Current issue: 53(2)

Under compilation: 53(3)

Impact factor 1.683
5-year impact factor 1.950
Silva Fennica 1926-1997
1990-1997
1980-1989
1970-1979
1960-1969
Acta Forestalia Fennica
1953-1968
1933-1952
1913-1932

Articles containing the keyword 'Vaccinium vitis-idaea'.

Category: Research article

article id 1005, category Research article
Marjut Turtiainen, Jari Miina, Kauko Salo, Juha-Pekka Hotanen. (2013). Empirical prediction models for the coverage and yields of cowberry in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 47 no. 3 article id 1005. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1005
Highlights: The site fertility significantly affected the abundance of cowberry on mineral soils, spruce mires and pine mires; The stand basal area and dominant tree species were among the most important forest structural predictors in the model for the coverage; In the cowberry yield model developed for mineral soil sites, the stand basal area and coverage of cowberry plants were statistically significant predictors.
Empirical models for the coverage and berry yield of cowberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) were developed using generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs). The percentage coverage of cowberry was predicted as a function of site and stand characteristics using data from the Finnish National Forest Inventory (NFI) in 1995. The average annual yield, including the between-year variation in the yield, was predicted as a function of percentage coverage and stand characteristics using permanent experimental plots (MASI) established in different areas of Finland and measured in 2001-2012. The model for cowberry yields (Model 2) was developed for mineral soil forests. The model for the coverage (Model 1) was constructed so that it considers both mineral soil sites and also many other sites where cowberry occurs in the field layer. According to Model 1, the site fertility significantly affected the abundance of cowberry on mineral soils, spruce mires and pine mires. The stand basal area and dominant tree species were among the most important forest structural predictors in Model 1. The site fertility was not a significant predictor in the cowberry yield model. Instead, the stand basal area and coverage of cowberry plants were found to be statistically significant predictors in Model 2. The estimated models were used to predict the cowberry coverage, average annual yield and its 95 % confidence interval along with stand development. The models of this study can be used for multi-objective forest planning purposes.
  • Turtiainen, University of Eastern Finland, School of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: marjut.turtiainen@uef.fi (email)
  • Miina, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Unit, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: jari.miina@metla.fi
  • Salo, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Unit, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: kauko.salo@metla.fi
  • Hotanen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Unit, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: juha-pekka.hotanen@metla.fi
article id 513, category Research article
Marjut Ihalainen, Kauko Salo, Timo Pukkala. (2003). Empirical prediction models for Vaccinium myrtillus and V. vitis-idaea berry yields in North Karelia, Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 37 no. 1 article id 513. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.513
Forest berries and the outdoor experiences related to berry collection are important goods and services provided by Finnish forests. Consequently, there is a need for models which facilitate the prediction of the impacts of alternative forest management options on berry yields. Very few such models are available. In particular, empirical models are lacking. Models used in forest management should express the effect of variables altered in forest management such as stand density and mean tree size. This study developed empirical models for bilberry and cowberry yields in North Karelia. The data consisted of 362 measurements of 40 m2 sample plots. The plots were located in clusters. The same plot was measured over 1 to 4 years. Besides berry yield some site and growing stock characteristics of each plot were measured. A random parameter model was used to express the berry yield as a function of site fertility, growing stock characteristics, and random parameters. The random part of the models accounted for the effect of plot, measurement year, and cluster. The fixed predictors of the model for bilberry were stand age and forest site type. Stand basal area, mean tree diameter and forest site type were used to predict cowberry yields. The most significant random parameter was the plot factor. The fixed model part explained only a few per cent of the variation in berry yields. The signs of regression coefficients were logical and the model predictions correlated rather well with the predictions of earlier models.
  • Ihalainen, University of Joensuu, P.O. Box 111, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: marjut.ihalainen@joensuu.fi (email)
  • Salo, The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Research Centre, P.O. Box 68, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pukkala, University of Joensuu, P.O. Box 111, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 588, category Research article
Marjut Ihalainen, Timo Pukkala. (2001). Modelling cowberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea) and bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) yields from mineral soils and peatlands on the basis of visual field estimates. Silva Fennica vol. 35 no. 3 article id 588. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.588
This study presents new models for predicting bilberry and cowberry yields from site and stand characteristics. These models enable one to evaluate the future states of forests in terms of berry yields. The modelling data consisted of visual field estimates of site and tree stand characteristics, as well as berry yields from 627 forest stands. Berry yields were estimated using a scale from 0 to 10. Using these data, models were prepared which predict the berry yield scores from those site and stand characteristics which are usually known in forest planning calculations. The model predictions correlated positively and often quite strongly with earlier models. The results were in line with previous studies on the effects of site and tree cover on berry production. According to the models, sites of medium and rather poor fertility produce the highest bilberry yields. Increasing tree height increases, and the basal area of spruce and proportion of deciduous trees decrease, bilberry yield. With mineral soils, cowberry yields are best on poor sites. A high proportion of pine improves cowberry yields. The yields are the highest in open areas and very young stands, on the one hand, and in sparsely populated stands of large and old trees, on the other hand. In pine swamps, the yields are best on rather poor sites. Increasing basal area of deciduous trees decreases cowberry yields.
  • Ihalainen, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forestry, P.O. Box 111, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: marjut.ihalainen@forest.joensuu.fi (email)
  • Pukkala, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forestry, P.O. Box 111, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:

