Current issue: 53(3)
Under compilation: 53(4)
The present study proposes to calculate the economic sequence of two of Finland’s three main tree species, Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) and silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) when planted on Oxalias-Myrtillus type sites where both species are equally suitable, on biological grounds. In addition, the accuracy and applicability of the present Finnish yield tables to an economic comparison is tested. Benefit/cost ratio was selected as criterion of profitableness. All future net incomes and costs were discounted into the planting time and added together. The ratio between the discounted net revenues and the discounted investment costs (later called profit ratio) was the criterion. There is no reliable method to forecast the future wood prices, therefore two price ratios, birch veneer timber to spruce pulpwood and birch cordwood to spruce pulpwood, were chosen as free variables. The economic sequence of the tree species was determined as the function of these variables.
The main conclusions are, first, that under the present price ratios spruce appears to be the better choice for the forest owner, and the most promising policy for changing the situation seems to decrease the production costs of plants in birch nurseries. Second, the present Finnish yield tables are not consistent or accurate enough to enable any sufficiently reliable economic comparisons of tree species in artificial regeneration. The possible error of difference between two rather uncertain estimates is big. More work is needed to construct a uniform system of yield tables covering all main tree species, all site types, all macro climate conditions and all types of regeneration.
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Comparisons were made between artificially and naturally regenerated stands in the south-eastern part of North Karelia, Finland, and naturally regenerated stands in the western parts of the Republic of Karelia, Russian Federation. The effect of soil fertility and silvicultural operations on the stand structure was also investigated.
The results of the study show clearly that when forests are artificially regenerated the stand structure includes less variation when compared with the stands naturally regenerated. Differences between the regeneration methods are clearer the more fertile the forest site is. Within the regeneration method there is also a clear trend in stand structure, with the variation decreasing the poorer the site. The effect of silvicultural operations, i.e. the cleaning of the sapling stand, has disappeared by the time of first thinning, although it appears to have a permanent effect on the dynamics of the tree species within a stand.
The variation of the stand structure can be regarded as an essential factor for the potential biodiversity of the stand also at its young vegetation succession stage. This capacity for maintaining the forest biodiversity, developed at the young vegetation succession stage, becomes increasingly important in subsequent vegetation succession stages. Natural regeneration provides improved possibilities for the operations preserving forest biodiversity, as it generates more dense stands with a wider variation in stand structure, compared to artificial regeneration.
Fill planting is a common procedure following reforestation in Finland. In 1990, 13% of the total of seedlings planted was used for fill planting. The objective of this study is (i) to survey the survival of fill-in seedlings and (ii) to estimate the spatial pattern of stands to evaluate the importance of fill-in seedlings in constituting the stocking of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands in Central and Northern Finland.
A survey of 63 artificially regenerated Scots pine stands was conducted in 1990. Stand densities varied from 950 to 3,925 seedlings/ha. The mean densities of originally planted, fill planted and naturally regenerated seedlings were 863, 639 and 791/ha, respectively. The survival of originally planted seedlings was 36% and that of fill-in seedlings 48%. Death rate of fill-in seedlings of Scots pine increased with longer times between original and fill planting. The survival rate of Norway spruce (Picea abies) seedlings was correlated with temperature sum. Height of the fill-in seedlings was less than that of the originally planted ones. Most stands had an even spatial distribution with the exception of sparsely populated stands, which were somewhat clustered. This indicates that dying of seedlings is not randomly spread. Because of poor survival, fill planting seems to be a risky business in most cases.
Different methods of sowing and planting of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) were compared on fertile sites in North Karelia (62°20’N, 29°35’E, 85–120 m a.s.l.). The planting material were 4-year-old bare-rooted transplants, 2-year-old bare-rooted seedlings, and 2-year-old containerized seedlings raised in plastic greenhouse. The sowing methods were band sowing and shelter sowing. Ground vegetation was controlled during the first growing season mechanically or chemically, or the control was omitted totally.
Planting of spruce gave better results than sowing. After eight growing seasons there were sowed seedlings left in 30% of the sowing pots. The average height of them was 35 cm. Seedling survival was best with large bare-rooted transplants (91%). Survival of containerized seedlings was 79% and of small bare-rooted transplants 71%. The average height of large bare-rooted transplants was 131 cm, of containerized seedlings 86 cm and small bare-rooted seedlings 68 cm.
Sowing is not an advisable method for regeneration of spruce due to the small survival rate and slow initial development when ground vegetation is controlled only once. Also 2-year-old seedlings gave a satisfactory result in regeneration. Seedlings raised in greenhouse were more sensitive to frost damage than seedlings grown on open ground.
