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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
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Articles containing the keyword 'Nordic countries'.

Category: Research article

article id 127, category Research article
Mika Rekola, Annukka Valkeapää, Tapio Rantala. (2010). Nordic forest professionals’ values. Silva Fennica vol. 44 no. 5 article id 127. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.127
The present study analyses the values held by forest professionals in three Nordic countries: Finland, Norway, and Sweden. The data is from a large (n = 1113) internet survey that used cognitive mapping as a research tool, which is a novelty in value measurement. The questionnaire is based on the organisational value theory of Schein (1992), supplemented with relevant forest-related and environmental values. The forest-related main value factors were in the following order of importance: Expertise, Private forestry, Forest production, Nature conservation, and Tradition. The measurement included two kinds of cases: action values, referring to present decision-making, and ideal values, referring to decisions concerning future ideals. Most of the values’ scores were similar. Almost all values received higher scores of importance in the ideal cases compared to action cases, a fact that can probably be explained by constraints related to the professionals’ current working environment. Some international differences were also found: Sweden and Norway were closer to each other and both differed from Finland, where private forestry, forest production, and traditions are highly valued. Moreover, respondents working in industry were found to be slightly more production-oriented than other forest professionals. The study also revealed several weaknesses of the cognitive mapping method in measuring values.
  • Rekola, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki ORCID ID:E-mail: mika.rekola@helsinki.fi (email)
  • Valkeapää, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Rantala, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki ORCID ID:E-mail: tapio.rantala@helsinki.fi

Category: Article

article id 5229, category Article
Maija-Liisa Juntunen, Jan Engsås, Lennart Gustafsson, Pekka Mäkinen, Frans Theilby, Tore Vik. (1985). Skogsarbetsledarna i Norden. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 1 article id 5229. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15408
English title: Supervisors in the forestry of the Nordic countries.

The goal of this research was to study the position of forest supervisors, their education, number, pay system, professional organizations and work situations in Nordic countries. The study belonged to a joint Nordic project of the Nordic Research Council on Forest Operations. Participating in the actual work the number of forest supervisors were Denmark (year 1978) 715, Finland (1980) 8,000, Norway (1967) 1,055, and Sweden (1975) 6,400. In Denmark, 87% of the supervisors worked in forestry, in Finland 91%, in Norway 98% and in Sweden 86%.

Forest supervisor education started at the end of the last century. In the 1950s and 1960s the forest supervisors’ education has been renewed in all four countries. Supervisors have a special 1 to 4.5 years’ training, but many have a forest technician’s education, too. In Finland and Sweden forest supervisor education was reformed at the end of the 1970s. Supervisors work in functional as well as in regional organizations. In Nordic countries, supervisors are paid monthly salaries. Salaries are a little higher in private than in public sector companies. In 1981 the start salary in Finland was 3,107 FIM and in Sweden in 1980 about 4,425 FIM. Most supervisors in the Nordic countries belong to some union.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Juntunen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Engsås, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Gustafsson, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Mäkinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Theilby, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Vik, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4977, category Article
C. J. Westman. (1977). Nutrient cycle in tree stands - Nordic symposium. Silva Fennica vol. 11 no. 3 article id 4977. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14830

The Nordic working group for forest fertilization is a group of research workers from the Nordic countries Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden, which has been working on plant nutrition questions and forest amelioration problems. The group has met annually to discuss current problems, hitherto mostly concerning forest fertilization. In 1976 the question of future working forms came up, and the group decided to arrange a symposium on the subject Nutrient cycle in tree stands in 1977.

This symposium took place in Harjavalta and Ikalis in Finland from the 29th of August to 1st of September 1977. During the symposium 12 papers were presented, which are published in the following, either in full or as summaries of a given lecture. Part of the lectures are in English and part in Swedish.

