Current issue: 55(4)

Under compilation: 55(5)

Scopus CiteScore 2019: 3.1
Scopus ranking of open access forestry journals: 6th
PlanS compliant
Silva Fennica 1926-1997
1990-1997
1980-1989
1970-1979
1960-1969
Acta Forestalia Fennica
1953-1968
1933-1952
1913-1932

Articles containing the keyword 'beech'.

Category: Research article

article id 1663, category Research article
Marta Kempf, Monika Konnert. (2016). Distribution of genetic diversity in Fagus sylvatica at the north-eastern edge of the natural range. Silva Fennica vol. 50 no. 4 article id 1663. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1663
Highlights: European beech at the north-eastern edge of its natural range in Poland have a high level of genetic variation, similar to the populations from Central Europe; The differences between the beech provenances from the two centres in Poland, which were previously identified on the basis of pollen analyses and phenotypic traits, have now been genetically confirmed.

An understanding of the genetic variation of the beech, especially at the edge of its natural distribution, is essential because of the change in natural distribution of the species resulting from changing climatic conditions. The main aim of the study was to determine the level of genetic diversity of European beech at the north-eastern edge of its natural range. The other aim was to check the genetic variation of beech from the two centres, the north and the south of Poland, which were identified in previous findings based on pollen analyses and phenotypic traits. The research material was the progeny of twelve beech provenances. The genetic structure of the populations was determined by ten highly variable microsatellite DNA loci. The results confirmed the high genetic diversity of beech at the north-eastern edge of its natural distribution, which infers the probability of their good adaptation to the changing climate and an extension of the range. Genetic analyses confirmed the existence of two genetic centres for beech in Poland. The populations from south-eastern Poland had a slightly higher diversity than the populations from the north-western area, which may indicate that the colonisation of Poland occurred by two routes. The results are important for creating the borders of the provenance regions and for limiting the transfer of seeds and seedlings. The choice of forest reproductive material, based on the knowledge of genetic diversity, is very important for the stability of future forests.

