Current issue: 54(3)
Under compilation: 54(4)
Knowledge on the roots systems and their properties is needed when for example assessing the wintering properties of a plant. The article presents the studies on the roots and their functions made with rye, wheat, oat and barley.
The data has been collected during the whole growing season. The experiments took place in the green houses of the University of Helsinki and on the experiment field in Tikkurila, some kilometres north from Helsinki.
The roots of cultivable crop can be divided according their function, state of development, structure and position in the root system into four classes. The classes are sprouting roots, nutriment roots, nutriment-support roots and support roots.
The PDF contains a summary in Finnish.
In attempts to improve the autumn cereals, wheat and rye, hibernation plays an essential role. Those varieties that hibernate well should be marketed and others rejected. Concerning roots, it seems that varieties that hibernate well have more extent root system than those hibernating poorly.
Four varieties of rye were chosen for experiments, two that knowingly hibernate well and two that don’t. The experiments were grown in the Botanical gardens of the university and at the same time in experiment field in Tikkurila.
The results proof that plant hibernating well have more extensible roots than others and hence they survive better in frosting soil that extents.
The PDF contains a summary in English and in Finnish.
The growth of a tree or a forest stand can be only fully understood when the form, encroachment and development of the root s in different environments are known. Research on roots has already yielded in practical silvicultural improvements and the purpose of this study is to discuss different factors about the roots.
The literature review deals with the depth of root system, extent of it, the relation between root system and the soil structure, the form and volume of roots and the phenomenon where roots from several tree individuals grow together.
The PDF contains the article also in Finnish.
The data has been collected during 1919 and 1920 in different region of Finland. The studied peatlands varied from fuscum pine swamps to pine swamps and partly to better sedge pine swamps.
The study presents five different forms of root systems. The root growth of pine on peatlands seems to vary strongly from the root form on mineral soils. On the peatlands, where the ground water near to soil cover is, can the roots grow only near the soil surface where the conditions are suitable. For the pine typical tap root is in most cases absent or grows along the soil surface. Also the frost heaving, snow and characteristics of peat affect the root system.
The study presents and describes the abundance and distribution of tree roots in specific stands of heathy forest types in Lapland. The data was collected in the Sodankylä commune.
Due to the shortcomings in the data, conclusions can be drawn only regarding pine forests. The result of study states that the root competition plays an important role in the development of the forests, and most of the other observed phenomena are linked with root competition. The more infertile the soil the vertically and horizontally wider and more abundant the root system. It seems that the abundance of the root system is similar in forest of same fertility class and same density and age.