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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
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Articles containing the keyword 'behaviour'.

Category: Research article

article id 582, category Research article
Kari Kangas, Pasi Markkanen. (2001). Factors affecting participation in wild berry picking by rural and urban dwellers. Silva Fennica vol. 35 no. 4 article id 582. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.582
The purpose of this study was to examine the participation of urban and rural dwellers in the activity of berry-picking. The respondents in the study lived in the city of Joensuu and in the municipality of Ilomantsi, in eastern Finland. 68% of Joensuu households compared with 82% of those in Ilomantsi participated in berry-picking. These evident differences in the participation rates may be largely due to the higher costs incurred by urban dwellers in picking, since the probability of participation was not significantly higher for Ilomantsi households compared with those in Joensuu who had access to a summer-cottage which was likely to be located near the berry resources. In both municipalities, the participants were divided into two groups according to the nature of their participation in the activity. The larger group – termed ordinary pickers – were characteristically younger families with children, while the other group, termed active pickers, were distinctly more advanced in age. The quantities picked for home consumption by the groups of pickers in Ilomantsi were twice as large as those picked by the corresponding groups in Joensuu. In Joensuu, households were not significantly involved in commercial picking.
  • Kangas, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forestry, P.O. Box 111, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: kari.kangas@joensuu.fi (email)
  • Markkanen, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forestry, P.O. Box 111, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 621, category Research article
Jyrki Kangas, Pekka Leskinen, Timo Pukkala. (2000). Integrating timber price scenario modeling with tactical management planning of private forestry at forest holding level. Silva Fennica vol. 34 no. 4 article id 621. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.621
In forest management planning, deterministic timber prices are typically assumed. However, real-life timber prices vary in the course of time, and also price peaks, i.e. exceptionally high timber prices, might occur. If land-owners can utilise the price variation by selling timber with the high prices, they are able to increase their net revenues correspondingly. In this study, an approach is presented to study the timber price variation and its significance in the optimization of forest management. The approach utilizes stochastic timber price scenario modelling, simulation of forest development, and optimization of forest management. The approach is presented and illustrated by means of a case study. It is shown how the degree of uncertainty due to variation in timber prices can be analyzed in tactical forest planning of private forestry, and how the potential benefits of adaptive timber-selling behaviour for a forest landowner can be computed by using the approach. The effects of stochastic timber prices on the choice of forest plan are studied at the forest holding level considering also the spacing and type of cuttings and the optimal cutting order. A forest plan prepared under the assumption of constant timber price very seldom results in optimal forest management. Through studying the effects of stochastic timber prices, forest landowners and other decision makers obtain valuable information about the significance of adaptive timber selling behaviour. The presented methodology can also be used in analysing the land-owners’ economic risks as a function of time-price structure.
  • Kangas, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Kannus Research Station, P.O. Box 44, FIN-69101 Kannus, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: jyrki.kangas@metla.fi (email)
  • Leskinen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Kannus Research Station, P.O. Box 44, FIN-69101 Kannus, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pukkala, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forestry, P.O. Box 111, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:

Category: Article

article id 5506, category Article
Risto Heikkilä, Sauli Härkönen. (1993). Moose (Alces alces L.) browsing in young Scots pine stands in relation to the characteristics of their winter habitats. Silva Fennica vol. 27 no. 2 article id 5506. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15667

Moose (Alces alces L.) browsing was studied in young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands mixed with deciduous trees in high-density winter ranges. The proportional use of twig biomass decreased as the availability increased. The total as well as proportional biomass consumption were higher on the moist than on the dry type of forest. The per tree consumption of pine was higher on the moist type, where the availability of pine was lower. Deciduous trees were more consumed on the moist type, where their availability was relatively high. The consumption of pine saplings increased as the availability of birch increased. Pine stem breakages were most numerous when birch occurred as overgrowth above pine and at high birch densities. The availability of other deciduous tree species did not correlate with browsing intensity of Scots pine. Moose browsing had seriously inhibited the development of Scots pines in 6% of the stands, over 60% of available biomass having been removed. Rowan and aspen were commonly over-browsed and their height growth was inhibited, which occurred rarely by birch. There was no difference in the proportion of young stands in forest areas with high and low moose density. A high proportion of peatland forests was found to indicate relatively good feeding habitats in the high-density areas.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Heikkilä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Härkönen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5434, category Article
Risto Heikkilä. (1990). Effect of plantation characteristics on moose browsing on Scots pine. Silva Fennica vol. 24 no. 4 article id 5434. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15588

