Current issue: 53(1)

Under compilation: 53(2)

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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
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Acta Forestalia Fennica
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Articles containing the keyword 'ash'.

Category: Research article

article id 10088, category Research article
Antti-Jussi Lindroos, Kira Ryhti, Tomi Kaakkurivaara, Jori Uusitalo, Heljä-Sisko Helmisaari. (2019). Leaching of heavy metals and barium from forest roads reinforced with fly ash. Silva Fennica vol. 53 no. 2 article id 10088. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.10088
Highlights: Heavy metal concentrations were generally low in percolation and ditch water samples of ash roads, but elevated concentrations were found in some parts of ash roads; Risk for heavy metal leaching is negligible if road parts producing high concentrations are rare.

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of leaching of heavy metals (Cr, As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Co, Mo) and earth-alkaline metal, barium (Ba), on the percolation and ditch water quality from the forest roads that contained ash in the road structures. Water quality was studied in the immediate vicinity below the ash layers as well as deeper in the road structure. Water quality was also determined in the drainage water in ditches that crossed the forest roads. A mixture of wood and peat based fly ash was used in the road structures. The treatments were: 1) no ash, 2) a 15 cm layer of ash/gravel mixture, 3) a 20 cm layer of ash/gravel mixture, 4) a 25 cm layer of ash, and 5) a 50 cm layer of ash. Large variation in the concentrations of Cr, As, Cu, Ni, Pb, Mo and Ba in the percolation water, even within the same treatment, caused difficulties to generalize the results. The concentrations of Cr, As, Ni, Pb, Mo and Ba in water samples were high in some treatment plot lysimeters containing ash compared to the control (no ash). On the other hand, many lysimeters had low and similar concentrations in water samples in the treatment plots containing ash compared to concentrations in the control plots. The ash in the roads did not affect the concentrations in the ditches. The leaching is uneven and seems to take place only from some parts of the ash layer. Risk for leaching is minimal if such parts are not widely spread.

  • Lindroos, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Latokartanonkaari 9, FI-00790 Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: antti.lindroos@luke.fi (email)
  • Ryhti, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: kira.ryhti@helsinki.fi
  • Kaakkurivaara, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Latokartanonkaari 9, FI-00790 Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: tomi.kaakkurivaara@gmail.com
  • Uusitalo, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Korkeakoulunkatu 7, FI-33720 Tampere, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: jori.uusitalo@luke.fi
  • Helmisaari, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: helja-sisko.helmisaari@helsinki.fi
article id 9938, category Research article
Jyrki Hytönen, Egbert Beuker, Anneli Viherä-Aarnio. (2018). Clonal variation in basic density, moisture content and heating value of wood, bark and branches in hybrid aspen. Silva Fennica vol. 52 no. 2 article id 9938. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.9938
Highlights: Hybrid aspen clones differed in their moisture content, ash content, basic density and heating value; Stem wood had lower ash content, basic density and effective heating value than stem bark; There was significant vertical variation in wood and bark along the stem in moisture content and basic density.

Hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × P. tremuloides) is one of the fastest growing tree species in Finland. During the mid-1990s, a breeding programme was started with the aim of selecting clones that were superior in producing pulpwood. Hybrid aspen can also be grown as a short-rotation crop for bioenergy. To study clonal variation in wood and bark properties, seven clones were selected from a 12-year-old field trial located in southern Finland. From each clone, five trees were harvested and samples were taken from stem wood, stem bark and branches to determine basic density, effective heating value, moisture and ash content. Vertical within-tree variation in moisture content and basic density was also studied. The differences between clones were significant for almost all studied properties. For all studied properties there was a significant difference between wood and bark. Wood had lower ash content (0.5% vs. 3.9%), basic density (378 kg m–3 vs. 450 kg m–3) and effective heating value (18.26 MJ kg–1 vs. 19.24 MJ kg–1), but higher moisture content (55% vs. 49%) than bark. The values for branches were intermediate. These results suggest that the properties of hybrid aspen important for energy use could be improved by clonal selection. However, selecting clones based on fast growth only may be challenging since it may lead to a decrease in hybrid aspen wood density.

  • Hytönen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Natural resources, Teknologiakatu 7, FI-67100 Kokkola, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: jyrki.hytonen@luke.fi (email)
  • Beuker, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Production systems, Vipusenkuja 6, FI-57200 Savonlinna, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: egbert.beuker@luke.fi
  • Viherä-Aarnio, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Production systems, Latokartanonkaari 9, FI-00790 Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: anneli.vihera-aarnio@luke.fi
article id 9933, category Research article
Timo Saksa, Jari Miina, Hilkka Haatainen, Kauko Kärkkäinen. (2018). Quality of spot mounding performed by continuously advancing mounders. Silva Fennica vol. 52 no. 2 article id 9933. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.9933
Highlights: The number and quality of mounds varied considerably according to the operating conditions;The main factors reducing the quality of spot mounding were steep terrain, a thick humus layer, fresh logging residues, stoniness and soil texture;With careful selection of timing and conditions for mounding, the quality obtained by continuously advancing mounders can be improved.

