Current issue: 53(1)

Under compilation: 53(2)

Impact factor 1.683
5-year impact factor 1.950
Silva Fennica 1926-1997
1990-1997
1980-1989
1970-1979
1960-1969
Acta Forestalia Fennica
1953-1968
1933-1952
1913-1932

Articles containing the keyword 'Lappi'.

Category: Research article

article id 277, category Research article
Laura Koskela, Bikas K. Sinha, Tapio Nummi. (2007). Some aspects of the sampling distribution of the Apportionment Index and related inference. Silva Fennica vol. 41 no. 4 article id 277. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.277
As customer-oriented production strategies have gained ground in the sawmill industry, proper measurement of the fit between the log demand and log output distributions has become of crucial importance. The prevailing means of measuring the outcome is the so-called Apportionment Index (AI), which is calculated from the relative proportions of the observed and required distributions. Although some statistical properties of the AI have recently been examined and alternative means of measuring the bucking outcome have been suggested, properties of the sampling distribution of the AI have not yet been widely studied. In this article we examine the asymptotic sampling distribution for the AI by assuming a multinomial distribution for the outcome. Our results are based mainly on large-sample normal approximations. Also some studies of the determination of the number of logs needed to obtain a specified level of accuracy of the AI have been carried out.
  • Koskela, University of Tampere, Dept of Mathematics, Statistics and Philosophy, FI-33014 University of Tampere, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: laura.koskela@uta.fi (email)
  • Sinha, Indian Statistical Institute, Kolkata, India ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Nummi, University of Tampere, Dept of Mathematics, Statistics and Philosophy, FI-33014 University of Tampere, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:

Category: Article

article id 7099, category Article
K. T. Jutila. (1926). Tutkimuksia Perä-Pohjolan ja Lapin talous- ja asutusoloista IV. Karjanhoidosta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 28 no. 4 article id 7099. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7099
English title: Studies on the economic conditions and colonization of Perä-Pohjola and Lapland IV. Animal culture.

The study includes a detailed survey of 154 farms in the area. Part of the results are presented in the second and third part of the article series about agriculture in Perä-Pohjola and Lapland. The typical breed of cattle in the area was the white Northern Finnish landrace (pohjoissuomenkarja). The size of herds in the farms varied from one to 25, but exceeded seldom 10 cows. Summer pastures were mostly forest pastures. For the winter hay and leaf fodder was gathered. The article includes a detailed description of cattle-keeping in the area. In addition, the farms often had horses and sheep. Keeping pigs or poultry was rare.

The PDF includes a summary in English. This is a fourth part of four-article series about the natural resources in the area of Perä-Pohjola and Lappi.

  • Jutila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7098, category Article
K. T. Jutila. (1926). Tutkimuksia Perä-Pohjolan ja Lapin talous- ja asutusoloista III. Maanviljelyksestä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 28 no. 3 article id 7098. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7098
English title: Studies on the economic conditions and colonization of Perä-Pohjola and Lapland III. Plant culture.
English keywords: agriculture; forestry; cattle; farms; Lapland

Only 0.1% of the land area of Perä-Pohjola and Lapland is arable land. The study includes a detailed survey of 154 farms in the area. Part of the results are presented in the second part of the article series about Perä-Pohjola and Lapland (Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 18). The farms had in average 1.87 hectares of arable land and 16.1 hectares of meadows. Cattle-manure was the most important dressing. The main crops were barley, hay, potatoes and rye. The article includes a detailed description about the cultivation methods.

The PDF includes a summary in English. This is a third part of four-article series on the natural resources in the area of Perä-Pohjola and Lappi. The article includes a detailed survey of the farms in the area.

  • Jutila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5413, category Article
Eljas Pohtila. (1990). Metsän uudistuminen Kivalon vanhoilla kaistalehakkuualoilla. Silva Fennica vol. 24 no. 1 article id 5413. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15565
English title: Forest regeneration of old strip cutting areas in Kivalo.