Category: Article

article id 5387, category Article
Olli Saastamoinen, Seppo Lohiniva. (1989). Picking of wild berries and edible mushrooms in the Rovaniemi region of Finnish Lapland. Silva Fennica vol. 23 no. 3 article id 5387. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15545

According to 459 and 350 questionnaires sent in 1983 and in 1985, respectively, the households in the Rovaniemi region located in the Arctic Circle in Northern Finland, eagerly picked wild berries. In both years, four out of five households picked at least one species of berry. In 1983 the total amount of wild berries picked was 29.2 kg per capita. In 1985 it was 15.0 kg per capita. Three species, the lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.), cloudberry (Rubus chamaemorus L.) and bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) made up 96% of all the wild berries picked during both years. Most of these berries were picked for the family’s own use, but many were also picked for sale. In 1983, 43% of all berries picked were sold, in 1985, 19% were sold. The cloudberry, although difficult to find, is the most important commercial species and also for household use it is the most sought after wild berry. Only very small amounts of edible mushrooms were collected, 1.0 kg per capita in 1983 and 1.3 kg in 1985.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Saastamoinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Lohiniva, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5217, category Article
Pentti Sepponen. (1984). Pohjoissuomalaisten metsäammattimiesten käsityksiä metsien ja soiden marjantuotoskyvystä. Silva Fennica vol. 18 no. 3 article id 5217. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15396
English title: Observations of forest specialists in Northern Finland on the berry yield capacity of forests and swamps.

A survey was carried out among forest foremen and forest technicians to record their observations on the value of various swamp and forest types as producers of berries and on the effect of drainage of peatlands upon the berry yields. Comparative agreement existed on the best blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) forest types and on the best lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) forest types of rather dry upland sites. Fuscum pine swamps or fuscum bogs were considered best for the most part as regards the yield of cloudberry (Rubus chamaemorus L.). The replies showed rather great dispersion.

Agreement existed as well on the relation between drainage of peatlands and the yields of our economically most important swamp berries, cloudberry and cranberry. 90% of those responding were of the opinion that drainage reduces the cloudberry yield in the long term and a full 97% indicated that cranberry crop diminishes as well.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Sepponen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5215, category Article
Esko Rossi, Jarmo Huovinen, Merja-Leena Koskela, Maija Niemelä, Mikko Raatikainen. (1984). Luonnonmarjojen poiminta ja käyttö Väli-Suomessa. Silva Fennica vol. 18 no. 3 article id 5215. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15394
English title: Picking and use of edible wild berries in Central Finland during 1978–81.

The picking and use of wild berries were investigated in five municipalities in Central Finland during 1978–81. The picked amounts per person were in average 17.6 litres of lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) and 5.6 litres of bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.). 54%, of lingonberries were consumed by the families who picked them, 43% was sold and 3% was delivered to others. Of the picked bilberry yield the figures were 74%, 24% and 2% respectively.