Operating conditions affecting the quality of spot mounding by Bracke continuously advancing mounders were investigated on 66 regeneration areas (124 ha) in eastern Finland. The quality of mounds was classified as suitable (good or acceptable after additional compression) or unsuitable for planting. Models were constructed for the number of suitable planting spots obtained per hectare (good and acceptable mounds), the probability of successful mounding (≥1600 planting spots ha–1) and the probability of creating a suitable mound as a function of terrain, site and soil characteristics, as well as slash conditions (removed, fresh or dry logging residues). The average number of mounds created was 1892 ± 290 mounds ha–1, of which 1398 ± 325 mounds ha–1 (74%) were classified as suitable for planting. The quality of spot mounding was reduced by steep terrain, a thick humus layer and fresh logging residues. Stoniness and soil texture also affected the number of planting spots created. Mounding after logging residues had dried increased the number of planting spots by 191 spots ha–1 compared with mounding in the presence of fresh residues. Removing residues did not significantly increase the number of planting spots compared with mounding amongst dry residues. A thick humus layer, very stony soil, steep slopes and valley terrain decreased the number of planting spots by 150–450 spots ha–1. The number and quality of mounds varied considerably according to the operating conditions, but with careful selection of timing and sites the quality obtained by a continuously advancing mounder can be improved.

  • Saksa, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Juntintie 154, FI-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: timo.saksa@luke.fi (email)
  • Miina, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Yliopistokatu 6, FI-80100 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: jari.miina@luke.fi
  • Haatainen, Faculty of Science and Forestry, School of Forest Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: hilkka.haatainen@storaenso.com
  • Kärkkäinen, Tornator Oyj, Muuntamontie 2, FI-80100 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: kauko.karkkainen@tornator.fi
article id 1553, category Research article
Miguel Angel Salinas-Melgoza, Margaret Skutsch, Jon C. Lovett, Armonia Borrego. (2017). Carbon emissions from dryland shifting cultivation: a case study of Mexican tropical dry forest. Silva Fennica vol. 51 no. 1B article id 1553. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1553
Highlights: Under REDD+, shifting cultivation should be considered degradation rather than deforestation; Carbon stocks in old fallows (>20 years) are higher than those in old growth forests which have never been used for shifting cultivation; Extending length of fallows increases rates of carbon emissions; Shortened fallow cycles result in higher carbon stocks and lower emissions at the landscape level; Cycle lengths could be optimized for carbon sequestration in a land sharing approach.

The article considers the relation of shifting cultivation to deforestation and degradation, and hence its impacts in terms of carbon emissions and sequestration potential. There is a need to understand these relationships better in the context of international policy on Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+). The article reviews the way in which shifting cultivation has been incorporated in global and national estimations of carbon emissions, and assembles the available information on shifting cultivation in Tropical Dry Forests (TDF) in Mexico, where it is widely practiced. It then takes the case of two villages, Tonaya and El Temazcal, which lie within the basin of the River Ayuquila in Jalisco, Mexico. Field data for the typical carbon stocks and fluxes associated with shifting cultivation are compared with stocks and fluxes associated with more intensive agricultural production in the same dry tropical forest area to highlight the carbon sequestration dynamics associated with the shortening and potential lengthening of the fallow cycles. The biomass density in the shifting cultivation system observed can reach levels similar to that of old growth forests, with old fallows (>20 years) having higher carbon stocks than old growth forests. Per Mg of maize produced, the biomass-related emissions from shifting cultivation in the traditional 12 year cycle are about three times those from permanent cultivation. We did not, however, take into account the additional emissions from inputs that result from the use of fertilizers and pesticides in the case of permanent agriculture. Shortening of the fallow cycle, which is occurring in the study area as a result of government subsidies, results in higher remaining stocks of carbon and lower emissions at the landscape level.

