate that the amount of light or shade the tree is having plays an important role in the growth. Hence some tree species are better adapted to shade than others, there are differences in their growth depending whether they are in light or in shade. 

  • Lyr, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Hoffmann, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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