Current issue: 53(2)

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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
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Acta Forestalia Fennica
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Articles containing the keyword 'Wirtschaft'.

Category: Article

article id 7342, category Article
E. A. Martin Hagfors. (1939). Kritische Untersuchungen über die ökonomische Theorie der Waldwirtschaft : mit besonderer Berüksichtigung der Verhältnisse Nordeuropas. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 47 no. 2 article id 7342. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7342
English title: Critical views on the economic theory on forestry: with special consideration on Nord-European circumstances.

The article contains three parts and a summary. The first part presents the common foundations of forest economics and forest management.  The second part critically discusses the concept of sustainability and the third part takes critical view on the theories on profitability.

The author concludes by stating that the literature shows there are some old principles of forest management that always arise when the forest science progresses. The economics of forest management has been neglected in the sense that it should be acknowledged as self and not as mathematical problem as it has been handled in many theories of national economy, e.g. land rent theory. The science seems the turn back to previous findings as they are proved right again.  

The PDF contains a summary in German.

 

  • Hagfors, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7258, category Article
E. A. Martin Hagfors. (1929). Über die ökonomischen Ziele bei der Bewirtschaftung der Wälder. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 35 no. 3 article id 7258. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7258
English title: On the economic objectives of the commercial use of forest.

The article has two parts: the first are the common principles of forestry and forest economics and the second part presents different theories of forest economics. The aim of the study is to find out how the best possible economic result can be achieved from forest management and use of forest resources.

The first part presents the economic foundations of forestry; the division between following the concept of economic profitability in forestry and forest management; concepts of capital and operating result in forestry; and productivity and profitability. It discusses the idea of economy as a dynamic entity instead of static.

In the second part the different economic theories related to forestry and forest economics are presented. Theory on the highest interest on forest capital, theory of sustained yield management system, land rent theory, theory on forest profitability and dynamic economic theory are discussed.      

The PDF contains a summary in Finnish.
  • Hagfors, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7258, category Article
E. A. Martin Hagfors. (1929). Über die ökonomischen Ziele bei der Bewirtschaftung der Wälder. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 35 no. 3 article id 7258. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7258
English title: On the economic objectives of the commercial use of forest.

The article has two parts: the first are the common principles of forestry and forest economics and the second part presents different theories of forest economics. The aim of the study is to find out how the best possible economic result can be achieved from forest management and use of forest resources.

The first part presents the economic foundations of forestry; the division between following the concept of economic profitability in forestry and forest management; concepts of capital and operating result in forestry; and productivity and profitability. It discusses the idea of economy as a dynamic entity instead of static.

In the second part the different economic theories related to forestry and forest economics are presented. Theory on the highest interest on forest capital, theory of sustained yield management system, land rent theory, theory on forest profitability and dynamic economic theory are discussed.      

The PDF contains a summary in Finnish.
  • Hagfors, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7211, category Article
Erkki Laitakari. (1929). Die Wurzelforschung in ihrer Beziehung zur praktischen Forstwirtschaft. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 33 no. 2 article id 7211. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7211
English title: Research on roots on their relationship to practical forestry.

The growth of a tree or a forest stand can be only fully understood when the form, encroachment and development of the root s in different environments are known. Research on roots has already yielded in practical silvicultural improvements and the purpose of this study is to discuss different factors about the roots.  

The literature review deals with the depth of root system, extent of it, the relation between root system and the soil structure, the form and volume of roots and the phenomenon where roots from several tree individuals grow together.

The PDF contains the article also in Finnish.   

  • Laitakari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7084, category Article
V. T. Aaltonen. (1924). Über neuere forstliche Betriebsarten in Deutschland. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 25 no. 9 article id 7084. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7084
English title: On newer forest management regimes in Germany.

Forest management practices have deployed during the centuries very differently in different regions. The geographical as well as other nature related factors influence them heavily. During the first half of 19th century was shelterwood felling much used practice especially in Prussia. Meanwhile the clearcutting with planting the seedlings became also more popular. The method is still widely used in many countries. Becoming more popular the clear cut and planting practice changed the modus operandi of forestry from close-to-nature to economically-oriented.

The article discusses based on literature the most important developments of the forest management practices, especially regarding felling and regeneration methods. The article concludes with the view that usage of boarder selection felling as well as continuous forest management system are not suitable for small-scale forestry (on small private estates) on in Finland common barren sites. On more fertile soils the boarder selection felling would give good results and could be recommended also for more use. However, the bad market conditions make the more intensive forest management impossible in most parts of Finland. More research is needed in order to find best felling methods for fertile small-scale private forests.
  • Aaltonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7078, category Article
Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. (1923). Über die Verteilung des fruchtbaren Bodens in Finnland und über den Einfluss dieser Verteilung auf die wirtschaftlichen Verhältnisse im Lande. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 25 no. 3 article id 7078. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7078
English title: On the division of fertile soils in Finland and its influence on the economic conditions.

The article is a presentation given by the author on occasion of visit from Austrian timber industry and foresters (August 17th 1923) in Punkaharju, Finland.

The article presents the classification of soils as forest types to describe their fertility and their occurrence in different parts of Finland. The economic conditions are only shortly mentioned: the more fertile areas in southern and western Finland have been taken for agriculture and the less fertile soils have stayed forested.   

  • Cajander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7072, category Article
K. Linkola. (1922). Zur Kenntnis der Verteilung der landwirtschaftlichen Siedlungen auf die Böden verschiedener Waldtypen in Finnland. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 22 no. 3 article id 7072. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7072
English title: Distribution of the agricultural settlements on different forest soils in Finland.

The paper studies the relationship of settlements to the forest types and forest soil. The observations have been done and data collected in southern Finland, around lakes Päijänne and Saimaa during summer 1917. Because of the shortcomings in the data, the results in the paper can be seen only as indicative.

The settlements have spread out firstly to areas of grove alike soils and herb-rich forests. The human settlements are still on these days concentrated on those areas. When more land is needed for agricultural purposes, the more fertile areas were introduced first. With forest type classification this means moving from herb-rich Oxalis-Myrtillus-type to Pyrola-type and to some extent Myrtillus-type. The more barren types are used as fields only very seldom. The differences in the fertility of the soils affects strongly the welfare and development of the people and the communes. 

The study shows that when considering the soil and vegetation, preconditions for agriculture are very different in different part of Finland. Also the climate and the geographical characters vary. To win more agricultural land, the fertile peatlands should be considered.  

  • Linkola, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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