  • Salinas-Melgoza, University of Twente, Drienerlolaan 5, 7522 NB Enschede, the Netherlands ORCID ID: http://orcid.org/0000-0003-3209-1659 E-mail: ma.masm@gmail.com (email)
  • Skutsch, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (CIGA-UNAM), Antigua Carretera a Pátzcuaro No. 8701, Col. Ex-Hacienda de San José de la Huerta, Campus Morelia, C.P. 58190, Michoacán, Mexico ORCID ID: http://orcid.org/0000-0001-6120-4945 E-mail: mskutsch@ciga.unam.mx
  • Lovett, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, UK ORCID ID:E-mail: j.lovett@leeds.ac.uk
  • Borrego, CONACYT-Centro de Investigaciones en Geografía Ambiental, Antigua Carretera a Pátzcuaro No. 8701, Col. Ex-Hacienda de San José de la Huerta, Campus Morelia, C.P. 58190, Michoacán, México ORCID ID:E-mail: aborrego@ciga.unam.mx
article id 970, category Research article
Zhen-Yu Du, Qing-Hua Wang, Shang-Jun Xing, Fang-Chun Liu, Bing-Yao Ma, Hai-Lin Ma, De-Xi Liu. (2013). Fine root distribution, characteristics and rhizosphere soil properties in a mixed stand of Robinia pseudoacacia and Fraxinus velutina in a saline soil. Silva Fennica vol. 47 no. 3 article id 970. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.970
The spatial distribution and characteristics of fine roots (< 2 mm in diameter), and rhizosphere soil properties were studied in a mixed planted forest of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) and velvet ash (Fraxinus velutina Torr.) 27 years after planting in a coastal saline soil of the Yellow River delta, China. The results of fine root analysis showed that the fine roots of both black locust and velvet ash were mainly distributed in the soil layer at 0–20 cm depth and 50–150 cm from trees. The fine root distribution of both species suggests a strategy of avoiding salinity rather than salt –tolerance. The horizontal spread distance of fine roots of velvet ash was evidently longer than that of black locust. The fine root biomass, specific root length, specific root area, specific root volume and root activity were significantly higher for velvet ash in comparison with black locust. The results of soil analysis showed that rhizosphere soil pH of black locust and velvet ash were significantly lower compared with non-rhizosphere soil. The available N content in rhizosphere soil of black locust was higher than that of velvet ash. However, the contents of soluble salt, organic matter, available P and available K in rhizosphere soil of velvet ash were higher than those of black locust. The above results indicated that the differences between black locust and velvet ash in fine root distribution, characteristics and rhizosphere soil properties were the major reasons for that velvet ash showed stronger acclimation responses than black locust to the coastal saline soil.
  • Du, Shandong Academy of Forestry, 42 Wenhua East Road, Jinan 250014, P. R. China ORCID ID:E-mail: zydu@qq.com (email)
  • Wang, Shandong Academy of Forestry, Jinan, P. R. China ORCID ID:E-mail: wqh0228@163.com
  • Xing, Shandong Academy of Forestry, Jinan, P. R. China ORCID ID:E-mail: xingsj-126@126.com
  • Liu, Shandong Academy of Forestry, Jinan, P. R. China ORCID ID:E-mail: fchliu@126.com
  • Ma, Shandong Academy of Forestry, Jinan, P. R. China ORCID ID:E-mail: mby777@163.com
  • Ma, Shandong Academy of Forestry, Jinan, P. R. China ORCID ID:E-mail: mahlin@163.com
  • Liu, Shandong Academy of Forestry, Jinan, P. R. China ORCID ID:E-mail: llyldx@163.com
article id 48, category Research article
Jyrki Hytönen, Lasse Aro. (2012). Biomass and nutrition of naturally regenerated and coppiced birch on cutaway peatland during 37 years. Silva Fennica vol. 46 no. 3 article id 48. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.48
Biomass production and nutrient use of birch thickets with a mixture of willow on a cut away peatland in southern Finland over a period of 37 years was studied. Dense, naturally regenerated 16-year-old birch stands were cut down, fertilized with either wood ash (P 108 and K 339 kg ha–1) or PK fertilizer (P 50 and K 95 kg ha–1) or left unfertilized. The biomass production of the coppiced stands and one uncut stand was monitored for a period of 21 years. Soil nutrient and foliar nutrient concentrations were analyzed several times during the study period. Ash fertilization supplied more nutrients than PK fertilization and increased the soil nutrient amounts more. The foliar phosphorus concentration of birch on control plots indicated a severe phosphorus deficiency which was removed by PK and ash fertilization. Fertilization did not increase nutrient concentrations of the stem (wood + bark) nor the amount of nutrients bound in the biomass. Two energy wood rotations (16+21 years) produced 124–158 Mg ha–1 of leafless, above-ground biomass altogether corresponding to 61–78 Mg ha–1 of carbon. The highest biomass yield was achieved with a rotation of 37 years in the uncut stand (211 Mg ha–1). Corresponding values for mean annual increment (MAI) were 3.4–4.3 Mg ha–1 and 5.7 Mg ha–1. This study shows that the length of the rotation for birch in energy wood production should be longer than 21 years. PK and ash fertilization increased the biomass of coppiced 21-year-old birch by 23 Mg ha–1 and 33 Mg ha–1, respectively.
  • Hytönen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Kannus, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: jyrki.hytonen@metla.fi (email)
  • Aro, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Kannus, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: lasse.aro@metla.fi
article id 43, category Research article
Anni Markkanen, Panu Halme. (2012). Polypore communities in broadleaved boreal forests. Silva Fennica vol. 46 no. 3 article id 43. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.43
The cover and extent of boreal broadleaved forests have been decreasing due to modern forest management practices and fire suppression. As decomposers of woody material, polypores are ecologically important ecosystem engineers. The ecology and conservation biology of polypores have been studied intensively in boreal coniferous forests. However, only a few studies have focused on the species living on broadleaved trees. To increase knowledge on this species group we conducted polypore surveys in 27 broadleaved forests and 303 forest compartments (539 ha) on the southern boreal zone in Finland and measured dead wood and forest characteristics. We detected altogether 98 polypore species, of which 13 are red-listed in Finland. 60% of the recorded species are primarily associated with broadleaved trees. The number of species in a local community present in a broadleaved forest covered approximately 50 species, of which 30–40 were primarily associated with broadleaved trees. The size of the inventoried area explained 67% of the variation in the species richness, but unlike in previous studies conducted in coniferous forests, dead wood variables as well as forest structure had very limited power in explaining polypore species richness on forest stand level. The compartments occupied by red listed Protomerulius caryae had an especially high volume of living birch, but otherwise the occurrences of red-listed species could not be predicted based on the forest structure.
  • Markkanen, Department of Biological and Environmental Science, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyväskylä, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: anni.e.markkanen@gmail.com (email)
  • Halme, Department of Biological and Environmental Science, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyväskylä, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 139, category Research article
Ulf Sikström, Curt Almqvist, Gunnar Jansson. (2010). Growth of Pinus sylvestris after the application of wood ash or P and K fertilizer to a peatland in southern Sweden. Silva Fennica vol. 44 no. 3 article id 139. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.139