The results of regenerating 54 and 36–38-year old strip cuttings were surveyed in the Kivalo Research Forest (N 66°20’, E 26°40’). 15 measurement plots were placed on each strip. The most common forest type was Hylocomnium-Myrtillus type. Regeneration of the strips proved to be slow. Most of the spruces growing on the strips probably originated from the time before the cutting. The average number of stems was 1,155 per ha, of which one third consisted of broadleaved trees. The average volume increment of stem wood after cutting had been about 1 m3/ha/yr, but it was increasing at the time of the inventory. Both the reforestation of the strips and the development of the emergent stands were dependent on elevation and site fertility. Site fertility was indicated by the abundance of Vaccinium myrtillus.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Pohtila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5312, category Article
Timo Pukkala. (1987). Siementuotannon vaikutus kuusen ja männyn vuotuiseen kasvuun. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 2 article id 5312. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15469
English title: Effect of seed production on the annual growth of Picea abies and Pinus sylvestris.

The study material consisted of 13 rather old Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) and 17 Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands located in different parts of Finland. In each stand the seed crops, radial growth and amount of latewood were measured during a period of about ten years. Seed production reduces the radial growth of spruce and pine in the year of seed maturing. In Southern and Central Finland also the proportion of latewood is reduced. Seed production accounts for about 14% of the variation in radial growth of a spruce stand growing in Lapland, and 27% in other parts of Finland. In pine stands the seed crop explains 19% of the variation in radial growth in Lapland, and only 7% in the rest of Finland. In spruce stands an average seed crop reduces radial growth by 14% in Lapland and 5% in the rest of the country. An abundant seed production causes a reduction of about 20%. In southern parts of Finland, the proportion of latewood is reduced by 5% in an average seed year and by 24% in a good seed year. In pine stands an average seed crop decreases the width of annual ring by 5%, and a good seed crop by 15%. Outside Lapland, also the proportion of latewood is reduced: in an average seed year by 5%, and in a good seed year by 16%. The reduction in volume growth of spruce stands due to an average seed crop was estimated to be about 10% in Lapland, and 6% in other parts of Finland. A prolific seed production causes a reduction of 20%. In old pine stands the reduction is 5% in an average seed year, and 15% in a good seed year.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Pukkala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5311, category Article
Timo Pukkala. (1987). Kuusen ja männyn siemensadon ennustemalli. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 2 article id 5311. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15468
English title: Model for predicting the seed crop of Picea abies and Pinus sylvestris.

The seed crop of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) is predicted with the help of mean monthly temperatures during May–August one and two years before the flowering year. The prediction models were made separately for Lapland and for the rest of Finland. The models are based on 10-year periods of seed crop measurements and climatic data. The total number of time series was 59.

In Lapland, Norway spruce flowered abundantly and produced an abundant seed crop after warm July–August and two years after cool July–August. In other parts of Finland, warm June and July produced a good flowering year, especially if these months were cool two years before the flowering year.

In Lapland, Scots pine flowered abundantly if the whole previous growing season was warm. Elsewhere in Finland, a cool June preceded prolific flowering in the coming year if the rest of the growing season was considerably warmer than the average.

The prediction models explained 37–49 % of the variation in the size of the seed crop. The occurrence of good and poor seed years was usually predicted correctly. Using the presented models, the prediction of the seed crop is obtainable 1.5 year for Norway spruce and 2.5 year for Scots pine before the year of seed fall.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Pukkala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5243, category Article
Eljas Pohtila, Tapani Pohjola. (1985). Maan kunnostus männyn viljelyssä Lapissa. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 3 article id 5243. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15422
English title: Soil preparation in reforestation of Scots pine in Lapland.

The study deals with the interaction of various soil preparation and reforestation methods. The most favourable time of the year for broadcast sowing and the effect of stabilization after soil preparation on restocking were studied as special problems.

Prescribed burning, scalping and disc ploughing made a better combination with sowing than planting, and ploughing better combination with planting than sowing. The longer the period was between sowing and germination the fewer seedlings emerged. The best stocking was clearly resulted with sowing in June. Stabilization of soil after preparation had a negative effect on reforestation results.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Pohtila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pohjola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5218, category Article
Jouni Suoheimo. (1984). Isokorvakärsäkkään aikuisten esiintyminen ja merkitys männyn luontaiselle uudistamiselle Pohjois-Lapissa. Silva Fennica vol. 18 no. 3 article id 5218. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15397
English title: The occurrence of Otiorrhynchus nodosus and its significance for the natural regeneration of Scots pine in Lapland.

