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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
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Articles containing the keyword 'USSR'.

Category: Article

article id 5162, category Article
Jarmo Eronen. (1982). Soviet pulp and paper industry: Factors affecting its areal expansion. Silva Fennica vol. 16 no. 3 article id 5162. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15077

Planners of the Soviet pulp and paper industry are constantly faced with the problem: which investment policy guarantees the best location structure? Should one invest in existing localities or expand to new areas, especially in heavily forested parts of Siberia? A location theory for the pulp and paper industry, based on three factors (markets, wood raw materials, relative costs) has been suggested by the Soviet authors Antonov and Trusova. In the present study the theory is – for the first time – given empirical contents and the feasible areas for future growth of the industry are tentatively determined. One of the main findings of the study is the detecting of considerable unutilized wood reserves in the European USSR. This supports those Soviet views advocating a European-oriented location in investment strategy for the industry, as market and cost factors are unfavourable to Siberian location.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Eronen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5077, category Article
Eero Paavilainen, Kustaa Seppälä. (1980). Toimenpiteet vanhoilla ojitusalueilla. Suomalais-neuvosliittolaisen symposion esitelmät. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 2 article id 5077. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15018
English title: Management of old forest drainage areas – papers presented in Finnish-Soviet symposium.

The forestry working group of the committee for scientific and technical cooperation between Finland and the Soviet Union initiated cooperation work between the two countries in the field of forestry almost ten years ago. The Finnish organizations the Department of Peatland Forestry, the Finnish Forestry Research Institute, and the Institute of Peatland Forestry of the University of Helsinki participated in the activity. From the Soviet Union the participants have been the Ministry of Forestry, the Russian Federation of USSR, and the Forestry Research Institutes of Leningrad and Estonia.

This paper includes the papers presented in the joint symposium arranged at the Forest Field Station of University of Helsinki on 17.9.1979. The 9 Russian lectures and the 8 Finnish ones, are presented either in their entirety or slightly condensed variably in Finnish, English or Russian. The summary of the seminar is presented in English and in Russian.

  • Paavilainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Seppälä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5066, category Article
J. P. Efimov. (1980). Some results on the regularities of seed crops in Scots pine seed orchards. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 1 article id 5066. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15007

Establishment of seed orchards to produce genetically improved seed started in the USSR in the 1960’s. The aim is that within 10–15 years the total seed production will reach 50% of the seed used. The paper describes seed production in seed orchards of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in the forest-steppe of the European part of the USSR. The orchards have been established either by grafting or by planting of seedlings originating from plus trees. The grafts begin flowering relatively early, however, only at the age of 8–10 years seed crops become relatively regular and abundant. The cone yield in young seed orchards have great variability, and the yield of cones varies between clones. Cone yield does not always correlate with a good seed yield. One of the reasons for high amount of empty seeds is the difference in the periods of flowering between the clones.

The seed crops can be improved by establishing optimal conditions for the growth of the trees. Also, when a seed orchard is founded, the peculiarities of the generative activities of the clones and their reactions to changes in the environmental conditions must be taken account by taking an individual and selective measure approach to improvement measures. The orchards can be established with clones for their genetic combining ability and their requirements for the stimulation of seed-bearing.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Efimov, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5064, category Article
E. P. Prokazin. (1980). Geographic variation in forest trees. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 1 article id 5064. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15005

Planting of forest trees takes place in USSR on millions of hectares but without permanent forest seed bases having yet been established in every region of the country. Consequently, local seed does not suffice the need, and it is necessary to secure it from other geographical regions. To avoid negative consequences of seed transfer it is necessary to study geographic variation of the genetic characteristics of forest trees and construct scientifically based division into seed zones. Geographic transfer of seed can also be regarded as a breeding measure. A large research program is being carried out in the USSR on the subject. Most of the existing trials are provenience tests of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). Over 2,000 hectares of new provenience experiments is to be established in near future.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Prokazin, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5060, category Article
A. I. Novoselceva. (1980). On the application of forest genetics and forest tree breeding research to practical forest seed production. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 1 article id 5060. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15001

The development of the scientific basis for the production of high-quality seed led to the introduction of a large part of the research findings in forest genetics and forest tree breeding into practical forest seed production in the USSR. Since 1971, work has begun in forest enterprises on the establishment of a permanent seed supply for the main tree species – Pinus sylvestris, Picea ssp., Larix ssp. Quercus robur, Haloxylon ssp. and nut trees.

The basis for forest tree improvement is a gene pool which is built up using mass and individual selection of valuable forms in natural populations. In accordance with a long-term programme up to 1990, an inventory of 13.2 million ha of the best high-productive stands has been carried out for breeding purposes in the state forests. About 7,000 ha of plus stands have been selected, and a total of 9,453 ha of seed orchards and 141,253 ha of seed collection stands have been established. The first stage of the programme is planned to be complete in 1980, and in the second stage clonal high-quality seed orchards will be established.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish

  • Novoselceva, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5058, category Article
Max Hagman. (1980). Suomalais-neuvostoliittolainen metsägenetiikan ja siemenhuollon symposiumi Punkaharjulla 17.–18.8.1978. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 1 article id 5058. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14999
English title: Reports of the Finnish-Soviet symposium on forest genetics and forest tree seed production, Punkaharju, Finland, August 17-18. 1978.

As a part of the scientific and technical cooperation between Finland and the USSR a symposium and an excursion on forest genetics and seed production was organized in Finland in August 1978. The symposium paper presented at Punkaharju are published here in order to bring them available for a wider audience.

The 12 symposium reports deal with the following subjects: Practical application of forest genetic research (A.I. Novoselceva), geographical variability and provenance transfer (E.P. Prokazin, M. Hagman, I. Etverk), variation in wood density (P. Velling), variation of flowering and seed crops in seed orchards (Y.P. Efimov), and natural stands (V. Koski), vegetative propagation (J. Niiranen), seed size effects and early test problems (J. Mikola), quantitative analysis of genotypic and environmental effects (S.A. Petrov), hormonal induction of flowering (O. Luukkanen) and x-ray photography analysis of the ageing of seeds during storage (M. Ryynänen).

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Hagman, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4898, category Article
L. E. Mikhailov. (1974). Neuvostoliiton metsäntutkimuksen organisaatio ja kehityssuunnat. Silva Fennica vol. 8 no. 1 article id 4898. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14742
English title: Organizations and development trends of forest research in the Soviet Union.

Forest research in the U.S.S.R. aims for increased productivity, improvements in timber quality and forest protection, and for better understanding of the environmental impacts of forests. Research institutes are organized under the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, the State Committee of Forestry, the Forestry Committees of the Soviet Republics, or under some other institutions. Direct government subsidies as well as economic support from production enterprises are available as funding for these institutes. International cooperation in forest research, especially among the S.E.V. countries is strongly emphasized. As regards other countries, the well-established program for mutual exchange for forestry information and forest researchers with Finland should be mentioned.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Mikhailov, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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