The effects of the application of wood ash and of fertilizer regimes including phosphorus (P) and potassium (K), with and without simultaneous addition of nitrogen (N), were investigated on a stand of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) saplings growing on a drained oligotrophic peatland site in southern Sweden. A randomized block design was used. Tree growth and concentrations of various elements in the needles were measured. The addition of similar doses of P (approx. 40 kg P ha–1) from different sources resulted in similar growth responses, amounting to 1.6–1.9 m3 ha–1 yr–1 of stem wood over the 26-year study. The P source was either wood ash (2500 kg d.w. ha–1) or PK-fertilizer (raw phosphate and potassium chloride). In response to several treatments there were both increased numbers of trees and increased growth of individual trees. The high PK-dose (40 kg P ha–1 and 80 kg K ha–1) appeared to result in a larger growth increase than the low dose (20 kg P ha–1 and 40 kg K ha–1). The N treatment had no additional effect on growth. In the control plots, tree growth was more or less negligible (0.04 m3 ha–1 yr–1). After almost 26 years, concentrations of P and K in the needles of treated plants were still higher than in the untreated control plants. Nevertheless, in spite of the elevated P concentration, P appears to limit the growth of Scots pine. In conclusion, after sufficient drainage of this type of peatland site, it is possible for a forest stand to develop to the pole stage if wood ash or PK-fertilizer is applied.
  • Sikström, Skogforsk (The Forestry Research Institute of Sweden), Uppsala Science Park, SE-751 83 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: ulf.sikstrom@skogforsk.se (email)
  • Almqvist, Skogforsk (The Forestry Research Institute of Sweden), Uppsala Science Park, SE-751 83 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Jansson, Skogforsk (The Forestry Research Institute of Sweden), Uppsala Science Park, SE-751 83 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 225, category Research article
Johan Bergh, Urban Nilsson, Harald Grip, Per-Ola Hedwall, Tomas Lundmark. (2008). Effects of frequency of fertilisation on production, foliar chemistry and nutrient leaching in young Norway spruce stands in Sweden. Silva Fennica vol. 42 no. 5 article id 225. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.225
Keywords: sludge; wood-ash; boreal; N; P; K
There is a great need to increase the production in Swedish forests to meet future demand from the forest industry and the bio-energy sector. One option to increase the production is to supply nutrients to young stands of Norway spruce. For the practical application it is important to develop and optimise fertilisation regimes in terms of production, economy and leaching of nutrients. The frequency of fertilisation is one important variable in the fertilisation regime, and this study aimed to study effects of different fertilisation frequencies on production and leaching of nitrogen. In 2001, five field experiments were established in southern, central and northern Sweden. Young stands of Norway spruce were fertilised every year, every second year and every third year. In addition, fertilisation with sludge pellets and wood-ash combined with nitrogen was investigated. The current annual increment after five years of treatment was significantly larger in fertilised than in unfertilised treatments. The difference in production between fertilisation every year and every second year was insignificant, while fertilisation every third year resulted in lower production. Sludge pellets and wood-ash fertilisation gave significantly lower production than fertilisation every second year even though approximately the same amount of nitrogen was applied. There was relatively little leaching of nitrate to ground water in all treatments; 0.6–1 kg N ha–1 a–1 from plots with fertilisation every year or every second year; and 2.7 kg N ha–1 a–1 from plots with fertilisation every third year. Most of the leaching was after the first fertilisation, in all treatments at all sites.
  • Bergh, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, P.O. Box 49, SE-230 53 Alnarp, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: johan.bergh@ess.slu.se (email)
  • Nilsson, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, P.O. Box 49, SE-230 53 Alnarp, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Grip, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, P.O. Box 49, SE-230 53 Alnarp, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Hedwall, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, P.O. Box 49, SE-230 53 Alnarp, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Lundmark, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, P.O. Box 49, SE-230 53 Alnarp, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 280, category Research article
Mika Nieminen, Mikko Moilanen, Sirpa Piirainen. (2007). Phosphorus allocation in surface soil of two drained peatland forests following wood and peat ash application – why effective adsorption on low sorptive soils? Silva Fennica vol. 41 no. 3 article id 280. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.280
Fertilization of drained peatland forests with wood ash and different commercial phosphorus fertilizers (calcium phosphates) generally give similar stand growth responses. However, it has been shown that use of calcium phosphate fertilizers generally lead to highly increased P release to recipient water courses. On the other hand, no corresponding release has been reported after ash fertilization. Soil samples from the surface peats from a nutrient poor and a fertile drained peatland site were collected before and 1–4 years after application of five different types of ash products. The changes over time in the different chemical forms of P in the substrate were studied. The results indicated that the reason for the low liability to leaching of ash fertilizers was that significant amounts of P are adsorbed by Al and Fe during weathering of the ash fertilizers. However, further studies are needed to clarify whether the adsorption of P occurs with the Al and Fe of the ash or the native Al and Fe compounds present in soil before ash fertilization.
  • Nieminen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Unit, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: mika.nieminen@metla.fi (email)
  • Moilanen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Unit, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Piirainen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Unit, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 503, category Research article
Jyrki Hytönen. (2003). Effects of wood, peat and coal ash fertilization on Scots pine foliar nutrient concentrations and growth on afforested former agricultural peat soils. Silva Fennica vol. 37 no. 2 article id 503. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.503
The effects of ash and commercial fertilizers on the foliar nutrient concentrations and stand growth of Scots pine were studied in four field experiments established on former cultivated peat soils. The aims were to compare ash types (wood, peat and coal ash), study the effects of ash treatment (pelletization), compare ash fertilization with commercial fertilizers, and to study the interaction between ash fertilization and weed control. Foliar samples were collected 1–3 years and 7–8 years after fertilization. In the unfertilized plots, the foliar nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations were fairly high, while those of potassium were low in all the experiments. The boron levels were low in three out of the four experiments. Application of either loose or pelletized wood ash, as well as of commercial fertilizers, increased foliar potassium and boron concentrations, and thus successfully remedied the existing nutrient imbalances and deficiencies. Since phosphorus deficiencies are rarely encountered on field afforestation sites, poor-quality wood ash with low phosphorus concentration could be used. Peat ash containing phosphorus, but only small amounts of potassium and boron, was not found to be very suitable for soil amelioration in connection with field afforestation. Coal ash, containing only small amounts of potassium, was a good source of boron for pine even when used in small amounts, and thus it can be used in cases where boron deficiencies alone are encountered. Wood ash significantly increased the height growth of Scots pines in two of the experiments, but peat ash and coal ash had no statistically significant effect. Wood ash increased the number of healthy seedlings. Vegetation control decreased seedling mortality by 24%, increased the growth of pine and decreased the proportion of trees damaged by elk and by deciduous trees.
