Current issue: 53(2)

Under compilation: 53(3)

Impact factor 1.683
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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
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Acta Forestalia Fennica
1953-1968
1933-1952
1913-1932

Articles containing the keyword 'Klassifizierung'.

Category: Article

article id 7132, category Article
Juhani Sarasto. (1961). Über die Klassifizierung der für Walderziehung entwässerten Moore. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 74 no. 5 article id 7132. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7132
English title: On classification of peatlands drained for forestry purposes.

The aim of the study is to find out 1) whether and how the original moor type can be found out based on vegetation regardless the phase of drainage; 2) whether the different phases of draining can be distinguished based on the vegetation; and 3) is it possible to classify the well drained moors into vegetation types that would reflect the productive capacity of the land.

The data consists of samples collected from ditched areas. There are 11 moor types from two climatic ditching zones. The results show that the original moor type can be determined based on vegetation, the phase of drainage can be determined under some limitations, and the classification for productivity can be done for practical purposes.    

The PDF contains a summary in Finnish. 

  • Sarasto, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7350, category Article
Ilmari Paasio. (1941). Zur Pflanzensoziologischen Grundlage der Weissmoortypen. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 49 no. 3 article id 7350. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7350
English title: Plant sociological principles of open bog types.

The plant populations of Finnish open bogs are typically formed of two layers. The layers normally consist of one or rarely two species. The structure of plant populations in open bogs is a consequence of the development where determining factors are different site requirements of the species, and the differences in the biotic vitality and capacity for reproduction.

Phytogenesis should be taken as a basic unit for describing the plant societies or vegetation of treeless bogs. However, acknowledging the sub-populations may be of advantage for describing the ecological, genetic and regional characters of open bogs.

The basic classification of open bogs must be done based on the ground layer. The more detailed classification follows mostly based on field layer, partly also based on the ground layer.

The PDF contains a summary in Finnish. 

  • Paasio, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7347, category Article
Aarno Kalela. (1939). Über Wiesen und wiesenartige Pflanzengesellschaften auf der Fischerhalbinsel in Petsamo Lappland. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 48 no. 2 article id 7347. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7347
English title: On meadows and meadow alike vegetation communities on the Rybachy Peninsula in Petsamo, Lapland.

The article presents the characteristics of different vegetation areas (meadows and peatlands) by their distinctive vegetation. The study area is by the Barents Sea and is the northernmost part of continental European Russia. Different sites are classified by plant communities and/or vegetation units.

The article continues on the second PDF-file. 

  • Kalela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7329, category Article
V. E. Svinhufvud. (1937). Untersuchungen über die bodenmikrobiologischen Unterschiede der Cajander'schen Waldtypen. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 44 no. 1 article id 7329. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7329
English title: Studies on the microbiological differences in soil between the forest types.

Earlier studies show that different kind of biological processes occur in the soil of different forest types. These differences may be due differences in microbiology of those soils. This article studies these differences.

Soil samples from five different forest types were collected from the Ruotsinkylä research forest in three different seasons: in January, March and September.

The amount of bacteria in the samples is at the lowest in March and highest in September.   During the winter more anaerobic bacteria were found. The amount of denitrifying bacteria is higher in the soil than amount of nitrifying bacteria.

The results indicate that the species composition of soil varies between the forest types in the same manner than the vegetation composition above the soil. However, this study is only a preliminary and more knowledge is needed about the discipline before practical implications can be drawn.

The PDF contains a summary in Finnish.  

  • Svinhufvud, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7274, category Article
Ilmari Paasio. (1933). Über die Vegetation der Hochmoore Finnlands. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 39 no. 3 article id 7274. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7274
English title: On the vegetation of the raised bogs in Finland.
Original keywords: Hochmoor; Vegetation; Klassifizierung

The study is based on the measurements and observations made during summers 1927-1929 and 1932 on South- and West-Finnish high moors. The article aims to give an overview on the vegetation if the Finnish high moors. The study seeks to answer following questions: to what extent and what kind of characters of other moor types are present in high moors, to what extent occur the characteristics of high moors outside the high moor area, and what are the typical characteristics of high moors?

The article describes the different types of raised bogs and the plant topographic characters. The high moors in different parts of Finland differ from each other with their characteristics and vegetation that they are classified in three groups: high moors in south-west Finland, high moors of northern part of Satakunta-province, and high moors south-east Finland.    

The PDF contains a summary in Finnish.

  • Paasio, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7253, category Article
K. Linkola. (1929). Zur Kenntnis der Waldtypen Eestis. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 40 article id 7253. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7253
English title: Knowledge on the forest types in Estonia.

The article summarizes the observations about forest types from different parts of Estonia. The chosen examples represent the normal forest where age class division is natural and the species composition has not been altered through felling or grazing. These are mainly found in the areas of earlier manors of the nobility. The samples are only from mineral soils. Vegetation analysis and middle-European height-over-age-survey were made.

Because of the great share of herb-rich-forest the forest type classification for Estonia is complex. There are many types that have not been described earlier.

The study describes the characteristics and the vegetation types of the heath forests, fresh forests, half-herb-rich-forests and herb-rich-forests.        

The volume 34 of Acta Forestalia Fennica is a jubileum publication of professor Aimo Kaarlo Cajander.