The aim of the present study was to survey the occurrence of Otiorrhynchus nodosus Müller weevils and their significance for the natural regeneration of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). The study was carried out during summer 1982 at Inari in northern Lapland.

There were two sample plots, one situated in a Scots pine seed-tree area and the other, the control sample plot, in an area with a coverage of mountain birch (Betula pubescens subsp. tortuosa, now subsp. czerepanovii). A total of 177 Otiorhynchus weevils were caught. Movement of the weevils reached its climax in July. There were 86% more individuals in the seed-tree area than in the mountain birch area. No damage to the pine germlings or seedlings was not observed, although the situation could be different during the peaks of the veewil populations.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Suoheimo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5188, category Article
Eljas Pohtila, Tapani Pohjola. (1983). Vuosina 1970-1972 Lappiin perustetun aurattujen alueiden viljelykokeen tulokset. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 3 article id 5188. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15171
English title: Results from the reforestation experiment on ploughed sites established in Finnish Lapland during 1970–1972.

The objective of the study was to compare different reforestation methods on ploughed areas in Finnish Lapland. Four species were compared: Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.), silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) and Siberian larch (Larix sibirica Ledeb.). The experiments were established in different parts of Lapland on different types of sites in 1970–72.

In Scots pine there was a difference of 15 percentage points in survival of seedlings between the best and worst methods of regeneration. Containerized seedlings and paper pot seedlings had the best survival rates. In Norway spruce the respective difference between sowing and planting was about 20 percentage points. In favour of planting. The survival rate can be increased by about 20 percentage points by selecting the right tree species. The average height varied from 25 cm (the sowed Norway spruce) to 179 cm (the planted silver birch) after 10 growing seasons. The birch was planted at the most fertile sites only. The longer time passed from the afforestation the clearer was the effect of the local growing conditions on the development of the seedlings. The elevation of the site was one factor seemed to influence the success of the seedlings.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Pohtila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pohjola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5013, category Article
Matti Leikola. (1979). Tutkimustoiminta Lapin metsien hoidon ja käytön suuntaajana. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 1A article id 5013. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14867
English title: The role of forestry in guiding forest policy and management in Finnish Lapland.

The part played by research work in guiding the management and utilization of Lapland’s forests is examined in this publication. The review has been written to mark the 70th anniversary of the Finnish Forestry Society (now the Finnish Society of Forest Science).

The climate in Lapland is very severe and, owing to the lack of experience abroad, forestry has been forced to follow the guidelines set by domestic research activity in Finland. Research work was very active in Lapland the 1910’s, 1920’s and 1950’s, and the main outlines for forestry utilisation were soon established. In the 1950’s, there was a strong trend prevailing to develop forestry, with the result that a change took place in favour of clear-cutting. The cool climate period in the 1960’s caused considerable damage to young plantations. In order to find means to rectifying the situation and to devise new guidelines for forest management, The Finnish Forest Research Institute established a number of research stations in Lapland.

Research activity has had a pronounced effect on the management and utilization of forests in Lapland. Present-day problems have been caused more by the international situation than by difficulties in the management of forests in Lapland.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Leikola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5011, category Article
Kullervo Etholén. (1978). Kokemuksia visakoivun kasvatuksesta Lapissa. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 4 article id 5011. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14865
English title: Experimental growing of curly birch in Finnish Lapland.
Original keywords: visakoivu; Lappi; puunkasvatus

The aim of the present study was to register the curly birch (Betula pendula f. carelica Sok.) plantations established in Lapland and to determine their location and present condition. The information was obtained by means of interviews and visual observations.

In Lapland, the growing of curly birch started in 1950’s and the early 1960’s. During this period, in the different supervisory areas of Lapland, the National Board of Forestry established curly birch stands totalling approximately 30 ha, including about 34,000 seedlings. The bulk of the plantations have been destroyed by animals. On the other hand, the curly birch experimental stands established by the Finnish Forest Research Institute have thrived. The private sector of Forest Management has been engaged in the production of seedlings on a large scale and, as a result of this, curly birch trees are frequently seen as ornamentals in Rovaniemi and in other localities in Lapland. When taken care of, curly birch thrives in Lapland and produces I-class curly wood.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Etholén, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4932, category Article
Marketta Hoogesteger. (1976). Kasvillisuuden muuttuminen Koilliskairan autiotupien ympärillä. Silva Fennica vol. 10 no. 1 article id 4932. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14774
English title: Changes in vegetation around refuge huts in Koilliskaira forest area in Finnish Lapland.

