Current issue: 53(2)

Under compilation: 53(3)

Impact factor 1.683
5-year impact factor 1.950
Silva Fennica 1926-1997
1990-1997
1980-1989
1970-1979
1960-1969
Acta Forestalia Fennica
1953-1968
1933-1952
1913-1932

Articles containing the keyword 'agriculture'.

Category: Article

article id 7244, category Article
Eino Saari. (1929). Etelä-Suomen yksityistilojen metsätalouden tuotto. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 31 article id 7244. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7244
English title: Return of private forests in the Southern Finland.

The economy of the forestry in private farms in Southern Finland was studied based on the statistics compiled by the Board of Agriculture, and published in the series Tutkimuksia Suomen maatalouden kannattavaisuudesta (Investigations into the profitability of agriculture in Finland). The results present income, expenditure, assets, gross return, net return of the forests in the farms in 1924‒1926. The annual net return of the smallest farms (<10 ha forest land) was 884 Finnish marks and in the largest (>100 ha forest land) 48,335 Finnish marks. The location of the farm influences greatly the net return. For instance, the transport costs of timber from the forest is higher in the larger farms. To utilize the advantages of management of a large forest area requires knowledge about forestry. In addition, the fellings were higher in the small farms during the period. The net return is greater in the private forests than in the state forests located in the same region. Agriculture gave the farms larger net return than the forestry.

The volume 34 of Acta Forestalia Fennica is a jubileum publication of professor Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Saari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7098, category Article
K. T. Jutila. (1926). Tutkimuksia Perä-Pohjolan ja Lapin talous- ja asutusoloista III. Maanviljelyksestä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 28 no. 3 article id 7098. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7098
English title: Studies on the economic conditions and colonization of Perä-Pohjola and Lapland III. Plant culture.
English keywords: agriculture; forestry; cattle; farms; Lapland

Only 0.1% of the land area of Perä-Pohjola and Lapland is arable land. The study includes a detailed survey of 154 farms in the area. Part of the results are presented in the second part of the article series about Perä-Pohjola and Lapland (Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 18). The farms had in average 1.87 hectares of arable land and 16.1 hectares of meadows. Cattle-manure was the most important dressing. The main crops were barley, hay, potatoes and rye. The article includes a detailed description about the cultivation methods.

The PDF includes a summary in English. This is a third part of four-article series on the natural resources in the area of Perä-Pohjola and Lappi. The article includes a detailed survey of the farms in the area.

  • Jutila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7097, category Article
K. T. Jutila. (1926). Tutkimuksia Perä-Pohjolan ja Lapin talous- ja asutusoloista I. Luonnontieteellis-taloudellinen yleiskatsaus. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 28 no. 1 article id 7097. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7097
English title: Studies on the economic conditions and colonization of Perä-Pohjola and Lapland I. Natural scientific and economic survey.

Perä-Pohjola and Lappi are situated almost entirely north of the Arctic Circle, being one of the northernmost areas, where agriculture and forestry are practiced. The state owns 87% of the land, of which 42% are productive forests. Only 0.8% of the land is agricultural land, mostly meadows. Agriculture is mainly dependent on animal husbandry. The most important agricultural crops were barley and potato. From the economic point of view, forestry is the most important industry in the area. Forestry also gives the agricultural population extra income, especially in the winter. The total population of the area was 31,488 in 1917. Development of the connections to the area is important for both agriculture and forestry.

The PDF includes a summary in English. This is a first part of four-article series on the natural resources in the area of Perä-Pohjola and Lappi.

  • Jutila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7072, category Article
K. Linkola. (1922). Zur Kenntnis der Verteilung der landwirtschaftlichen Siedlungen auf die Böden verschiedener Waldtypen in Finnland. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 22 no. 3 article id 7072. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7072
English title: Distribution of the agricultural settlements on different forest soils in Finland.