  • Linkola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7246, category Article
K. Kirstein. (1929). Lettlands Waldtypen. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 33 article id 7246. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7246
English title: Forest types in Latvia.

The article discusses the different methods to classify forest sites and applies the methods to classify forests in Latvia. The three methods are: height-over-age classification, from standpoint of floristic (botanical- plant geographical standpoint), and forest types. A good classification method must: describe the main characters of a site illustratively, the classification units need to relate to each other, and the classification method is easy to use in practice. In contrast to other methods, by forest type classification the stand and the site are considered as whole and hence it is considered as the best of the three.

There is one classification system for the whole Latvia. The forests can be divided into permanent and transition types. In the permanent types the site factors stay rather unchanged and the site characters tally with the requirements of the dominant species. sites where the current tree species produces less than optimum growth are classified as transition types.

The forest types have changed over the time because of leaching of the nutrients from the soil.   

The volume 34 of Acta Forestalia Fennica is a jubileum publication of professor Aimo Kaarlo Cajander.

  • Kirstein, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7241, category Article
V. T. Aaltonen. (1929). Über die Möglichkeit einer Bonitierung der Waldstandorte mit Hilfe von Bodenuntersuchungen. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 28 article id 7241. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7241
English title: On the possibility to classify forest sites by means of soil studies.

After critically reviewing earlier studies on soil properties and their influence on forest growth and yield, it seems that defining the forest yield could be possible by means of soil properties. To be able to do so, the site needs to be defined and delineated in some other way. It is also necessary to decide the right soil properties to study for the purpose.

For the classification of forest sites the results of soil analyses need to be compared with growth and yield data from the site. To further the practice of classification of forest sites by means of soil studies, four aspects need to be taken into account:

1)  the site needs to be delineated beforehand according its vegetation, preferable with Cajander’s forest type classification

2) the experiments about soil needs to be done for as many properties as possible

3) the studied sites need to be as representative as possible in their class

4) there are as many samples for one site as possible studied

The volume 34 of Acta Forestalia Fennica is a jubileum publication of professor Aimo Kaarlo Cajander.

  • Aaltonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7236, category Article
K. J. Valle. (1929). Können die südfinnischen Seen vermittels der umgebenden Vegetation und Flora bonitiert werden. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 23 article id 7236. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7236
English title: Can the seas in southern Finland be classified according the productivity by means of surrounding vegetation and flora.

The aim of the study is to define to which extent the productivity of seas in south Finland, and especially the production of animals in sea bottom, can be determined according the forest site classification given to the land areas around the sea, meaning that the productivity class is the same for the forest and the sea. The data for the study has been collected in state owned forests in Evo in middle Finland, in Karelia around the Finnish and Russian border and in southern parts of Karelia.

Where the forests are more barren, VT or Ct types, also the seas have lower productivity, they are oligotrophic or mesotrophic. However, the less barren surrounding forests are not a clear sign of the productivity of the sea. As a result the productivity level of a sea can be estimated relatively good by the fertility of the surrounding areas, though not in all cases. 

The volume 34 of Acta Forestalia Fennica is a jubileum publication of professor Aimo Kaarlo Cajander.

The PDF contains a summary in German.

  • Valle, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7230, category Article
Viljo Kujala. (1929). Die Bestände und die ökologischen Horizontalschichten der Vegetation. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 17 article id 7230. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7230
English title: Populations and the ecological layers of vegetation in horizontal direction.

To be able to exactly describe the similarities and differences of vegetation in certain areas, classifying the vegetation only in communities or formations is not enough. Therefore more classes are needed. The classification according the horizontal layers is based on the heights of plants and their relations to each other. Every population in one community has own area of height which extends to horizontal direction.

In comparison with populations the vegetation horizons create a biologically validated comparison of different vegetation groups and their parts. Defining the populations and vegetation horizons creates a division and systematization of plant communities on an ecological basis.       

The volume 34 of Acta Forestalia Fennica is a jubileum publication of professor Aimo Kaarlo Cajander.

  • Kujala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7223, category Article
L. Wappes. (1929). Die Richtung des heutigen Waldbaues. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 10 article id 7223. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7223
English title: Trend of forest management of the day.
Original keywords: Brief; Waldtypenklassifizierung

The article is a congratulatory letter to professor Cajander. The author describes the work of Cajander about forest site classification and its importance to the development of forest sciences not only in Finland but worldwide.

The volume 34 of Acta Forestalia Fennica is a jubileum publication of professor Aimo Kaarlo Cajander.

  • Wappes, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4456, category Article
Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. (1930). Wesen und Bedeutung der Waldtypen. Silva Fennica no. 15 article id 4456. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8990
English title: Characters and meaning of forest types.

The article contains three presentations given about forest type classification at the University of Tarto in Estonia. The article has an introduction, a part about the meaning of the natural classification of forest sites and up to now conducted studies on site classification. The second part presents the characteristics of plant communities and the forest types, and practical and theoretical meaning of forest types.

Classifying the forest sites is important in practical forestry, because the forest growth and forest valuation are dependent on the productivity of the soil. The classification of the sites for forest management purposes needs to result in classes that are easily distinguished in the forest. This then leads to forest management that best fits to a certain forest site. 

  • Cajander, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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