Current issue: 53(4)
Under compilation: 54(1)
Finland was the first country, in connection with World War II, from which reparations were demanded. In September 1944 Soviet Union demanded indemnifications of 300 million dollars, payable in commodities (timber products, paper, wood pulp, sea-going and river craft, sundry machinery). Later similar obligations of deliveries in kind were applied to Rumania, Bulgaria, Hungary and Italy. Germany were to pay in kind for the losses caused by her to the Allied nations in the course of the war.
The article discusses the principle of war indemnities to be paid exclusively in kind, which was a new one, and compares it to the situation after World War I. One reason for the principle was a negative lesson drawn from the experiences after the previous war. A reparation system of payment in kind is the most suitable system for a country like the Soviet-Union, as it requires, at least some degree of economic planning by a centralized system.
The Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari’s 60th birthday.
As Finland has neither coal nor oil resources, it has had to resort to large-scale imports dependant on foreign relations and especially maritime connections. When the outbreak of World War II broke these connections, the state had to institute comprehensive controls and measures to ensure the supply of fuels. The present article deals with the measures taken by the authorities at that time.
Although the danger to Finland of interruption in fuel imports had been pointed out, the Finns had made hardly any preparations to manage on their own. In autumn 1939 there was no reserve stocks and particularly vulnerable was the question of motor fuels and lubricants.
When the Winter War ended in spring 1940, it was realised that special measures were needed. A law was enacted that concerned both the revival of production and regulation of consumption. For instance, every forest owner was notified of his share of the fuelwood logging. The wood processing industry had been accustomed to maintain stocks of wood covering two years’ requirements, but these inventories, too, were depleted by 1944. The law for safeguarding the supply of timber, enacted in early 1945, invested far-reaching powers in the authorities, and the logging plans were exceptionally large in 1945-47. Controls governing forestry and the forest industry were discontinued in 1947.
In Finland it is necessary to maintain a state of preparedness. This applies above all to fossil fuels and particularly oils.
The PDF includes a summary in English.