The paper studies the relationship of settlements to the forest types and forest soil. The observations have been done and data collected in southern Finland, around lakes Päijänne and Saimaa during summer 1917. Because of the shortcomings in the data, the results in the paper can be seen only as indicative.

The settlements have spread out firstly to areas of grove alike soils and herb-rich forests. The human settlements are still on these days concentrated on those areas. When more land is needed for agricultural purposes, the more fertile areas were introduced first. With forest type classification this means moving from herb-rich Oxalis-Myrtillus-type to Pyrola-type and to some extent Myrtillus-type. The more barren types are used as fields only very seldom. The differences in the fertility of the soils affects strongly the welfare and development of the people and the communes. 

The study shows that when considering the soil and vegetation, preconditions for agriculture are very different in different part of Finland. Also the climate and the geographical characters vary. To win more agricultural land, the fertile peatlands should be considered.  

  • Linkola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7055, category Article
K. T. Jutila. (1921). Varsinaisen itsehoidetun maatalouden pääomasuhteista. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 18 no. 3 article id 7055. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7055
English title: Studies on the economic and housing situation in Lapland and Perä-Pohjola in Northern Finland.

The article is a survey about the economic situation of the farms in the northernmost Finland, commissioned by the senate of Finland. Agriculture practiced in Northern Finland has differed markedly from the rest of the land. The farms were small and pioneer farming was common. The lands were predominantly owned by the state which had assigned wide areas for new settlements in the area. The article includes a detailed survey of 154 farms in the area. Statistics of different categories of capital is listed; stock, equipment, land, and domestic animals, in addition to overview on the different types of farms in the area.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Jutila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7054, category Article
K. T. Jutila. (1921). Perä-Pohjolan ja Lapin talous- ja asutusoloista. Varsinaisen itsehoidetun maatalouden pääomasuhteista. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 18 no. 3 article id 7054. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7054
English title: Studies on the economic and housing situation in Lapland and Peräpohjola.
Original keywords: maatalous; pääoma; asutus
English keywords: agriculture; capital; settlement

The agriculture in the Northern Finland differs markedly from the rest of the land. The farms are small and pioneer farming is common. The article is a survey about the economic situation of the agriculture in the Northern Finland, commissioned by the senate of Finland. The lands are predominantly owned by the state, which has annually assigned wide areas for new settlements in the area. The survey shows values of different categories of capital, namely stock, equipment; land, domestic animals, and gives an overview on the types of farms in the area.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Jutila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5192, category Article
Kauko Koljonen. (1983). Inter-industry linkages of forestry and forest industry sectors in the Tanzanian economy. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 3 article id 5192. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15175

Sawmilling and Carpentry, Forestry and Hunting, and Food Grains are the economic sectors compared in this study by means of the total input-output coefficient. The coefficient measures the value of direct and indirect demand in the economy caused by a demand worth one monetary unit on the sector in focus. Forestry sector has the weakest linkage to other sectors. The derived coefficients are 1.693 for Sawmilling and Carpentry, 1.183 for Food Grain and 1.167 for Forestry and Hunting.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Koljonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7534, category Article
Olli Heikinheimo. (1915). Kaskiviljelyksen vaikutus Suomen metsiin. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 4 no. 2 article id 7534. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7534
English title: The effect of shifting cultivation on forests in Finland.

The article is a review on shifting cultivation, its methods and use in Finland, and its effect on the condition of forests. Shifting cultivation decreases forest reserves not only by burning large amounts of wood. Of the area used for shifting cultivation, 10-50% can be open land. The older age classes of forests are often missing, and range of tree species shift towards deciduous trees. This causes lack of large timber. The shorter the rotation, the less well the most valuable trees survive on the area. One reason is lack of seed trees. Of the coniferous trees, Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) is able to survive in the burnt-over lands better than Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.), because it can produce seeds at a relatively young age. Betula sp. and especially grey alder (Alnus incana (L.) Moench) regenerate well on burnt-over lands. Also the frequency of good seed years determine which tree species become the dominant species on a burnt-over site.

