Current issue: 54(2)
Finland was the first country, in connection with World War II, from which reparations were demanded. In September 1944 Soviet Union demanded indemnifications of 300 million dollars, payable in commodities (timber products, paper, wood pulp, sea-going and river craft, sundry machinery). Later similar obligations of deliveries in kind were applied to Rumania, Bulgaria, Hungary and Italy. Germany were to pay in kind for the losses caused by her to the Allied nations in the course of the war.
The article discusses the principle of war indemnities to be paid exclusively in kind, which was a new one, and compares it to the situation after World War I. One reason for the principle was a negative lesson drawn from the experiences after the previous war. A reparation system of payment in kind is the most suitable system for a country like the Soviet-Union, as it requires, at least some degree of economic planning by a centralized system.
The Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari’s 60th birthday.
Silva Fennica Issue 69 includes presentations held in 1948-1950 in the fourth professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.
Lapland war in the end of the World War II left Northern Finland in destruction. This presentation describes in detail the work and expenditure of Forest Service in the reconstruction of the settelement in the area.
Silva Fennica Issue 64 includes presentations held in 1947 in the third professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the public administration. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service. Two of the presentations were published in other publications than Silva Fennica.
This presentation outlines the state of state forests after the World War II. The area of the forests had decreased and the loggings to cover the needs of war years had influenced the silvicultural state of the forests. The article lists the forest management work that needs to be done in the state forests in the coming years.
The aim of this treatise is to describe forests owned by timber companies, their area and position, the quality of forests, the condition of the forests, and fellings carried out during the World War II.
Area of the company-owned forest was 1,95 million hectares, 1,64 million hectares of which was productive and 0,31 hectares inferior forest soil, not including the areas lost after the war. Most of the forests were situated in remote regions. Average volume of the tree stands was slightly larger than in farm-owned forests. Fellings counted for 84% of the growth of the forests.
During the war the state set felling quotas for both company, private and state forests. It was widely discussed how well they were met by the different owner groups. According to the statistics, the companies had followed relatively closely their cutting plans in peace years. Cuttings were highest in 1939, when the war begun. In the war years 1940-43, lack of workforce, horses and cars for transport complicated logging. The fellings increased again during truce after Winter War. Especially demand for small timber increased during the war. Felling of firewood increased in all the owner groups, in particular in the private forests that were situated near settlements. in general fellings were higher in forests that were easiest to reach.
During the war the companies acquired timber more from their own forests. The fellings from company forests were in war years 70% of those in peace years. The article concludes that companies fulfilled the requirements as well as it was possible in the circumstances.
The article includes an abstract in English.