About 86% of the families picked lingonberry and 79% of the families picked bilberry in five municipalities in Central Finland during

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Rossi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Huovinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Koskela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Niemelä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Raatikainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5214, category Article
Mikko Raatikainen, Jarmo Huovinen, Merja-Leena Koskela, Maija Niemelä, Terttu Raatikainen, Esko Rossi. (1984). Metsä- ja suomarjasadot Väli-Suomessa. Silva Fennica vol. 18 no. 3 article id 5214. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15393
English title: The yields of the edible wild berries in Central Finland.

A study on wild berry-bearing plants was made in five municipalities in Central Finland during 1978–81. Yield of lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) was 8.0 kg/ha of forest area. Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) produced 4.3 kg/ha and black crowberry (Empetrum nigrum coll. L.) 1.5 kg/ha. Lingonberry comprised 40%, bilberry 27% and black crowberry 14% of the total berry yield. Any other species produced less than 10% of the total yield. Lingonberry produced high yield in clear-cut areas and in old Scots pine dominated forests but bilberry production was restricted almost completely to old sparse forests.

The total lingonberry yield in Finland was estimated as 180 million kg and the total bilberry yield as 150–200 million kg. About 80% of the lingonberry yield and 60% of bilberry yield was judged to be gatherable on the basis of the yield.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Raatikainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Huovinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Koskela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Niemelä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Raatikainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Rossi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5150, category Article
Hilkka Mikkonen, Satu Huttunen. (1981). Dwarf shrubs as bioindicators. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 4 article id 5150. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15377

Several studies of air polluted forest environments have shown that dwarf shrubs suffer from air pollution. In many cases the disturbances have been attributed to the susceptibility of the dwarf shrubs, while in some cases the vegetational competition factor has been discussed. The growth pattern of dwarf shrubs is very complicated and a single individual can cover large areas due to vegetative reproduction. Since dwarf shrub individuals cannot be transplanted for the purpose of laboratory or field tests, the only possibility is to use small cuttings for the bioindication studies. Some preliminary results are discussed.

  • Mikkonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Huttunen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4996, category Article
Mikko Raatikainen. (1978). Puolukan sato, poiminta ja markkinointi Pihtiputaan kunnassa. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 2 article id 4996. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14850
English title: The berry yield, picking, and marketing of Vaccinium vitis-idaea in the commune of Pihtipudas, Central Finland.

A study on the lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) was made in 1976. The berry yield was studied by picking along 17 lines, each 1,000 m long. The picking and use of lingonberry were studied by an inquiry addressed to the families engaged in such an occupation. The marketing of the lingonberry was investigated by interviewing purchasers, and by means of reports based on purchasing certificates of the purchacers. The total yield of lingonberry in Pihtipudas was 1.2 million kg or 18 kg per hectare of productive forest. Only 7% of the total yield of the berry was picked. 47% of the lingonberries picked were used by the families themselves, 48% were sold and 5% were used for other purposes. The families who sold lingonberries earned, on an average, 350 Fmk.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Raatikainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7612, category Article
Timo Kurkela. (1969). Antagonism of healthy and diseased Ericaceous plants to snow blight on Scots pine. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 101 article id 7612. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7612

Two experiments were conducted in Punkaharju and Leivonmäki in the Central Finland in 1966-67 where the spread of the snow blight caused by Phacidium infestans Karst. was investigated in rows of excised branches from a ten-year-old stand of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). Ericaceous plants (Calluna vulgaris (L.) Hull and Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) infected with snow moulds were used to determine their influence on the spread of snow blight.

The results show that significant inhibition of snow blight in Scots pine can be achieved with foliage of ericaceous evergreens. The mechanism of this inhibition is an object of conjecture. In healthy ericaceous vegetation it might be caused by saprophytic fungi living on surface of plants or by some constituent of the foliage. In the case of dead ericaceous foliage, the cause of inhibition seems to be the antagonism of other snow moulds. The antagonism of certain saprophytic organism is well known.

The observed inhibition suggests that ericaceous vegetation may be helpful for reforestation by offering a natural control of snow blight, when seedlings of Scots pine do not stand above the surrounding vegetation.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Kurkela, ORCID ID:E-mail:

Register
Click this link to register for Silva Fennica submission and tracking system.
Log in
If you are a registered user, log in to save your selected articles for later access.
Contents alert
Sign up to receive alerts of new content
Your selected articles

Committee on Publication Ethics A Trusted Community-Governed Archive