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This paper reports spot sowing experiments of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). The seeds were either covered with coarse sand, tramped in the substrate or sowed without any covering, 30 seeds in each treatment in 70 replications. The site was of Vaccinium type with sandy soil. The germination percentage was 81 and 91 on the respective years. The development of seedlings was observed for 3–4 years.
The results indicate that both tramping and covering the seeds to some extent increased the number of seedlings and improved the early development. The highest numbers of seedlings were recorded in the first growing season, after which there was 23 seedlings/100 seeds in the uncovered spots, 27 seedlings in the covered spots and 31 seedlings in the tramped spots in the experiment sowed in 1965.
Mortality of the seedlings was highest between the first and second growing season, and empty spots increased with the time. There was no difference in mortality between the sowing methods, but the number of seedlings after first growing season affected the result. Under favourable conditions four seedlings per spot seemed enough to secure the survival of minimum one seedling per spot during the three first growing seasons. In poor conditions seven seedlings was needed.
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The time interval between final felling and plantation means a waste of time and thus a production loss, and may lead to lush growth of ground cover and hardwood sprouts, which increases expenses in forest management. The objective of this study was to determine the length of time between final felling and artificial regeneration in private forests in the forest districts of Uusimaa-Häme in Southern Finland and Pohjois-Häme in Central Finland. The material consists of a sample of 150 plans of the 952 cutting and regeneration plans in the district of Uusimaa-Häme and a sample of 140 plans of the 1,102 plans in Pohjois-Häme.
The time lag between final cutting and seeding or planting was on average 1.4 years in Pohjois-Häme district and 0.7 years in Uusimaa-Häme. In the latter district, 56% of the logged area was regenerated in the spring immediately following the cutting, and 84% not later than in the second spring. In Pohjois-Häme, 29% of the harvested area was regenerated immediately in the first spring following cutting, and 79% not later than in the third spring following cutting.
In Pohjois-Häme, the interval was shortest in the smallest forest holdings, and longest in the largest holdings with the largest regeneration areas. The length seems to depend mainly on the size of the regeneration area. In Uusimaa-Häme district, the interval was shortest in the smallest holdings, rather short in the largest, and longest in the intermediate-size forest properties. Seeding with Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) was used in almost all regeneration areas.
The forest owners had mainly carried out the regeneration work themselves. In the Pohjois-Häme area, the interval was shorter when the district forestry board regenerated the area. 35% of the regenerated areas had required supplementary planting in Pohjois-Häme, and 47% in the Uusimaa-Häme area. Supplementary planting was more common in areas regenerated later after the cutting. In Pohjois-Häme, according to the reports of the forest owners, 75% of the regenerated areas required tending during the first three years, in Uusimaa-Häme, 80%.
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This paper describes the preliminary results of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seeding and planting trials on drained peat soils.
The results showed that a perpared peat surface was a better surface for seeding than the unprepared one. Planting of 2+1-year seedlings succeeded better than planting 1-year seedlings. Planting on the turf gave better survival than planting on the unprepared soil surface. The whole growing season was suitable time for planting Scots pine seedlings except May when the peat soil under the surface was still frozen.
Using fertilizers in connection with planting was surveyed in two ways. Mortality of seedlings increased when they were top-dressed with NPK fertilizer. Using a so-called spot fertilizing with several combinations of fertilizers resulted in K and N tending to increase the mortality of seedlings, but P decreasing mortality.
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Silva Fennica issue 46 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1937. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.
This presentation describes inspection of forest regeneration of mineral soil forest types and drained peatlands, and inspection of ditches.
Broadcast sowing on snow was relatively new method in the beginning of the 20th century in Finland, and the experiences of regeneration were diverse. The aim of the survey was to study the success rate of regeneration in the oldest and largest areas regenerated with this sowing method in Tuomarniemi district. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) was the most common tree species, but also Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) and European larch (Larix decidua Mill.) were used in broadcast sowing on snow.
According to the study, the success of broadcast sowing on snow was as good as patch sowing and sowing in furrows in the sites typical for Tuomarniemi. The regeneration areas were often drained peatlands or paludified lands. When sowing is done using Norway spruce seeds, site preparation either by broadcast burning or scalping with hoe is recommended. Mixed sowing with pine and spruce seldom succeeded due to the differences in site requirements of the species and growth of seedlings. Sowing of Scots pine succeeded well on the drained peatlands. Sowing should be done some years after draining to let the peat dry and sink. Site preparation is needed in sites growing Polytrichum-moss. Broadcast burned areas larger than 10 hectares seemed to regenerate poorer than sites in average, possibly due to dryness of the sites. Trials with European larch were successful, and the growth of the seedlings acceptable despite the sites being relatively poor for the species.
The PDF includes a summary in German.