  • Hytönen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Kannus Research Station, P.O. Box 44, FIN-69101 Kannus, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: jyrki.hytonen@metla.fi (email)
article id 503, category Research article
Jyrki Hytönen. (2003). Effects of wood, peat and coal ash fertilization on Scots pine foliar nutrient concentrations and growth on afforested former agricultural peat soils. Silva Fennica vol. 37 no. 2 article id 503. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.503
The effects of ash and commercial fertilizers on the foliar nutrient concentrations and stand growth of Scots pine were studied in four field experiments established on former cultivated peat soils. The aims were to compare ash types (wood, peat and coal ash), study the effects of ash treatment (pelletization), compare ash fertilization with commercial fertilizers, and to study the interaction between ash fertilization and weed control. Foliar samples were collected 1–3 years and 7–8 years after fertilization. In the unfertilized plots, the foliar nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations were fairly high, while those of potassium were low in all the experiments. The boron levels were low in three out of the four experiments. Application of either loose or pelletized wood ash, as well as of commercial fertilizers, increased foliar potassium and boron concentrations, and thus successfully remedied the existing nutrient imbalances and deficiencies. Since phosphorus deficiencies are rarely encountered on field afforestation sites, poor-quality wood ash with low phosphorus concentration could be used. Peat ash containing phosphorus, but only small amounts of potassium and boron, was not found to be very suitable for soil amelioration in connection with field afforestation. Coal ash, containing only small amounts of potassium, was a good source of boron for pine even when used in small amounts, and thus it can be used in cases where boron deficiencies alone are encountered. Wood ash significantly increased the height growth of Scots pines in two of the experiments, but peat ash and coal ash had no statistically significant effect. Wood ash increased the number of healthy seedlings. Vegetation control decreased seedling mortality by 24%, increased the growth of pine and decreased the proportion of trees damaged by elk and by deciduous trees.
  • Hytönen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Kannus Research Station, P.O. Box 44, FIN-69101 Kannus, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: jyrki.hytonen@metla.fi (email)
article id 503, category Research article
Jyrki Hytönen. (2003). Effects of wood, peat and coal ash fertilization on Scots pine foliar nutrient concentrations and growth on afforested former agricultural peat soils. Silva Fennica vol. 37 no. 2 article id 503. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.503
The effects of ash and commercial fertilizers on the foliar nutrient concentrations and stand growth of Scots pine were studied in four field experiments established on former cultivated peat soils. The aims were to compare ash types (wood, peat and coal ash), study the effects of ash treatment (pelletization), compare ash fertilization with commercial fertilizers, and to study the interaction between ash fertilization and weed control. Foliar samples were collected 1–3 years and 7–8 years after fertilization. In the unfertilized plots, the foliar nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations were fairly high, while those of potassium were low in all the experiments. The boron levels were low in three out of the four experiments. Application of either loose or pelletized wood ash, as well as of commercial fertilizers, increased foliar potassium and boron concentrations, and thus successfully remedied the existing nutrient imbalances and deficiencies. Since phosphorus deficiencies are rarely encountered on field afforestation sites, poor-quality wood ash with low phosphorus concentration could be used. Peat ash containing phosphorus, but only small amounts of potassium and boron, was not found to be very suitable for soil amelioration in connection with field afforestation. Coal ash, containing only small amounts of potassium, was a good source of boron for pine even when used in small amounts, and thus it can be used in cases where boron deficiencies alone are encountered. Wood ash significantly increased the height growth of Scots pines in two of the experiments, but peat ash and coal ash had no statistically significant effect. Wood ash increased the number of healthy seedlings. Vegetation control decreased seedling mortality by 24%, increased the growth of pine and decreased the proportion of trees damaged by elk and by deciduous trees.
  • Hytönen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Kannus Research Station, P.O. Box 44, FIN-69101 Kannus, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: jyrki.hytonen@metla.fi (email)
article id 590, category Research article
Anna Saarsalmi, Eino Mälkönen, Sirpa Piirainen. (2001). Effects of wood ash fertilization on forest soil chemical properties. Silva Fennica vol. 35 no. 3 article id 590. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.590
The effects of wood ash fertilization on soil chemical properties were studied in three young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) plantations and a Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) plantation with different site fertility in southern Finland. The dose of 3 t ha–1 of loose wood ash was applied to 4 replicate plots (25 x 25 m) at each experiment. Humus layer and mineral soil samples were taken before the treatment and 7 and 16 years after wood ash application. Results showed that neutralization as well as fertilization effects of wood ash on forest soil were of long duration. An ash-induced pH increase of 0.6–1.0 pH units and exchangeable acidity (EA) decrease of 58–83% were detected in the humus layer 16 years after wood ash application. The decrease in acidity was most pronounced on the Calluna site with initially the lowest pH and highest EA. In the mineral soil the increase in pH was observed later than in the humus layer. After 16 years, the mineral soil pH was increased (0.2–0.3 pH units) on the Vaccinium and Myrtillus sites. A corresponding and in most cases a significant increase in the extractable Ca and Mg concentrations was detected in both the humus layer and in the mineral soil. Wood ash significantly increased the effective cation exchange capacity (CECe) and base saturation (BS) but decreased the concentration of exchangeable Al in both soil layers on all the sites. No response of N availability to wood ash application could be found.
  • Saarsalmi, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Centre, P.O. Box 18, FIN-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: anna.saarsalmi@metla.fi (email)
  • Mälkönen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Centre, P.O. Box 18, FIN-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Piirainen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Research Station, P.O. Box 68, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:

Category: Research note

article id 148, category Research note
Ola Lindroos, Magnus Matisons, Petter Johansson, Tomas Nordfjell. (2010). Productivity of a prototype truck-mounted logging residue bundler and a road-side bundling system. Silva Fennica vol. 44 no. 3 article id 148. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.148
When recovering logging residues (LR) for bioenergy its density should be increased before road transport, otherwise a low proportion of the trucks’ load capacity will be used. One way this can be currently done is to compress LR into bundles that are forwarded to roadside landing. A less well-developed alternative is to forward loose LR and bundle it at landing. In the presented study, a prototype specifically developed for road-side bundling was found to produce larger, heavier bundles than bundling machinery intended for in-field use (mean length, diameter and raw bulk density 4.7 m, 0.8 m and 285 kg m–3, respectively, with 299–445 kg oven dry matter per bundle). The machine was also at least 30% more productive than previously described in-field bundling systems, producing 14–19 bundles per productive work hour (PWh), equivalent to 5.2–7.8 oven-dry tonnes PWh–1. Bundles were estimated to use 67–86% of an LR truck’s 30 tonnes load capacity, similar to proportions used when transporting loose LR. However, a continuous feeding and compressing process would probably almost double productivity, while longer bundles would enable full use of truck load capacity. With such improvements bundling at road-side could provide a viable alternative to current LR-recovering systems.
  • Lindroos, Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: ola.lindroos@srh.slu.se (email)
  • Matisons, Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Johansson, Sveaskog Förvaltnings AB, Vindeln, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Nordfjell, Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:

Category: Article

article id 7296, category Article
T. Rancken. (1934). Erfarenheter om asken som skogsträd i Finland. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 19 article id 7296. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7296
English title: Experiences of cultivation of ash as a forest tree in Finland.

Cultivation of ash (Fraxinus exelsior L.), even though it is a native species in Finland, has been hindered by the belief that it cannot produce quality timber in Finland. However, it can be concluded that the quality of ash timber is as good as that of timber imported to the country, if the trees are grown in a fertile site, the crown density is high, and the stand is tended properly. In these conditions, ash wood may have 3 mm ring width or more. Measurements made in ash stands in Turku region and in Åland show that at the best sites ash trees reach a height of 20–22 m in 70–80 years. According to the field tests made by the author, it can be concluded that ash can be successfully grown in Southern Finland in Åland, Turku region, in the coastal areas of Uusimaa and in Karelian isthmus. The species requires a fertile, moist upland forest site. The early growth is best secured by planting the seedlings under a well thinned broadleaved stand, which is then thinned every fifth year. Open lands growing grass should be avoided.

The PDF includes a Finnish and German summary.

  • Rancken, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7224, category Article
C. H. Bornebusch. (1929). Danmarks skovtyper. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 11 article id 7224. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7224
English title: Forest types in Denmark.

The paper describes plant species characteristic for ash (Fraxinus exelsior L.) forests in Denmark, and compares the vegetation to beech (Fagus ssp.) forests, the dominating tree species in Danish forests, which have notably simpler ground vegetation. The writer concludes that ground vegetation can be divided into distinct types. Beech grows in several types of soil differing in their fertility (bonitet). The writer has divided the different soil types by their flora (tilstandstyper). The flora is influenced by three factors: climate, fertility of the soil and soil moisture. The paper defines the types of vegetation which describe fertility of the sites (bonitet), and discusses how age, silvicultural condition and tree species affect the vegetation.

  • Bornebusch, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5601, category Article
Jari Parviainen. (1996). Impact of fire on Finnish forest in the past and today. Silva Fennica vol. 30 no. 2–3 article id 5601. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9246

Nearly every forest land in Finland has been burnt down by a wildfire at least once during the past 400–500 years. Slash and burn cultivation (1700–1920) was practised on 50–75 percent of Finland's forests, while prescribed burning (1920–1990) has been applied to 2–3 percent of the country's forests. Because of land-use changes and efficient fire prevention and control systems, the occurrence of wildfires in Finland has decreased considerably during the past few decades. Owing to the biodiversity and ecologically favourable influence of fire, the current tendency is to revive the use of controlled fire in forestry in Finland. Prescribed burning is used in forest regeneration and endeavours are being made to revert old conservation forests to the starting point of succession through forest fires.

  • Parviainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5344, category Article
Ilari Lumme. (1988). Early effects of peat ash on growth and mineral nutrition of the silver birch (Betula pendula) on a mined peatland. Silva Fennica vol. 22 no. 2 article id 5344. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15501

Two-year-old silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) seedlings were fertilized with three peat ash dosages (10, 50 and 150 metric t/ha) and planted at three densities (2,000, 10,000 and 25,000 seedlings/ha). The peat and mineral soil were mixed together by deep ploughing before peat ash application. The results indicate that the 10 t/ha of peat ash may be too low a dosage and 150 t/ha too high for the silver birch seedlings. The 50 t/ha ash dosage increased growth markedly, obviously due to an enhancement in soil and foliar P, Mg and Ca content, soil pH, microbial activity and mobilization of soil organic nitrogen. Both foliar and soil P were already enhanced with the 10 t/ha peat ash dosage. The K content of the peat ash was low, however, and it may be that fertilizer K should be applied later.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Lumme, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5326, category Article
Matti Linkola. (1987). Metsä kulttuurimaisemana. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 4 article id 5326. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15483
English title: The forest as a cultural landscape.

The main features of the Finnish landscape are a result of preglacial erosion processes and the structural lines of the bedrock. The microstructure of the landscape was created by the Ice Age and its melting processes. Upon this base, human activities have created a palimpsest of cultural landscapes. The article describes the effects of slash-and-burn cultivation, tar production, cattle ranging and some other forest uses to the forest landscape. 

The paper is based on a lecture given in the seminar ‘The forest as a Finnish cultural entity’, held in Helsinki in 1986. The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Linkola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5227, category Article
Harri Vasander, Tapio Lindholm. (1985). Tulen voimakkuus ja maanpinnan lämpötila kulotuksen aikana. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 1 article id 5227. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15406
English title: Fire intensities and surface temperatures during prescribed burning.

Surface temperature during two prescribed burnings were measured in 1983 in Evo, Southern Finland. Surface temperatures in relation to the amount of slash burned, energy released during the fires, and the fire intensities were studied. The fire intensity was also measured during a third burn. The Lake Nimetön site was burned int the end of May. Due to the uneven distribution of slash, colonization by Calamagrostis arundinacea and the spring moisture, the burning was very uneven. Surface temperatures varied between 410–809°C and the intensity of fire was low (range 0–900 kW/m).

The fire intensity on the other sites burned in May was also low (880 kW/m). During the burn in August the surface temperatures varied between 701–869°C and the intensity of fire was moderate (1,170 kW/m). Slash was burned more evenly and more thoroughly due to the dryness of the site and slash and the fact that grasses and other herbs were not abundant.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Vasander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Lindholm, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4924, category Article
Teklé Kapustinskaité. (1975). Puuston kasvu ja turpeen tuhkapitoisuus ojitetuilla soilla. Silva Fennica vol. 9 no. 3 article id 4924. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14766
English title: Ash content of peatland soils and stand growth in connection with drainage.

The ash content has been found to correlate with the fertility of peatlands. Relationship between height of 80-year-old stands and ash content of peat in topmost 30 cm layer was examined in Lithuanian conditions. On drained peatlands with ash content of peat from 3% to 8% pine stands increase in height. Ash content of peat being about 7% Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) stands on drained sites are found to be of equal height. Ash content of peat more than 8–9% has no significant effect on growth of pine or spruce stands. Birch (Betula verrucosa (B. Pendula Roth.) and Betula pubescens Erhrh.), stands are less sensitive to ash content of peat compared with other species. Black alder (Alnus glutinosa L. Gaertn.) stands occurred in sites with ash content of peat more than 8–10%. The height of the stands become equal both in drained and undrained sites in the cases where ash content of peat is about 16–18%. Ash (Fraxinus exelsior L.) stands attain high productivity on drained sites with ash content of peat about 20%.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kapustinskaité, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4924, category Article
Teklé Kapustinskaité. (1975). Puuston kasvu ja turpeen tuhkapitoisuus ojitetuilla soilla. Silva Fennica vol. 9 no. 3 article id 4924. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14766
English title: Ash content of peatland soils and stand growth in connection with drainage.

The ash content has been found to correlate with the fertility of peatlands. Relationship between height of 80-year-old stands and ash content of peat in topmost 30 cm layer was examined in Lithuanian conditions. On drained peatlands with ash content of peat from 3% to 8% pine stands increase in height. Ash content of peat being about 7% Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) stands on drained sites are found to be of equal height. Ash content of peat more than 8–9% has no significant effect on growth of pine or spruce stands. Birch (Betula verrucosa (B. Pendula Roth.) and Betula pubescens Erhrh.), stands are less sensitive to ash content of peat compared with other species. Black alder (Alnus glutinosa L. Gaertn.) stands occurred in sites with ash content of peat more than 8–10%. The height of the stands become equal both in drained and undrained sites in the cases where ash content of peat is about 16–18%. Ash (Fraxinus exelsior L.) stands attain high productivity on drained sites with ash content of peat about 20%.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kapustinskaité, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4920, category Article
Peitsa Mikola. (1975). Turvetuotannosta vapautuvan maan metsittäminen. Silva Fennica vol. 9 no. 2 article id 4920. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14776
English title: Afforestation of bogs after industrial exploitation of peat.

