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Articles containing the keyword 'berry yield'.

Category: Research article

article id 1005, category Research article
Marjut Turtiainen, Jari Miina, Kauko Salo, Juha-Pekka Hotanen. (2013). Empirical prediction models for the coverage and yields of cowberry in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 47 no. 3 article id 1005. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1005
Highlights: The site fertility significantly affected the abundance of cowberry on mineral soils, spruce mires and pine mires; The stand basal area and dominant tree species were among the most important forest structural predictors in the model for the coverage; In the cowberry yield model developed for mineral soil sites, the stand basal area and coverage of cowberry plants were statistically significant predictors.
Empirical models for the coverage and berry yield of cowberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) were developed using generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs). The percentage coverage of cowberry was predicted as a function of site and stand characteristics using data from the Finnish National Forest Inventory (NFI) in 1995. The average annual yield, including the between-year variation in the yield, was predicted as a function of percentage coverage and stand characteristics using permanent experimental plots (MASI) established in different areas of Finland and measured in 2001-2012. The model for cowberry yields (Model 2) was developed for mineral soil forests. The model for the coverage (Model 1) was constructed so that it considers both mineral soil sites and also many other sites where cowberry occurs in the field layer. According to Model 1, the site fertility significantly affected the abundance of cowberry on mineral soils, spruce mires and pine mires. The stand basal area and dominant tree species were among the most important forest structural predictors in Model 1. The site fertility was not a significant predictor in the cowberry yield model. Instead, the stand basal area and coverage of cowberry plants were found to be statistically significant predictors in Model 2. The estimated models were used to predict the cowberry coverage, average annual yield and its 95 % confidence interval along with stand development. The models of this study can be used for multi-objective forest planning purposes.
  • Turtiainen, University of Eastern Finland, School of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: marjut.turtiainen@uef.fi (email)
  • Miina, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Unit, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: jari.miina@metla.fi
  • Salo, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Unit, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: kauko.salo@metla.fi
  • Hotanen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Unit, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: juha-pekka.hotanen@metla.fi
article id 972, category Research article
Outi H. Manninen, Rainer Peltola. (2013). Effects of picking methods on the berry production of bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus), lingonberry (V. vitis-idaea) and crowberry (Empetrum nigrum ssp. hermaphroditum) in Northern Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 47 no. 3 article id 972. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.972
Highlights: Berry production of bilberry, lingonberry and crowberry was studied after picking the berries by plastic hand rake, long-handed metal rake, and powerful picking by long-handed metal rake; Berry production was not affected by the damage caused by any of the picking method; Current commercial picking methods do not endanger the berry production of the berry species at least in short-term.
The effect of commercial wild berry picking on berry yields is under a strong public debate in Finland. Especially high concern has been arisen over damages caused by metal rakes used in commercial picking to subsequent berry production. We studied the berry production of bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.), lingonberry (V. vitis-idaea L.) and crowberry (E. nigrum ssp. hermaphroditum (Hagerup) Böcher) after picking the berries by 1) plastic hand rake, 2) long-handed metal rake and 3) powerful picking by long-handed metal rake, in northern Finland during 2010–2012. In the powerful long-handed metal rake treatment the aboveground vegetation was raked twice to the moss layer after berry picking. Biomass, which was removed from the vegetation by rakes was collected and used as a measure of the damage. We assumed that picking by plastic hand rake would result in lowest, long-handed metal rake intermediate and powerful picking by long-handed metal rake highest biomass loss from vegetation. The amount of biomass loss should in turn be reversely reflected into berry production. However, only the powerful picking by long-handed metal rake removed higher amount of biomass than other picking methods in bilberry and lingonberry. In crowberry, the amount of biomass removed by rakes increased from treatment to treatment. Contrary to our assumption, berry production of bilberry, lingonberry and crowberry was not affected by the damage caused by any of the picking method. We conclude that long-handed metal rake used in commercial picking is comparable to hand rake in terms of berry production.