When shifting cultivation is abandoned, deciduous trees keep their advantage over coniferous trees, because the wood of coniferous trees is used more in the surrounding villages. Pine and spruce spread to the burnt-over areas from the poorer sites that often had remained unburned. In densely populated areas in some counties in Savo in eastern Finland, where shifting cultivation was practiced intensively, Norway spruce became rare. Dominant tree species in the burnt-over areas became birch and pine.

The article is divided in two parts. A German summary is included in a separate PDF
  • Heikinheimo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4793, category Article
Päiviö Riihinen. (1969). Valtion maatalous-metsätieteellinen toimikunta ja metsäntutkimus. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 2 article id 4793. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14579
English title: Forest research and the State Commission of Agriculture and Forestry.

The special act passed in 1961 provides for the tasks of the State Commission of Agriculture and Forestry. The Commission finances and supervises the activities of the research workers employed by the Commission. In addition, it gives special grants for specific purposes and endeavours to promote progress in research in accordance with the above-mentioned act.

Despite the formal requirement for progress, the real value of the grants given to forest research does not exhibit a rising trend. There seems to be a need for increasing funds both for research and publishing purposes.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Riihinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4702, category Article
Matti Halmekoski. (1960). Kääpiöviljelmäväestön ansiomahdollisuudet tilojen alueittaisen sijainnin valossa. Silva Fennica no. 108 article id 4702. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9137
English title: The earning opportunities of the population of small farms as reflected in their regional location.

Finnish legislation concerning settlement states that a farm should be able to provide, according to the various local conditions, their owners together with their families possibilities for a) living based on agriculture and forestry, b) part of their living the bulk of it acquired outside the farm, or c) part of their living from the garden, and possibly part of it by livestock, in addition to from work outside the farm. The present analysis discusses the earning opportunities of the inhabitants of small farms, characterized by the fact that generally they are not able to ford their owners living obtained principally from agriculture and forestry.

According to the results of the 1950 General Agricultural Census of Finland, there exists in the country 74,134 holdings the size of 0.5–1.99 ha (dwelling farms), and 99,400 holdings the size of 2–4.99 ha (dwelling-and-cultivation farms). These small farms accounted for 37.2% of all farms in Finland. As a rule, it is possible to run a small farm only in such region, where favourable conditions give possibilities both for farming and for sufficient amount of wage-earning work outside the farm. Thus, location has a big influence on the financial status.

Dwelling farms were common in urban municipalities and near the coastal areas. Those situated in countryside were located in Eastern and Northern Finland. Dwelling-and-cultivation farms were few in the coastal regions, but they predominated the municipalities of the watershed districts near Jyväskylä, and eastern and northern parts of the country. The forests of the small farms were too small to provide additional income to the farms. Farms owning relatively larger forest areas were situated in the counties of Lapland, Oulu, Mikkeli and Kuopio, and farms with little forests in Turku and Pori County. Net out-migration has been substantial in the districts with a relatively large number of small farms.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Halmekoski, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4674, category Article
Erkki Kivinen, Erkki Laitakari. (1958). Helsingin yliopiston maatalous-metsätieteellisen tiedekunnan vaiheita 50-vuotiselta taipaleelta. Silva Fennica no. 95 article id 4674. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14110
English title: 50 years of education in agriculture, forestry and home economics at the University of Helsinki.

Agricultural education in Finland begun in 1840, when an agricultural college started its activity in the estate of Mustiala in Southern Finland. A decree published in 1896 stated that the highest agricultural education should be transferred from Mustiala to the University of Helsinki, and two professorships and an assistant professorship should be established. The first professor of agricultural chemistry was appointed in 1900, and the work to compile the scheme for the agricultural university studies was started. By 1957 the personnel had increased to ten professorships and 23 docents.