  • Kempf, Department of Genetics and Forest Tree Breeding, Faculty of Forestry, University of Agriculture in Krakow, Al. 29-listopada 46, 31–425 Krakow ORCID ID:E-mail: m.kempf@ur.krakow.pl (email)
  • Konnert, Bavarian Office for Forest Seeding and Planting, Forstamtsplatz 1, 83317 Teisendorf, Germany ORCID ID:E-mail: monika.konnert@asp.bayern.de
article id 76, category Research article
Alessandra Bottero, Matteo Garbarino, Vojislav Dukic, Zoran Govedar, Emanuele Lingua, Thomas A. Nagel, Renzo Motta. (2011). Gap-phase dynamics in the old-growth forest of Lom, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Silva Fennica vol. 45 no. 5 article id 76. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.76
We investigated forest canopy gaps in the mixed beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), silver fir (Abies alba Miller), and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) old-growth forest of Lom in the Dinaric Mountains of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Gap size, age, gap fraction, gapmaker characteristics and the structure and composition of gapfillers were documented to investigate gap dynamics. The percentages of forest area in canopy and expanded gaps were 19% and 41%, respectively. The median canopy gap size was 77 m2, and ranged from 11 to 708 m2. Although there were many single tree-fall gaps, the majority had multiple gapmakers that were often in different stages of decay, suggesting gap expansion is important at the study site. Of the gapmakers recorded, 14% were uprooted stems, 60% snapped stems, and 26% were standing dead trees. Dendroecological analysis suggests that gap formation varied in time. The density of gapfillers was not correlated to gap size, and the species composition of gapfillers varied between seedling, sapling, and tree life stages. The results suggest that gaps are mainly formed by endogenous senescence of single canopy trees. Exogenous disturbance agents, most likely related to wind and snow, act mainly as secondary agents in breaking weakened trees and in expanding previously established gaps. Although the findings are partially consistent with other studies of gap disturbance processes in similar old-growth forests in central Europe, the observed gap dynamic places the Lom core area at the end of a gradient that ranges from forests controlled by very small-scale processes to those where large, stand replacing disturbances predominate.
  • Bottero, University of Turin, Department Agroselviter, Via Leonardo da Vinci 44, 10095 Grugliasco (TO), Italy ORCID ID:E-mail: alessandra.bottero@unito.it (email)
  • Garbarino, University of Turin, Department Agroselviter, Via Leonardo da Vinci 44, 10095 Grugliasco (TO), Italy ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Dukic, University of Banja Luka, Faculty of Forestry, Banja Luka, Bosnia and Herzegovina ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Govedar, University of Banja Luka, Faculty of Forestry, Banja Luka, Bosnia and Herzegovina ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Lingua, University of Padua, Department of TeSAF, Legnaro (PD), Italy ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Nagel, University of Ljubljana, Department of Forestry and Renewable Forest Resources, Ljubljana, Slovenia ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Motta, University of Turin, Department Agroselviter, Via Leonardo da Vinci 44, 10095 Grugliasco (TO), Italy ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 204, category Research article
Gaby Deckmyn, Bostjan Mali, Hojka Kraigher, Niko Torelli, Maarten Op de Beeck, Reinhart Ceulemans. (2009). Using the process-based stand model ANAFORE including Bayesian optimisation to predict wood quality and quantity and their uncertainty in Slovenian beech. Silva Fennica vol. 43 no. 3 article id 204. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.204
The purpose of this study was to expand an existing semi-mechanistic forest model, ANAFORE (ANAlysing Forest Ecosystems), to allow for the prediction of log quality and the accompanying uncertainty as influenced by climate and management. The forest stand is described as consisting of trees of different cohorts, either of the same or of different species (deciduous or coniferous). In addition to photosynthesis, transpiration, total growth and yield, the model simulates the daily evolution in vessel biomass and radius, parenchyma and branch development. From these data early and latewood biomass, wood tissue composition, knot formation and density are calculated. The new version presented here, includes the description of log quality, including red heart formation of beeches. A Bayesian optimisation routine for the species parameters was added to the stand model. From a given range of input parameters (prior), the model calculates an optimised range for the parameters (posterior) based on given output data, as well as an uncertainty on the predicted values. A case study was performed for Slovenian beech forests to illustrate the main model functioning and more in particular the simulation of the wood quality. The results indicate that the ANAFORE model is a useful tool for analyzing wood quality development and forest ecosystem functioning in response to management, climate and stand characteristics. However, the Bayesian optimization showed that the remaining uncertainty on the input parameters for the chosen stand was very large, due to the large number of input parameters in comparison to the limited stand data.
  • Deckmyn, Research Group Plant and Vegetation Ecology, University of Antwerpen, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Antwerpen, Belgium ORCID ID:E-mail: gaby.deckmyn@ua.ac.be (email)
  • Mali, Slovenian Forestry Institute, Vecna pot 2, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kraigher, Slovenian Forestry Institute, Vecna pot 2, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Torelli, Slovenian Forestry Institute, Vecna pot 2, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Op de Beeck, Research Group Plant and Vegetation Ecology, University of Antwerpen, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Antwerpen, Belgium ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Ceulemans, Research Group Plant and Vegetation Ecology, University of Antwerpen, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Antwerpen, Belgium ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 488, category Research article