The area of Koilliskaira, situated in the eastern part of Finnish Lapland, is a popular venue for hikers. The present work examines the change of vegetation around 35 refuge huts in the area. The indigenous vegetation was found to conform to the various heath forest types common to forests in Lapland and continental subalpine mountain birch forest types, principally dry or fairly dry heath forest.

According to the study, the change in vegetation showed a clear positive correlation with the number of summer visitors. The dwarf shrubs and lichens were the most susceptible to trampling, and the grasses the least so. Both resilient and susceptible species were to be found among the mosses. The incoming hemerophilous flora was seen to consist principally of species known to accompany Lappish settlement in the area, and only occasional cases of alien species were noted.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Hoogesteger, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4811, category Article
Raimo Lehto. (1970). Opetustoiminnan taustaa ja työnopetus Hirvaan metsäkonekoulussa. Silva Fennica vol. 4 no. 1 article id 4811. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14600
English title: Background of education and occupational instruction at the Hirvas Forest Machine School.

The share of occupational instruction at the Forest Machine School varies between 70 and 80%. The paper describes organization of the education, curriculum, teaching methods, practical training, machinery, and learning experience of the students. It discusses the influence of teaching programme, and school environment on attitudes and motivation of the students.

The school employs an adaptation of the TW I method in its actual methods of occupational instruction. The method of demonstration is also employed. The size of a training group has been restricted to 10 pupils, and the school has attempted to acquire plenty of instruction components, material for repair, and practice worksites. In this way the repetition of essentials can be guaranteed. The minimum factor in driver training is the competence to use a grab loader. In the training of mechanics the core competence is the diagnostics of defects and the making of adjustments.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lehto, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4786, category Article
Matti Leikola. (1969). Havaintoja männyn paksuuskasvun loppumisesta ja puiden keloutumisesta Inarin Lapissa. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 1 article id 4786. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14572
English title: Termination of diameter growth of Scots pine in old age in northernmost Finnish Lapland.

The purpose of the present study is to throw light on the termination of diameter growth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in old age in northernmost Finnish Lapland. The material consists of thirty over-mature, dying or already dead standing trees grown in natural state. In 1907 the stand was marked for cutting, but the harvest was never carried through. Now the old labels served as a means for cross-dating the year of the final termination of growth.
It was found that as pine becomes senile its annual ring formation becomes incomplete. At first diameter growth stops in the middle part of the stem, then at the butt end, and at last on the canopy level. No correlation between the mean temperature of July and the dying of the tree was found. The average age for dying for the pine in the stand was 420–450 years. After the tree has died it takes about 35–40 years before it has become a silvery, branchless dead bole.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Leikola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7588, category Article
Niilo Söyrinki, Risto Salmela, Jorma Suvanto. (1977). Oulangan kansallispuiston metsä- ja suokasvillisuus. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 154 article id 7588. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7588
English title: The forest and mire vegetation of the Oulanka National Park, Northern Finland.

The Oulanka National Park is situated in the district of Kuusamo on the eastern border of Finland, close to the Arctic Circle and within the coniferous forest zone. It covers a surface area of 107 km2, and is known for the richness of its vegetation and flora, a product of a varied bedrock pattern including occurrences of dolomite. A description is given of the vegetation of the 9 forest and 47 peatland types distinguishable in the area by means of tables based on quadrat surveys. The distribution of each forest and peatland type is described in a vegetation map. The vegetation types are discussed in terms of the structure of their soil and the ecological and floristic features of their plant cover.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Söyrinki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Salmela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Suvanto, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7542, category Article
Yrjö Ilvessalo. (1970). Metsiköiden luontainen kehitys- ja puuntuottokyky Pohjois-Lapin kivennäismailla. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 108 article id 7542. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7542
English title: Natural development and yield capacity of forest stands on mineral soils in Northern Lapland.