In 1924 the section of agriculture of the Philosophical faculty was changed to the Faculty of agriculture and forestry. By the spring 1957 a total of 2,180 Bachelor of Agriculture Examinations, 2,196 Bachelor of Forestry Examinations and 1,198 Candidate’s Examinations had been attained. Experimental farms were established in Viik an in Malminkartano in 1931, however, the areas were in the beginning leased to the Prison Administration. The farm in Viik had also laboratories for research purposes. In 1949 it was decided that also the agricultural institutes should be placed in Viik.

The highest forest education was established in a forest college in Evo in Central Finland in 1862. In 1900 it was suggested that also the highest forest education should be transferred to the University of Helsinki. It was affirmed by a decree in 1906. In 1957 there was 8 professors and 15 lecturers in the faculty. A large adjustment in the content of the examination was performed in 1951. Up to spring 1957 a total of 2,196 Bachelor of Forestry Examinations was achieved in the faculty.

The education of home economics commenced in the faculty of agriculture and forestry in 1946.

The article includes an English summary.

  • Kivinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Laitakari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4657, category Article
Viljo Lilja. (1957). Asutustilojen metsätaloudesta. Silva Fennica no. 92 article id 4657. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14058
English title: Forestry on settlement farms.

Silva Fennica Issue 92 includes presentations held in 1956 in the 8th professional development courses, arranged for forest officers working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation discusses the conditions of forestry in the small resettlement farms in Finland. The silvicultural condition of small farm forests has been found to be worse on average than that of big holdings. A difficult economic situation often forces the owner into excessive fellings. The forest owner of a settlement farm should, therefore, be given possibilities to adequate living opportunities. Therefore, the new Resettlement Act aim at supporting a so-called forest principle, which is based on a view that it is not possible on a small farm to earn a living by agriculture only and some forests must be connected to it.

  • Lilja, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4656, category Article
P. O. Väisänen. (1957). Maatilojen perustaminen ja niiden elinkelpoisuus erityisesti Pohjois-Suomessa maatalouden harjoittamisen kannalta. Silva Fennica no. 92 article id 4656. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14057
English title: Establishment of farms and their profitability with particular reference to agriculture in Northern Finland.

Silva Fennica Issue 92 includes presentations held in 1956 in the 8th professional development courses, arranged for forest officers working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

The main part of arable land that could be cleared out into fields lies in Northern Finland, where climate conditions restricts agriculture. This presentation discusses conditions for profitable agriculture and settlement activities in the north.

  • Väisänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4580, category Article
Johannes Virolainen. (1943). Karjalan kannaksen metsätaloudesta ja sen merkityksestä alueen pienviljelijöiden ansiotaloudessa. Silva Fennica no. 60 article id 4580. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9084
English title: Forestry in the Karelian isthmus and its influence on the economy of small farms.

The article is based on studies made in the Karelian isthmus in 1936-1938 before the World War II broke in 1939. Further studies were not possible after the war when the area was handed over to Soviet Union. Economic data of agriculture and forestry of the farms had mostly been regarded separately in the early economic studies of small farms in Finland. This survey aimed at studying influence of forestry in the economy of a small farm. 141 farms were included in a more detailed survey.

Forestry accounted for in average 38% of total income of the farms in 1937-1938. The farms had sold wood often, the amounts being often small. Good transport connections in the area facilitated the sales. Over 70% were sales at delivered price, and about half of the wood was small-sized timber. According to the results of the survey, forestry was important for the small farms in Karelian isthmus. The farmers could not have made a living without the forests. Hoveter, the farms had had to overuse the forest resources. The wood resources decreased by 18-22% in 1922-1938. They were, however, at the same level as in average in Finland in 1938.

The article includes an abstract in German.

  • Virolainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4570, category Article
Paavo Jokinen. (1939). Havaintoja valtion metsämailla suoritetusta asutustyöstä. Silva Fennica no. 49 article id 4570. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9073
English title: Observations on settlement in the state forests in Finland.

An act passed by the government of Finland in 1922 prescribed that state-owned forest lands will be parcelled out to landless population. A survey was made in 1934-1935 by Forest Service (Metsähallitus) to investigate the success of the establishment of settlements, and which disadvantages it may have had in forestry in the state forests. In the survey 1,194 farms were inspected.

