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Articles containing the keyword 'acidity'.

Category: Research article

article id 10036, category Research article
Karin Hjelm, Lars Rytter. (2018). The demand of hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × P. tremuloides) on site conditions for a successful establishment on forest land. Silva Fennica vol. 52 no. 5 article id 10036. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.10036
Highlights: Low pH (below 3.5) reduced growth, but not survival, in a greenhouse study; Site preparation methods did not affect survival in field, but differences were found for growth; Mounding had generally the best effect on growth; Clonal differences were found that could be useful for improving establishment and growth.

Hybrid aspen (Populus tremula L. × P. tremuloides Michx.) is a deciduous tree species suitable for producing large amounts of renewable biomass during short rotations. Its potential under North European conditions could be largely extended if not only agricultural land but also forest land was used for cultivation. Unfortunately, the knowledge of appropriate forest site conditions and effects of site preparation methods on hybrid aspen establishment is limited. In this paper, two studies that explore these questions are presented. In the first study, the sensitivity to acid soils was tested under greenhouse conditions in two type of soils: a) peat soil limed to certain pH levels (3.4–5.7) and b) collected forest soils where pH varied from 3.9 to 5.3. The lowest pH level resulted in reduced growth, elsewhere no significant differences were found. The second study was applied in the field and investigated the effect of four site preparation methods on survival and growth. The methods were: 1) control with no site preparation, 2) patch scarification, 3) mounding and 4) soil inversion. While no differences were found for survival, mounding was generally the method with the highest growth and patch scarification was least successful. The result was probably an effect of good soil aeration and less competition from vegetation after mounding. The field study also revealed clonal differences in growth performance, which stresses the importance of clone selection prior to planting. The results of these studies indicate that hybrid aspen is less sensitive to variation in pH and site preparation methods compared with other poplar species, as have been found in similar studies.

  • Hjelm, Skogforsk, Ekebo 2250, SE-268 90 Svalöv, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: karin.hjelm@skogforsk.se (email)
  • Rytter, Skogforsk, Ekebo 2250, SE-268 90 Svalöv, Sweden ORCID ID: http://orcid.org/0000-0001-6183-4832 E-mail: lars.rytter@skogforsk.se
article id 590, category Research article
Anna Saarsalmi, Eino Mälkönen, Sirpa Piirainen. (2001). Effects of wood ash fertilization on forest soil chemical properties. Silva Fennica vol. 35 no. 3 article id 590. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.590
The effects of wood ash fertilization on soil chemical properties were studied in three young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) plantations and a Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) plantation with different site fertility in southern Finland. The dose of 3 t ha–1 of loose wood ash was applied to 4 replicate plots (25 x 25 m) at each experiment. Humus layer and mineral soil samples were taken before the treatment and 7 and 16 years after wood ash application. Results showed that neutralization as well as fertilization effects of wood ash on forest soil were of long duration. An ash-induced pH increase of 0.6–1.0 pH units and exchangeable acidity (EA) decrease of 58–83% were detected in the humus layer 16 years after wood ash application. The decrease in acidity was most pronounced on the Calluna site with initially the lowest pH and highest EA. In the mineral soil the increase in pH was observed later than in the humus layer. After 16 years, the mineral soil pH was increased (0.2–0.3 pH units) on the Vaccinium and Myrtillus sites. A corresponding and in most cases a significant increase in the extractable Ca and Mg concentrations was detected in both the humus layer and in the mineral soil. Wood ash significantly increased the effective cation exchange capacity (CECe) and base saturation (BS) but decreased the concentration of exchangeable Al in both soil layers on all the sites. No response of N availability to wood ash application could be found.
  • Saarsalmi, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Centre, P.O. Box 18, FIN-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: anna.saarsalmi@metla.fi (email)
  • Mälkönen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Centre, P.O. Box 18, FIN-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Piirainen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Research Station, P.O. Box 68, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:

Category: Article

article id 5446, category Article
Hannu Ilvesniemi. (1991). Spatial and temporal variation of soil chemical characteristics in pine sites in Southern Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 25 no. 2 article id 5446. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15600

In producing time series of soil properties, there are many technical and statistical problems which need to be taken into account when sampling and analysing the measurement data. In field the reliable localization of sample plots and the precise distinction of different soil layers are important to reduce the variance caused by the sampling procedure. In laboratory the use of same extraction salt, sample pretreatment procedure and filter paper throughout a measurement series is important. The remarkable small-scale variation within a sampling plot leads to a need of a large number of samples to be collected.

In this study, no trends attributable to soil acidification in the contents of exchangeable base cations could be found among the years 1982, 1985 and 1988. However, in eluvial and illuvial layers the pH decreased and the content of extractable H+ increased during this period. In illuvial layer also the content of extractable aluminium increased.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Ilvesniemi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5123, category Article
Heljä-Sisko Katainen, Seppo Kellomäki. (1981). Happaman veden vaikutus männyn taimiin. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 3 article id 5123. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15064
English title: Effect of foliar application of dilute sulphuric acid on Scots pine seedlings.

Needle damages, transpiration, photosynthesis and needle and stem height growth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings treated with dilute sulphuric acid were studied. The acidity of the solution was pH 3. Application of a dilute solution of sulphuric acid equivalent to the normal amount of precipitation occurring during the growing season damaged the surface of two-year-old needles but not that of the current-year needles. A reduction in the photosynthetic rate of 10–30% was observed compared with the untreated seedlings. Transpiration of the seedlings was not affected by the treatment. Needle growth and stem height growth of the seedlings growing on a substrate representing poor sandy soil were reduced. Increased needle growth and stem height growth were characteristic for the seedlings growing on substrate representing fertile moraine.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Katainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kellomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4952, category Article
Irja Lehtonen, Seppo Kellomäki, Carl Johan Westman. (1976). Ravinteiden kierto eräässä männikössä. Silva Fennica vol. 10 no. 4 article id 4952. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14798
English title: Nutrient cycle in a Scots pine stand. II. Amount and quality of precipitation in a Scots pine stand at the pole stage.

This study forms part of a project designed to elucidate the total nutrient budget of a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand in Central Finland during the 1974 growing period. Precipitation has been divided up into precipitation, throughfall and stemflow.

The acidity of the rainwater was found to increase in the order – Precipitation, throughfall and stemflow. The electrolyte content of the rain water from throughfall and stemflow was higher than that of precipitation. The nutrient contents of precipitation were rather low. Throughfall and stemflow were found to leach some nutrient from the trees. This was most clear in the case of potassium. The total amounts of nutrients reaching the ground in throughfall were found to be smaller than those in precipitation. On the other hand, the amounts of potassium, calcium and magnesium in stemflow were clearly greater than those in precipitation.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lehtonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kellomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Westman, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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