The effects of plantation characteristics on moose (Alces alces) browsing intensity was studied in 82 Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) plantations in Southern Finland. Moose browsing occurred most commonly in plantations established on relatively fertile soil, and the degree of damage was at highest in plantations with openings. A high amount of brush, especially aspen, increased the risk of damage. Furthermore, damage was intensified in plantations situated on hills, slopes or at a long distance from main roads or settlements.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Heikkilä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5372, category Article
Jussi Kuusipalo, Mari-Anna Berg, Marja Mikkola, Helena Niemensivu. (1989). A cross-sectional population survey on the consumption pattern of berries and berry products in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 23 no. 1 article id 5372. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15531

The study is based on a questionnaire sent to 5,000 randomly sampled persons representing the adult population in Finland. The results give a picture of the amounts of berries preserved for home use and the consumption patterns of berries and berry products in the population and its various subgroups. Non-commercial berry consumption accounts for a considerable part of the total use of fruits and berries. However, use of berries and berry products decreases with the degree of urbanization and from older age classes to young. The results support the view that imported fruits and commercial juices are substitute products to domestic berries. It would appear that the consumer’s choice between fruits and berries is primarily regulated by the availability of berries.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Kuusipalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Berg, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Mikkola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Niemensivu, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5295, category Article
J. E. de Steiguer, J. P. Royer. (1986). Increasing forestry investments by means of public policy programs. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 4 article id 5295. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a27751

In 1979, the Federal Research in the United States instituted a so-called ”tight money” policy which led to a decrease in the demand for stumpage. The decrease in demand brought about lower stumpage prices and, consequently, a waning interest in policies to stimulate NIPF production. The authors report on five recent studies on NIPF behaviour and raise concerns that increases in demand for housing may bring new pressure upon NIPF as a source of wood.

  • Steiguer, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Royer, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5165, category Article
Päiviö Riihinen. (1982). Roundwood market: A source of stagnation of the forest industries. Silva Fennica vol. 16 no. 4 article id 5165. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15080

Certain trends in the sales behaviour of private non-industrial forest owners suggest that the forest industries have to rely on a raw material supply much less than the allowable cut. This paper deals with several factors responsible for the change in sales behaviour during the last 20–25 years. These changes are caused by social change, a multi-face process which is led by industrialization. It is manifested in the increasing division of labour, more pronounced strive for efficiency, change in social values for the benefit of the adoption of innovations and thus of further changes.

It has become more common than previously to borrow money instead of selling timber. An incentive for doing so is provided by the increased progression of income tax scales which makes it more profitable than earlier to substitute a loan for timber sales with a view to reduce the amount of taxes. In 1977, the real value of the farmers’ debts was 1.7 times as large as in 1970. Inflation provides a further incentive to borrow money rather than to sell timber, because it tends to reduce debts, whereas a growing stock keeps increasing without affecting the property taxation, maintaining its real unit value.

Certain forestry policy measures conductive to increasing the forest owner’s willingness to sell timber are suggested. Among the most promising seems to be an adjustment of the present area-based yield taxation so as to take into account the age class distribution of the growing stock.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Riihinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5099, category Article
Veli-Pekka Järveläinen. (1981). Aspects of research strategy in studying forest owners’ behaviour. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 1 article id 5099. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15040

Research concerning the forest owners’ behaviour plays an important role in the evaluation of the effectiveness of forest policy on small woodlots. This is because the effects of forest policy measures on forestry are indirect and channelled through the behaviour of a forest owner. In this paper some basic concepts and methodological problems of forest owner studies are discussed. First, the concepts ’forest owner’ and ’forestry behaviour’ are defined on the basis of general sociological term, social role. Second, the problem of explanation and the selection of the explanatory model in forest owner studies is discussed. In this connection the heuristic nature of the selection of the explanatory model is underlined. It is pointed out that the proper explanatory mode in forest owner studies is decisively dependent on the objectives of the study or on the kind of information that will be obtained by the study. In such studies that intend to serve the planning and implementation of forest policy, it seems necessary to aim at causal explanations, and to analyse the general determinants and factors that can be manipulated in forest owners’ behaviour.

  • Järveläinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5094, category Article
Veli-Pekka Järveläinen. (1980). Kuka on maanviljelijä? Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 4 article id 5094. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15035
English title: Who is a farmer?

This paper comments on the article written by Simo Hannelius that is published in the same issue of Silva Fennica (Who is the non-farmer forest owner? Silva Fennica 14 no. 4). Hannelius suggests that researchers dealing with the behaviour of private forest owners should change their classification to agree with the concepts presented in the Farm Economy statistics, and that the recommended concept of farmer forest owner is understood as a forest owner who has taxable net incomes (state taxation) from farming. Other private forest owners would be classified as non-farmers. Veli-Pekka Järveläinen states in his opinion that when distinguishing a farmer and a non-farmer, the key criterion should be the profession, which has been proved to be an important parameter in behavioural research.

  • Järveläinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5075, category Article
Simo Hannelius. (1980). Kuka on metsätilanomistaja? Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 2 article id 5075. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15016
English title: Who is the non-farmer forest owner? The semantic influence of the non-farmer forest owner-concept to research results and published statistics.

Research into the forestry behaviour of private forest owners in Finland began 10 years ago. The private forest owners have been dichotomously classified into two groups, farmers and non-farmers. The farmer forest owner was considered to derive his main income (earnings) from agriculture. This classification is compared to the concepts in statistical publication Farm Economy 1976 (Maatilatalous). On the basis of this examination, it is recommended that researchers dealing with the behaviour of private forest owners should change their classification to agree with the concepts presented in the Farm Economy statistics. The recommended concept of farmer forest owner is understood as a forest owner who has taxable net incomes (state taxation) from farming. Other private forest owners are classified as non-farmers.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Hannelius, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4778, category Article
Kari Löyttyniemi. (1968). Teeri (Lyrurus tetrix L.) männyn taimien tuholaisena taimitarhassa. Silva Fennica vol. 2 no. 4 article id 4778. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14563
English title: Feeding of terminal shoots of Scots pine seedlings by the black grouse (Lyrurus tetrix) in nursery.
Original keywords: taimitarha; taimituhot; mänty; versot; teeri

In early spring 1968 it was noticed that the black grouses (Lyrurus tetris L.) was eating terminal shoots of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings in a tree nursery in Luumäki, Southern Finland. The terminal shoots were picked 1–4 cm from the top of the seedlings. In total some thousands of two-year-old seedlings were damaged. The depth of the snow was 10–15 cm deep and only the tops of the seedlings could be seen above the surface of the snow.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Löyttyniemi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4775, category Article
Erkki Pulliainen, Kalevi Loisa, Tauno Pohjalainen. (1968). Hirven talvisesta ravinnosta Itä-Lapissa. Silva Fennica vol. 2 no. 4 article id 4775. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14560
English title: Winter food of the moose (Alces alces) in eastern Lapland.

The winter food of moose (Alces alces L.) was examined in 1967-68 in the Saariselkä fell area in the communes of Inari and Sodankylä, in the northern parts of the communes of Salla and Savukoski, and in the central part of the commune of Salla in eastern Lapland in Finland.

In northern parts of Salla and Savukoski 25 moose were followed during 3.-13.4.1968. This area is typical wintering terrain of moose in north-east Lapland. According to the estimate, 45% food taken by the moose was Scots pine shoots and needles, 28% birch, 17% juniper sprigs and needles, 9% willow, and 1.5% bear moss. According to observations of the researchers in 26.1.-16.5.1968, moose seemed to avoid birch, even if it was available in the area, and eat Scots pine shoots and needles and juniper.

Moose seemed to prefer willow in as a winter feed in the southern part of the area studied, where it accounts according to the present and earlier studies 50-90% of the winter food. In the northern wintering areas of moose, where willow is not as common, willow seemed to account for less than 10% of the winter food. There Scots pine is the most important winter food for moose.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Pulliainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Loisa, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pohjalainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7514, category Article
Pekka Ripatti. (1996). Factors affecting partitioning of private forest holdings in Finland. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 252 article id 7514. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7514

Questions of the small size of non-industrial private forest (NIPF) holdings in Finland are considered and factors affecting their partitioning are analysed. This work arises out of Finnish forest policy statements in which the small average size of holdings has been seen to have negative influence on the economics of forestry. A literature survey indicates that the size of holdings is an important factor determining the costs of logging and silvicultural operations, while its influence on the timber supply is slight.

The empirical data are based on a sample of 314 holdings collected by interviewing forest owners in 1980–86. In 1990–91 the same holdings were resurveyed by means of a postal inquiry and partly by interviewing the forest owners. The principal objective was to collect data to assist in quantifying ownership factors that influence partitioning among different kinds of NIPF holdings. Thus, the mechanism of partitioning was described and a maximum likelihood logistic regression model was constructed using seven independent holding and ownership variables.

One out of four holdings had undergone partitioning in conjunction with a change in ownership, one fifth among family owned holdings and nearly a half among jointly owned holdings. The results of the logistic regression model indicate, for instance, that the odds on partitioning is about three times greater for jointly owned holdings than for family owned ones. Also, the probabilities of partitioning were estimated and the impact of independent dichotomous variables on the probability of partitioning ranged between 0.02 and 0.01. The low value of Hosmer-Lemeshow test statistics indicates a good fit of the model, and the rate of correct classification was estimated to be 88% with a cut-off point of 0.5.