  • Manninen, Agrifood Research Finland MTT, Eteläranta 55, FI-96300 Rovaniemi, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: outi.h.manninen@mtt.fi (email)
  • Peltola, Agrifood Research Finland MTT, Eteläranta 55, FI-96300 Rovaniemi, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: rainer.peltola@mtt.fi
article id 115, category Research article
Marjut Turtiainen, Kauko Salo, Olli Saastamoinen. (2011). Variations of yield and utilisation of bilberries (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) and cowberries (V. vitis-idaea L.) in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 45 no. 2 article id 115. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.115
So far, only rough estimates for the utilisation rates of wild berries in Finland have been available. One reason for this is that there has been a lack of empirical-knowledge-based studies concerning total yields of wild berries and their yield variations. This study had three aims: 1) total bilberry and cowberry yields of an average crop year were calibrated for different (abundant and poor) crop years using the inventory data on wild berries collected by the Finnish Forest Research Institute (1997–2008); 2) national utilisation rates of bilberries and cowberries were calculated for three different berry years 1997–1999; and 3) regional utilisation rates of these berry species were calculated for the year 1997. According to calculations, annual bilberry yields in Finland vary from 92 to 312 million kg. For cowberry, the range of variation in total berry yields is from 129 to 386 million kg. It was also found that approximately the same proportion of the total yield of bilberries (i.e. 5–6%) was collected between 1997 and 1999. Utilisation rates of cowberries were also quite constant varying from approximately 8% to nearly 10%. In 1997, bilberries and cowberries were utilised most intensively in the eastern parts of the country and in the Oulu-Kainuu region. The results of this present study describe the situation before the phenomenon of foreign pickers. It can be presumed that commercial wild berry picking by migrant collectors has so far affected both national and regional utilisation rates of wild berries.
  • Turtiainen, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: marjut.turtiainen@uef.fi (email)
  • Salo, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Research Unit, Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Saastamoinen, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 513, category Research article
Marjut Ihalainen, Kauko Salo, Timo Pukkala. (2003). Empirical prediction models for Vaccinium myrtillus and V. vitis-idaea berry yields in North Karelia, Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 37 no. 1 article id 513. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.513
Forest berries and the outdoor experiences related to berry collection are important goods and services provided by Finnish forests. Consequently, there is a need for models which facilitate the prediction of the impacts of alternative forest management options on berry yields. Very few such models are available. In particular, empirical models are lacking. Models used in forest management should express the effect of variables altered in forest management such as stand density and mean tree size. This study developed empirical models for bilberry and cowberry yields in North Karelia. The data consisted of 362 measurements of 40 m2 sample plots. The plots were located in clusters. The same plot was measured over 1 to 4 years. Besides berry yield some site and growing stock characteristics of each plot were measured. A random parameter model was used to express the berry yield as a function of site fertility, growing stock characteristics, and random parameters. The random part of the models accounted for the effect of plot, measurement year, and cluster. The fixed predictors of the model for bilberry were stand age and forest site type. Stand basal area, mean tree diameter and forest site type were used to predict cowberry yields. The most significant random parameter was the plot factor. The fixed model part explained only a few per cent of the variation in berry yields. The signs of regression coefficients were logical and the model predictions correlated rather well with the predictions of earlier models.
  • Ihalainen, University of Joensuu, P.O. Box 111, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: marjut.ihalainen@joensuu.fi (email)
  • Salo, The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Research Centre, P.O. Box 68, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pukkala, University of Joensuu, P.O. Box 111, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:

Category: Research note

article id 1573, category Research note
Marjut Turtiainen, Jari Miina, Kauko Salo, Juha-Pekka Hotanen. (2016). Modelling the coverage and annual variation in bilberry yield in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 50 no. 4 article id 1573. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1573
Highlights: The highest bilberry coverage was found in mesic heath forests and fell forests; On peatlands the coverage was, on average, lower than on mineral soil sites; The approach introduced in this study to calculating annual berry yield indices is a promising way for estimating total annual bilberry yields over a given period of time.

The coverage of bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) was modelled as a function of site and stand characteristics using the permanent sample plots of the National Forest Inventory (NFI) (Model 1). The sample sites consisted of mineral soil forests as well as fells and peatland sites. Annual variation in the bilberry yield (Model 2) was analysed based on measurements over 2001–2014 in the permanent sample plots (so-called MASI plots) in various areas of Finland. We derived annual bilberry yield indices from the year effects of Model 2 and investigated whether these indices could be used to estimate annual variation in bilberry crops in Finland. The highest bilberry coverage was found in mesic heath forests and fell forests. On peatlands the coverage was, on average, lower than on mineral soil sites; the peatland sites with most bilberry coverage were meso-oligotrophic and oligotrophic spruce mires and oligotrophic pine mires. Our bilberry yield indices showed similar variation to those derived from the mean annual berry yields reported and calculated earlier using the MASI plots; the correlation between the indices was 0.795. This approach to calculating annual berry yield indices is a promising way for estimating total annual bilberry yields over a given period of time. Models 1 and 2 can be used in conjunction with the Miina et al.’s (2009) bilberry yield model when bilberry coverage, average annual yield and annual variation in the yield are to be predicted in forest planning.

  • Turtiainen, University of Eastern Finland, School of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: marjut.turtiainen@uef.fi (email)
  • Miina, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Management and Production of Renewable Resources, Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: jari.miina@luke.fi
  • Salo, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Bio-based Business and Industry, Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: kauko.salo@luke.fi
  • Hotanen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Management and Production of Renewable Resources, Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: juha-pekka.hotanen@luke.fi

Category: Article

article id 5241, category Article
Mikko Raatikainen, Esko Rossi, Irene Vänninen. (1985). Kotipihlajan marjasadon määritysmenetelmät ja marjasato. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 2 article id 5241. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15420
English title: Methods of estimation of berry yield and berry yield of rowan tree (Sorbus aucuparia).

Berry yield of rowan tree (Sorbus aucuparia L.) was studied by picking and weighing the berries in a tree, counting the number of clusters by the eye, estimating the number of clusters by samples of 0.5 m2, and by counting the dropped berries. In the last tree methods average weight of berries in a cluster was assessed by weighing a sample of clusters. The size of the tree and the abundance of the berries influenced the choice of method. The first two methods suited for small trees, the third for a tall tree with berries in abundance, and the fourth for those cases where birds had eaten a large portion of the berries.

The berry yields of 88 rowan trees were studied in Central Finland in 1983, a year of exceptionally high berry yield. The yield of berries averaged 23 kg per tree, the number of clusters 1,249 per tree and the number of berries 42,500 per tree.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Raatikainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Rossi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Vänninen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5217, category Article
Pentti Sepponen. (1984). Pohjoissuomalaisten metsäammattimiesten käsityksiä metsien ja soiden marjantuotoskyvystä. Silva Fennica vol. 18 no. 3 article id 5217. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15396
English title: Observations of forest specialists in Northern Finland on the berry yield capacity of forests and swamps.

A survey was carried out among forest foremen and forest technicians to record their observations on the value of various swamp and forest types as producers of berries and on the effect of drainage of peatlands upon the berry yields. Comparative agreement existed on the best blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) forest types and on the best lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) forest types of rather dry upland sites. Fuscum pine swamps or fuscum bogs were considered best for the most part as regards the yield of cloudberry (Rubus chamaemorus L.). The replies showed rather great dispersion.

Agreement existed as well on the relation between drainage of peatlands and the yields of our economically most important swamp berries, cloudberry and cranberry. 90% of those responding were of the opinion that drainage reduces the cloudberry yield in the long term and a full 97% indicated that cranberry crop diminishes as well.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Sepponen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4996, category Article
Mikko Raatikainen. (1978). Puolukan sato, poiminta ja markkinointi Pihtiputaan kunnassa. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 2 article id 4996. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14850
English title: The berry yield, picking, and marketing of Vaccinium vitis-idaea in the commune of Pihtipudas, Central Finland.

A study on the lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) was made in 1976. The berry yield was studied by picking along 17 lines, each 1,000 m long. The picking and use of lingonberry were studied by an inquiry addressed to the families engaged in such an occupation. The marketing of the lingonberry was investigated by interviewing purchasers, and by means of reports based on purchasing certificates of the purchacers. The total yield of lingonberry in Pihtipudas was 1.2 million kg or 18 kg per hectare of productive forest. Only 7% of the total yield of the berry was picked. 47% of the lingonberries picked were used by the families themselves, 48% were sold and 5% were used for other purposes. The families who sold lingonberries earned, on an average, 350 Fmk.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Raatikainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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