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Articles containing the keyword 'bilberry'.

Category: Research article

article id 115, category Research article
Marjut Turtiainen, Kauko Salo, Olli Saastamoinen. (2011). Variations of yield and utilisation of bilberries (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) and cowberries (V. vitis-idaea L.) in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 45 no. 2 article id 115. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.115
So far, only rough estimates for the utilisation rates of wild berries in Finland have been available. One reason for this is that there has been a lack of empirical-knowledge-based studies concerning total yields of wild berries and their yield variations. This study had three aims: 1) total bilberry and cowberry yields of an average crop year were calibrated for different (abundant and poor) crop years using the inventory data on wild berries collected by the Finnish Forest Research Institute (1997–2008); 2) national utilisation rates of bilberries and cowberries were calculated for three different berry years 1997–1999; and 3) regional utilisation rates of these berry species were calculated for the year 1997. According to calculations, annual bilberry yields in Finland vary from 92 to 312 million kg. For cowberry, the range of variation in total berry yields is from 129 to 386 million kg. It was also found that approximately the same proportion of the total yield of bilberries (i.e. 5–6%) was collected between 1997 and 1999. Utilisation rates of cowberries were also quite constant varying from approximately 8% to nearly 10%. In 1997, bilberries and cowberries were utilised most intensively in the eastern parts of the country and in the Oulu-Kainuu region. The results of this present study describe the situation before the phenomenon of foreign pickers. It can be presumed that commercial wild berry picking by migrant collectors has so far affected both national and regional utilisation rates of wild berries.
  • Turtiainen, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: marjut.turtiainen@uef.fi (email)
  • Salo, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Research Unit, Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Saastamoinen, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 665, category Research article
Kari Kangas. (1999). Trade of main wild berries in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 33 no. 2 article id 665. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.665
The price trends and markets of the main wild berries, bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) and lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.), were analysed in this study, which covered both domestic use of berries, imports and exports. The periods considered were for bilberries from 1988 to 1997 and for lingonberries from 1979 to 1994. The results indicated that both exports and imports have increased and domestic berries have lost their market share to imports in domestic use. One possible explanation for this trend was found in price development. Both export and import prices have decreased, but export price has still been higher than the import price. Simultaneously the domestic price has decreased the fastest. The formation of the price of lingonberries paid to the pickers in the organised domestic markets was studied with a regression model. The results indicated that domestic price was negatively dependent on the amounts of lingonberries demanded in the domestic markets and positively dependent on the export price. Correlation analysis gave evidence on the same kind of relations concerning bilberries.
  • Kangas, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forestry, P.O. Box 111, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: kari.kangas@forest.joensuu.fi (email)

Category: Article

article id 5215, category Article
Esko Rossi, Jarmo Huovinen, Merja-Leena Koskela, Maija Niemelä, Mikko Raatikainen. (1984). Luonnonmarjojen poiminta ja käyttö Väli-Suomessa. Silva Fennica vol. 18 no. 3 article id 5215. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15394
English title: Picking and use of edible wild berries in Central Finland during 1978–81.

The picking and use of wild berries were investigated in five municipalities in Central Finland during 1978–81. The picked amounts per person were in average 17.6 litres of lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) and 5.6 litres of bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.). 54%, of lingonberries were consumed by the families who picked them, 43% was sold and 3% was delivered to others. Of the picked bilberry yield the figures were 74%, 24% and 2% respectively.

About 86% of the families picked lingonberry and 79% of the families picked bilberry in five municipalities in Central Finland during

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Rossi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Huovinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Koskela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Niemelä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Raatikainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5214, category Article
Mikko Raatikainen, Jarmo Huovinen, Merja-Leena Koskela, Maija Niemelä, Terttu Raatikainen, Esko Rossi. (1984). Metsä- ja suomarjasadot Väli-Suomessa. Silva Fennica vol. 18 no. 3 article id 5214. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15393
English title: The yields of the edible wild berries in Central Finland.

A study on wild berry-bearing plants was made in five municipalities in Central Finland during 1978–81. Yield of lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) was 8.0 kg/ha of forest area. Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) produced 4.3 kg/ha and black crowberry (Empetrum nigrum coll. L.) 1.5 kg/ha. Lingonberry comprised 40%, bilberry 27% and black crowberry 14% of the total berry yield. Any other species produced less than 10% of the total yield. Lingonberry produced high yield in clear-cut areas and in old Scots pine dominated forests but bilberry production was restricted almost completely to old sparse forests.

The total lingonberry yield in Finland was estimated as 180 million kg and the total bilberry yield as 150–200 million kg. About 80% of the lingonberry yield and 60% of bilberry yield was judged to be gatherable on the basis of the yield.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Raatikainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Huovinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Koskela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Niemelä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Raatikainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Rossi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5180, category Article
Mikko Raatikainen, Terttu Raatikainen. (1983). Mustikan sato, poiminta ja markkinointi Pihtiputaalla. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 2 article id 5180. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15096
English title: The berry yield, picking and marketing of Vaccinium myrtillus in the municipality of Pihtipudas, northern Central Finland.

A study on the bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) was made in the municipality of Pihtipudas (about 63° 30’ N, 23° 30’ W) in 1977. Berry yield was surveyed by picking along 17 lines, each 1,000 m long. The lines were chosen randomly and were situated on different vegetation types throughout the municipality. The picking and use of bilberries were studied by an inquiry addressed to a random sample of families living in the area. Marketing of bilberry was investigated by means of report based on purchasing certificates.

The total yield of bilberry in Pihtipudas was 2.4 million kg (21.9 kg/ha). The yield per hectare were best on Vaccinium and Myrtillus type sites, and on swampy heath sites, where the yield was about 27–65 kg/ha, 50% of the yield on the Vaccinium type and 25% of that of Myrtillus type. Only 1.8% of the total bilberry yield was picked from old forests. Women contributed 54, men 34 and children 12% of the volume.

72% of the berries were used for home consumption by the families, 24% were sold and 4% were used for other purposes. The earnings from bilberries for the families that sold berries was in average FIM 178.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Raatikainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Raatikainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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