According to the directives of settlement, the farms should be able support a family of four adults. The area of arable land was in average 5-15 hectares. In addition, the farm should have pasture and forest enough to supply it most of the household timber. According to the study, the regulations had been applied variably. Usually the farms had been given more land than was required. It was estimated that farms had been given 110,000 hectares more forest land for gathering household timber than required in the act. Many farms had sold timber, in some cases to that extent it endangered supply of household timber.

Parcelling out land had affected the management of state forests. If a region had surrendered large forest areas for settlement, it could not follow its cutting plan. Also, there was relatively little state-owned forests in southern Finland, and the effects of parcelling out land were stronger. The report concludes that in general it was not appropriate to parcel out forest land. The execution of settlement should have beeb given to Forest Service.

The article includes a German summary.

  • Jokinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4527, category Article
R. Tuhti. (1938). Suomen valtion toiminta maa- ja metsätalouden edistämiseksi. Silva Fennica no. 46 article id 4527. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13936
English title: Promotion of agriculture and forestry in Finland.

Silva Fennica issue 46 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1937. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service. 

 
This presentation discusses the means Finland has used to promote agriculture and forestry in the country. 

  • Tuhti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4509, category Article
K. T. Jutila. (1937). Maa- ja metsätalouden välisistä vuorosuhteista Suomen kansantaloudessa. Silva Fennica no. 42 article id 4509. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14087
English title: Interaction of forestry and agriculture in the national economy of Finland.

Silva Fennica issue 42 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1936. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service

This presentation describes the relationships between forestry and agriculture in the national economy of Finland.

  • Jutila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4487, category Article
Erkki J. Kinnunen. (1937). Metsäseutujen työläisten omavaraistuttaminen elintarvikkeisiin nähden. Silva Fennica no. 39 article id 4487. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13897
English title: Promoting self-sufficiency in food supply of the farms in the remote areas of Finland.

Silva Fennica Issue 39 includes presentations held in professional development courses in 1935 that were arranged for foresters working in public administration. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation studies the food supply and economic situation of the farmers in the remote parts of Finland.

  • Kinnunen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4466, category Article
Maatalousyliopistokomitea. (1932). Ehdotus maatalousyliopiston perustamiseksi. Maatalousyliopistokomitean mietintö n:o 2. Silva Fennica no. 25 article id 4466. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9022
English title: Proposal for the establishment of an agricultural university in Finland.

The Agricultural University Committee recommended in its first report that the higher education in agriculture and forestry should be transferred to Helsinki, the capital of Finland. The same arguments that were presented on the education of agriculture and forestry can be applied to education of agricultural engineers, surveyors and veterinaries.

According to the proposal of the Committee, the Government reserved in 1931 buildings in Wiik and Malmgård estates for the education of agriculture and forestry. Thus, the higher education of agriculture and forestry have been appointed training areas near Helsinki, where also the education of agricultural engineers, surveyors and veterinaries could be located.

Connections to the University of Helsinki has proven invaluable to the development of higher education of agriculture and forestry. However, the Committee recommends the establishment of separate agricultural university for the sectors, because the other faculties support the separation of the faculty from the university. It seems to the Committee that education in agriculture and forestry no longer poses sufficient opportunities of development within the University of Helsinki. The education in veterinary science should remain in connection to education in agriculture. The education of surveyors and agricultural engineers are at present arranged partly at the Technical University, and their location remains to be decided. A proposal for the organization, staff, education, decrees and professors is included in the article.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Maatalousyliopistokomitea, ORCID ID:E-mail:

Register
Click this link to register for Silva Fennica submission and tracking system.
Log in
If you are a registered user, log in to save your selected articles for later access.
Contents alert
Sign up to receive alerts of new content
Your selected articles

Committee on Publication Ethics A Trusted Community-Governed Archive