Gürsel Colakoglu, Semra Colak, Ismail Aydin, Umit C. Yildiz, Sibel Yildiz. (2003). Effect of boric acid treatment on mechanical properties of laminated beech veneer lumber. Silva Fennica vol. 37 no. 4 article id 488. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.488
Laminated veneer lumber (LVL) made from beech wood veneers treated with boric acid by using dipping method was tested for some mechanical properties following different standards. The values for treated LVL varied around the mean values of untreated LVL panels for static bending strength in the grain direction and modulus of elasticity; decreased for compression and splitting strengths, perpendicular to the grain; increased for compression strength parallel to the grain, and for Brinell hardness and pull-out strength of screw, perpendicular to surface.
  • Colakoglu, Karadeniz Technical University, Faculty of Forestry, Forest Industry Engineering Section, 61080 Trabzon, Turkey ORCID ID:E-mail: gursel@ktu.edu.tr (email)
  • Colak, Karadeniz Technical University, Faculty of Forestry, Forest Industry Engineering Section, 61080 Trabzon, Turkey ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Aydin, Karadeniz Technical University, Faculty of Forestry, Forest Industry Engineering Section, 61080 Trabzon, Turkey ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Yildiz, Karadeniz Technical University, Faculty of Forestry, Forest Industry Engineering Section, 61080 Trabzon, Turkey ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Yildiz, Karadeniz Technical University, Faculty of Forestry, Forest Industry Engineering Section, 61080 Trabzon, Turkey ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 525, category Research article
Thomas Knoke. (2002). Value of complete information on red heartwood formation in beech (Fagus sylvatica). Silva Fennica vol. 36 no. 4 article id 525. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.525
Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) is the most important deciduous tree species in Germany. The wood of beech shows normally a bright colour (white beech) as long as no coloured heartwood has been formed. The facultative heartwood formation is induced when oxygen enters central parts of older trees, where dead or at least less vital parenchyma exist. The coloured heartwood is usually called ‘red heartwood’. Beech without red heartwood can preferably be found in younger trees which show a high water content even in central parts of the stem. The presence of red heartwood is regarded as a severe reduction of timber quality. Numerous studies have investigated opportunities to derive information on the presence and characteristics of red heartwood of standing beech trees. But until now it has not been tested whether such information could be helpful to improve the economics of beech-silviculture. This paper investigates whether complete information on the heartwood of standing beech could be useful to control the proportion of discoloured timber harvested during one rotation. It is also examined, which kind of information on the heartwood could be used to improve the economic results. To verify this, simulations based on simple algorithms were conducted. The general assumption was made that all information on the heartwood would be available. The results show that information which is restricted on the mere existence of red heartwood is neither suited to significantly reduce the amount of coloured timber nor is it possible to improve economic results based on this information. Only based on information on the recent formation of red heartwood of beech, which is actually still white the amount of discoloured timber can be reduced significantly. Consequently the discounted cash flows can only be substantially improved based on information on an expected formation of recent red heartwood.
  • Knoke, Institute of Silviculture and Forest Management, Technische Universität München, Am Hochanger 13, D-85354 Freising, Germany ORCID ID:E-mail: knoke@wbfe.forst.tu-muenchen.de (email)
article id 594, category Research article
Walter Zucchini, Matthias Schmidt, Klaus von Gadow. (2001). A model for the diameter-height distribution in an uneven-aged beech forest and a method to assess the fit of such models. Silva Fennica vol. 35 no. 2 article id 594. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.594
This paper illustrates the application of a mixture model to describe the bivariate diameter-height distribution of trees growing in a pure, uneven-aged beech forest. A mixture of two bivariate normal distributions is considered but the methodology is applicable to mixtures of other distributions. The model was fitted to diameter-height observations for 1242 beech trees in the protected forest Dreyberg (Solling, Germany). A considerable advantage of the model, apart from the fact that it happens to fit this large data set unusually well, is that the individual parameters all have familiar interpretations. The bivariate Johnson SBB distribution was also fitted to the data for the purpose of comparing the fits. A second issue discussed in this paper is concerned with the general question of assessing the fit of models for bivariate data. We show how a device called ‘pseudo-residual’ enables one to investigate the fit of a bivariate model in new ways and in considerable detail. Attractive features of pseudo-residuals include the fact that they are not difficult to interpret; they can be computed using generally available statistical software and, most important of all, they enable one to examine the fit of a model by means of simple graphs.
  • Zucchini, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Institute for Statistics and Econometrics ORCID ID:E-mail: zucchini@wi-wiss.uni-goettingen.de (email)
  • Schmidt, Forest Research Station of Lower Saxony ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Gadow, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Institute for Forest Management and Yield Sciences ORCID ID:E-mail:

Category: Research note

article id 1656, category Research note
Līga Puriņa, Roberts Matisons, Āris Jansons, Silva Šēnhofa. (2016). Survival of European beech in the central part of Latvia 33 years since the plantation. Silva Fennica vol. 50 no. 4 article id 1656. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1656
Highlights: Beech saplings growing in the central part of Latvia had ca. 80% survival during the recent three decades; The dimensions of saplings varied greatly likely due to canopy conditions; Some beech self-regeneration was observed; Mainly saplings had narrow crowns; The distribution of sapling dimensions had the reverse-J shape, suggesting successful development of beech.

The projections of vegetation zones suggest increasing growth potential of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) in Northern Europe. Such changes usually are most apparent in the marginal populations. In this study, survival of young beech growing in an experimental plantation under canopy of a mixed coniferous stand in the central part of Latvia was assessed after 33 years since the establishment. The planting material originated from an older experimental stand in the western part of Latvia. Although, at present, the studied plantation could be considered as the northeasternmost beech stand in Europe, a good survival was observed – ca. 80% of the seedlings have survived, despite several cold spells of ca. –30 °C that occurred during the recent three decades. Additionally, some self-regeneration i.e. branch sprouting was observed. The saplings were rather low, as their mean height was ca. 4 m. Still, some individuals, which were growing under canopy openings, reached considerable dimensions; their height and stem diameter exceeded 10 m and 9 cm, respectively. The distribution of sapling dimensions had the reverse-J shape that is typical for shade tolerant species, indicating normal development of the beech regrowth. The crowns of saplings were narrow and the stems were spindly, suggesting that trees with a good stem quality might be bred. Hence, our results suggest that environmental conditions in the central part of Latvia have been satisfactory for beech, thus encouraging establishment of more extensive trials within the region.

  • Puriņa, LSFRI “Silava”, Rigas str. 111, Salaspils, Latvia, LV2169 ORCID ID:E-mail: liga.purina@silava.lv
  • Matisons, LSFRI “Silava”, Rigas str. 111, Salaspils, Latvia, LV2169 ORCID ID:E-mail: robism@inbox.lv (email)
  • Jansons, LSFRI “Silava”, Rigas str. 111, Salaspils, Latvia, LV2169 ORCID ID:E-mail: aris.jansons@silava.lv
  • Šēnhofa, LSFRI “Silava”, Rigas str. 111, Salaspils, Latvia, LV2169 ORCID ID:E-mail: silva.senhofa@silava.lv

Category: Article

article id 7224, category Article
C. H. Bornebusch. (1929). Danmarks skovtyper. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 11 article id 7224. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7224
English title: Forest types in Denmark.

The paper describes plant species characteristic for ash (Fraxinus exelsior L.) forests in Denmark, and compares the vegetation to beech (Fagus ssp.) forests, the dominating tree species in Danish forests, which have notably simpler ground vegetation. The writer concludes that ground vegetation can be divided into distinct types. Beech grows in several types of soil differing in their fertility (bonitet). The writer has divided the different soil types by their flora (tilstandstyper). The flora is influenced by three factors: climate, fertility of the soil and soil moisture. The paper defines the types of vegetation which describe fertility of the sites (bonitet), and discusses how age, silvicultural condition and tree species affect the vegetation.

  • Bornebusch, ORCID ID:E-mail:

Register
Click this link to register for Silva Fennica submission and tracking system.
Log in
If you are a registered user, log in to save your selected articles for later access.
Contents alert
Sign up to receive alerts of new content
Your selected articles

Committee on Publication Ethics A Trusted Community-Governed Archive