The average size of holdings undergoing ownership changes decreased from 29.9 ha to 28.7 ha over the approximate interval 1983–90. In addition, the transition probability matrix showed that the trends towards smaller size categories mostly concerned the small size categories. The results can be used in considering the effects of the small size holdings for forestry and if the purpose is to influence partitioning through forest or rural policy.

  • Ripatti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7677, category Article
Risto Heikkilä, Timo Mikkonen. (1992). Effects of density of young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stand on moose (Alces alces) browsing. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 231 article id 7677. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7677

The study was carried out at Padasjoki, Southern Finland, where moose (Alces alces L.) density on the winter range had been over 1.5 individuals/km2. Moose browsing intensity, expressed in terms of number of twigs eaten and biomass used, increased with stand density (biomass). Total biomass consumption (dry weight) per sample plot and per sapling. The number of bites increased, but the percentage biomass removed did not differ when stand density increased. A relatively large bite size was observed on the plots of low stand density. The quantity of food, which on average was of relatively low quality, was obviously important due to the benefit gained through reducing the search time.

The nutritive value of the browse, expressed in terms of chemical compounds indicating low food digestibility, was lower in the dense than in the sparse Scots pine stand. However, the amount of crude protein and arginine were relatively high in the dense stand. We concluded that shading affected the nutritional status of saplings on high density plots.

Although the biomass removed by moose per sapling was high for low density plots, the remaining biomass was larger than that on the high-density plots owing to the relatively large twig biomass of saplings. The number of saplings per hectare without main stem breakage increased significantly as stand density increased.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Heikkilä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Mikkonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7674, category Article
J. Ashley Selby, Leena Petäjistö. (1992). Small sawmills as enterprises: a behavioural investigation of development potential. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 228 article id 7674. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7674

The investigation examines the development potential of small sawmills in rural Finland. Development is defined with qualitative bias, given small sawmills’ limited possibilities for large-scale investments. Potential is defined in terms of the behavioural limitations to development. The investigation assumes that small sawmill entrepreneurial behaviour is essentially satisficing, and that the concept of bounded rationality is applicable. The empirical material concerns a random sample of 399 sawmills from all regions in Finland collected in connection with the 1990 small sawmill inventory.

Three sets of enterprise/entrepreneurial attributes are constructed using principal component analyses: i) entrepreneurial skills & organization, ii) small sawmill outlets, and iii) information attributes. Development potential is measured by employing discriminant analyses to test these attributes against four a priori sawmill classifications: i) sawmill production structure, ii) entrepreneurial development intentions, ii) sawmill operating environments, and iv) sawmilling as a livelihood. Each of these analyses contributes to an understanding of the entrepreneur-enterprise dialectic.

Based on the use of Pred’s behavioural matrix, small sawmill entrepreneurs’ quantity & quality of information and their ability to use information are examined with respect to sawmill typologies. In this way, the entrepreneur-enterprise dialectic is given a third dimension, that of the entrepreneurs’ partial space. The analysis is therefore able to examine development potential from the standpoint of an entrepreneur-enterprise-environment (partial space) trialectic.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Selby, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Petäjistö, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7670, category Article
Risto Heikkilä. (1991). Moose browsing in a Scots pine plantation mixed with deciduous tree species. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 224 article id 7670. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7670

The utilization of available food resources by the moose (Alces alces L.) was studied in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) plantation containing an admixture of deciduous species. Rowan (Sorbus aucuparia L.) and aspen (Populus tremula L.) were highly utilized compared to pine and both silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) and downy birch (B. pubescens Ehrh.). However, they were not capable of withstanding continuous browsing by moose owing to their diminished biomass. In total, the browsing intensity (number of browsed twigs/tree) on pine and birch was about double of that on rowan and aspen.

The number of browsed twigs per tree increased as the amount of available main branches increased. The number of bites per available branch, as well as the maximum diameter of the bites, decreased as the density of the plantation increased. Silver birch was more used by moose than pubescent birch as well as planted silver birch compared with naturally regenerated trees.

Main stem breakage was especially common in winter 1988, the average height of the pine and birch trees being over two meters. The tops of broken stems were commonly utilized as food. The increase in moose density and the relatively deep snow cover evidently promoted the incidence of serious damage. The number of undamaged trees/ha was greater in dense than in sparse parts of the stand.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Heikkilä, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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