The article is fifth part of a series of papers on fully stocked natural normal stands on mineral soils in Finland. This part studies the stands in Northern Lapland, dominated by Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). This investigation was concerned mainly with Scotch pine stands, using Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) and birch (Betula sp.) stands for comparison only. 107 sample plots were measured.

The most common forest types in the area are Empetrum-Myrtillus-(Cladina) type, EM(C1), Ericacea-Cladinae type, ErCIT, P-L, and Cladina type, C1T. Stand development is more rapid and wood production greater in EM(C1) type than ErCIT, while the C1T stands are further behind in all respects. The average differences in stand characteristics between forest types are roughly similar, but for cubic volume and total production less, than between the more southerly forest types. Measurements made from increment cores taken at breast height have confirmed that variation of the pine annual ring width has on average been very considerable, in accordance with the climatic, mainly temperature, variations, in the investigation area close to the north pine forest limit.

The few plots from birch and spruce stands measured as samples in the northern Lapland investigation area indicate the generally poor development and wood production of these stands by comparison with pine stands.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ilvessalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4588, category Article
Olli Heikinheimo. (1948). Perä-Pohjolan ja Lapin metsätaloudesta. Silva Fennica no. 64 article id 4588. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13990
English title: Forestry in Perä-Pohjola, North-East Finland, and Lapland.

Silva Fennica Issue 64 includes presentations held in 1947 in the third professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the public administration. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service. Two of the presentations were published in other publications than Silva Fennica.

This presentation describes the forests and their silvicultural state in the areas of Perä-Pohjola and Lapland in the Northern Finland. Forest management work needed to improve the silvicultural state of the forests is suggested.

  • Heikinheimo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4579, category Article
Reino Kalliola. (1942). Pyhätunturin kansallispuiston kasvillisuudesta ja kasvistosta. Silva Fennica no. 59 article id 4579. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9083
English title: Vegetation and flora in the Pyhätunturi National Park.

The article is based on the writer’s visits in the area in 1933 and 1939. Pyhätunturi national park was established in 1938. The fell of Pyhätunturi rises up to 540 meters above the sea level, and 357 meters above the surrounding area. The soil is predominantly stony, and the rock is quartzite. The climate is continental with low rainfall. This results in a barren area, where array of plant species is limited with the exception of few gorges with fertile river valleys. The forests have remained mostly in natural state.

Vegetation is arranged in three zones: forested area, subalpine fell birch area and alpine bare top of the fell. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forms timberline more often than Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.). Coniferous forests rise up to 365 meters on the northern slopes and up to about 385 on the southern slopes of the fell. It is followed by fell birch zone (Betula tortuosa, now Betula pubescens subsp. Czerepanovii) up to about 450-475 meters on the eastern and northern slopes, and 475-490 meters on the western slopes. The most common forest site type is Empetrum-Myrtillus site type. Herb-rich spruce swamps along the rivers have highest diversity of species. The article describes the plant species found in forests, peatlands, fell birch zone and top of the fell in detail. In all 162 different vascular plant species and 16 non-indigenous species were found in the area.

The article includes an abstract in German.

  • Kalliola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4559, category Article
A. A. Räsänen. (1939). Metsien uudistamisesta Perä-Pohjolassa. Silva Fennica no. 52 article id 4559. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13966
English title: Forest regeneration in Northern Finland.

Silva Fennica issue 52 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1938. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation describes the state of forests in Northern Finland, and suggests that fellings are targeted at the oldest forests until the over-presented over-aged forest are harvested. The preferred regeneration method is natural regeneration in most forest types.

  • Räsänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4558, category Article
Olli Heikinheimo. (1939). Kokemuksia paksusammaltyypin metsien käsittelystä. Silva Fennica no. 52 article id 4558. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13965
English title: Experiences in forest management of Hylocomnium-Myrtillus type forests in Northern Finland.

Silva Fennica issue 52 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1938. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation describes a study of forest management practices suitable for in Hylocomnium-Myrtillus site type forests, typical for Northern Finland. A special problem for the forest site type is poor regeneration due weak seed production of Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) and thick moss layer.

  • Heikinheimo, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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