Peat industry is rapidly expanding in Finland. Consequently, during next decades peat will be removed from thousands of hectares. Because timber production probably is the most rational use of this area after the peat production has ended, some experiments of afforestation of such areas have already been conducted. This article reports results of two experiments which were started in Kihniö, Western Finland, in 1953 and 1964.

In the first experiment fertilization with wood ash proved very effective whereas seeding and planting without fertilization resulted in almost complete failure. In the second experiment, interplanting with grey alder (Alnus glutinosa L. Gaertn.) greatly promoted the growth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). The effect of slight fertilization lasted a few years only. The reasons for the remarkable effect of alder need further research. Although alder is known as a nitrogen-fixing plant, its beneficial effect was most clearly seen in the K and P contents of pine needles. Inoculation with mycorrhizal fungi was beneficial but not necessary. Experiments hitherto show that afforestation of bogs after peat removal is possible although some additional measures like fertilization or interplanting with alder may be needed.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Mikola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7641, category Article
Veikko Huhta, Riitta Hyvönen, Antti Koskenniemi, Pekka Vilkamaa, Paula Kaasalainen, Minna Sulander. (1986). Response of soil fauna to fertilization and manipulation of pH in coniferous forests. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 195 article id 7641. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7641

The effect of different fertilizer treatments on the invertebrate fauna on coniferous forest soil were investigated during the years 1979-83 both in field and in laboratory experiments. Fertilizers tested were urea (both alone and with P and K), ammonium nitrate and ashes. Ash-treatment was also controlled by raising the pH at the same level with Ca(OH)2.

Both ashes and urea resulted in considerable changes in the soil fauna. Nematodes, especially bacterial feeders, increased temporarily. Some families of Coleoptera invaded the urea-treated plots. Enchytraceid worms and several microarthropod species decreased, as well as the total animal biomass. Ash-treatment influenced more slowly than did urea-fertilizing, but it caused more permanent changes. Ammonium nitrate with lime had little influence in the field. All fertilizers affected more strongly when mixed with soil in laboratory. pH alone proved to explain most of the changes observed, but nitrogen as a nutrient also plays role independently of acidity.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Huhta, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Hyvönen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Koskenniemi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Vilkamaa, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kaasalainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Sulander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7637, category Article
Jouko Silvola, Jukka Välijoki, Heikki Aaltonen. (1985). Effect of draining and fertilization on soil respiration at three ameliorated peatland sites. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 191 article id 7637. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7637

Soil respiration readings are reported for three ameliorated peatland sites of different types, covering a period of four years, during which the sites were drained and treated with various fertilizers. Respiration is shown to increase exponentially with temperature, varying mostly in the range 100–500 mg CO2 m-2 h-1. The changes in soil respiration followed those in surface temperature with a time-lag of approximately 3–3.5 hours. At one site, where the groundwater table dropped by about 0.5 m after ditching, soil respiration increased 2.5-fold within a few weeks, whereas at the other two sites both the fall in the groundwater table and the resultant changes in soil respiration were small.

The fertilizers tested were slow-dissolving PK, fast-dissolving PK, wood ash, slow-dissolving PK + urea, slow-dissolving PK + Nitroform (urea formaldehyde) and slow-dissolving PK + urea + a micro-element mixture. Application of fast-dissolving PK + urea led to a rapid increase in soil respiration at the site poorest in nutrients, and slow-dissolving PK to a slow increase in respiration. The greatest, steady increase of all was achieved by treatment with ash. At the sites with a higher natural nutrient content the application of fertilizers usually led to a decline in soil respiration lasting 1–2 years, after which the initial level was normally regained. Treatment with micro-elements caused an initial fall in soil respiration values in all three biotopes, followed by a pronounced increase.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Silvola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Välijoki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Aaltonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4627, category Article
Paavo Jaakko Ollinmaa. (1952). Jalot lehtipuumme luontaisina ja viljeltyinä. Silva Fennica no. 77 article id 4627. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9099
English title: Native and cultivated southern broadleaved tree species in Finland.

The aim of the study was to update knowledge of natural range of English oak (Quercus robur L.), European ash (Fraxinus exelsior L.), Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.), small-leaved lime (Tilia cordata Miller), wych elm (Ulmus glabra Mill.) and European white elm (Ulmus laevis Pall.) in Finland, and estimate how far north they could be grown as forest trees or as park trees. The study is based on literature and questionnaires sent to cities and towns, District Forestry Boards, districts of Forest Service, Forestry Management Associations and railway stations.

The northern borders in the natural range of the species succeed one another from south to north as follows: English oak, European ash, Norway maple, wych elm, and small-leaved lime. Occurrence of European white elm is sporadic. The English oak forms forests in the southernmost Finland, while the other species grow only as small stands, groups or solitary trees. According to experiences of planted stands or trees, the northern limits of the species succeed one another from south to north as follows: European ash, English oak, Norway maple, European white elm, wych elm and small-leaved lime. All the species are grown in parks fairly generally up to the district of Kuopio-Vaasa (63 °). The northern limits where the species can be grown as park trees reach considerably further north in the western part of the country than in the east.

The article includes a summary in English.

  • Ollinmaa, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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