The paper includes the following titles:

A bioelement budget of an old Scots pine forest in Central Sweden

Mobilization of plant nutrients in a Scots pine forest Mor in Central Sweden

Accumulation of organic matter and nitrogen on sand dunes following sand fixation and planting of dwarf mountain pine

Sambandet mellan torvmarkstyp och yttorvens näringshalt

Changes in the amounts of inorganic nutrients in the soil after clear-felling

Plant nutrient balance in decoration greenery cultivation

The effect of forest fertilization on primary production and nutrient cycling in the forest ecosystem

Förändringar i humuslagret efter skogsgödling

Balanserad näringsupptagning och behovet av gödsling i trädbestånd på näringsfattiga torvmarker

Of fertilization on nutrient contents in needles and litter fall of Scots pine on dwarf shrub pine swamp

Micro-nutrient deficiencies cause growth disturbances in trees

Tallarnas växtstörningar, markens näringsbalans och micronäringsbrist

  • Westman, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7606, category Article
Kari Heliövaara, Rauno Väisänen, Auli Immonen. (1991). Quantitative biogeography of the bark beetles (Coleoptera, Scolytidae) in northern Europe. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 219 article id 7606. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7606

Biogeographical patterns of the Scolytidae in Fennoscandia and Denmark, based on species incidence data from the approximately 70 km x 70 km quadrats (n = 221) used by Lekander et al. (1977), were classified to environmental variables using multivariate methods (two-way indicator species analysis, detrended correspondence analysis, canonical correspondence analysis).

The distributional patterns of scolytid species composition showed similar features to earlier presented zonations based on vegetation composition. One major difference, however, was that the region was more clearly divided in an east-west direction. Temperature variables associated with the location of the quadrat had the highest canonical coefficient values on the first axis of the CCA. Although these variables were the most important determinants of the biogeographical variation in the beetle species assemblages, annual precipitation and the distribution of Picea abies also improved the fit of the species data.

Samples with the most deviant rarity and typicality indices for the scolytid species assempblages in each quadrat were concentrated in several southern Scandinavian quadrats, in some quadrats in northern Sweden, and especially on the Swedish islands (Öland, Gotland, Gotska Sandön) in the Baltic Sea. The use of rarity indices which do not take the number of species per quadrat, also resulted high values for areas near Stockholm and Helsinki with well-known faunas. Methodological tests in which the real changes in the distribution of Ips acuminatus and I. amitinus were used as indicators showed that the currently available multivariate methods are sensitive to small faunal shifts even, and thus permit analysis of the fauna in relation to environmental changes. However, this requires more detailed monitoring of the species’ distributions over longer time spans.

Distribution of seven species (Scolytus intricatus, S. laevis, Hylurgops glabratus, Crypturgus cinereus, Pityogenes salasi, Ips typographus, and Cyleborus dispar) were predicted by logistic regression models using climatic variables. In spite of the deficiencies in the data and the environmental variables selected, the models were relatively good for several but not for all species. The potential effects of climate change on bark beetles are discussed.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Heliövaara, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Väisänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Immonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4454, category Article
C. C. Böcker. (1929). Om skogars skötsel i Norden. Silva Fennica no. 13 article id 4454. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8987
English title: Silviculture in the Northern countries.

The article gives a review on the history of forest management in the Northern countries. The article concludes that in the Northern Countries with their immense supplies of forest and small demand, because of sparse population, there was no hurry for developing the study of forest economics, as was the case in Central Europe. It was only when the modern wood using industry had revolutionized the marketing conditions, that the opportunity was provided for forest economics to develop. The paper introduces the book ’Om skogarnas skötsel in Norden’ (Silviculture in the Northern Countries) written by a Finn C.C. Böcker. That paper was compiled in behalf of a request of the king of Sweden, King Carl XIV Johan, who offered a price to a person who would draw a scheme for organizing forestry in Sweden, where Finland at that time belonged to. The prize was divided by Böcker and a swede, af Ström.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish and English and the original text in Swedish.

  • Böcker, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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