Current issue: 53(2)

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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
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Acta Forestalia Fennica
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Articles containing the keyword 'branching pattern'.

Category: Research article

article id 252, category Research article
Tuomo Kalliokoski, Pekka Nygren, Risto Sievänen. (2008). Coarse root architecture of three boreal tree species growing in mixed stands. Silva Fennica vol. 42 no. 2 article id 252. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.252
Root system architecture determines many of the vital functions of a tree, e.g. stability of anchorage and resource uptake. The shoot:root ratio is determined through the allocation of resources. Studies on below-ground architectural elements in boreal mixed forests are relatively scarce despite the fact that knowledge on below-ground interactions and allocation changes in relation to stand developmental stage and soil fertility is needed both in ecological and silvicultural research. In this study, sixty tree root systems of three different tree species, Betula pendula, Picea abies and Pinus sylvestris, were excavated in five mixed forest stands in order to quantify differences between the species and sites in terms of rooting behaviour. Root architecture differed greatly between the species, implying different solutions for the functions of root systems. Half of the P. sylvestris had developed a taproot as a response to anchorage needs, while P. abies correspondingly had pronounced secondary growth of proximal roots. Betula pendula had the most extensive root system, illustrating the greater demand of deciduous trees for water. Betula pendula was also the most sensitive to soil fertility: it favoured exploration on the poorest site, as illustrated by the high total root length, whereas on the most fertile site its strategy was to efficiently exploit soil resources through increased branching intensity. The results obtained in this study provide basic knowledge on the architectural characteristics of boreal tree root systems for use by forestry professionals and modellers.
  • Kalliokoski, The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Unit, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: tuomo.kalliokoski@metla.fi (email)
  • Nygren, Department of Forest Ecology, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Sievänen, The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Unit, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:

Category: Article

article id 5347, category Article
Timo Kuuluvainen, Markku Kanninen, Juha-Pekka Salmi. (1988). Tree architecture in young Scots pine: properties, spatial distribution and relationships of components of tree architecture. Silva Fennica vol. 22 no. 2 article id 5347. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15504

The architecture of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) was studied in an eight-year-old progeny test. The measurements included characteristics of crown structure, spatial distribution of shoots and yield components. The spatial distribution of shoots showed striking between-tree differences, and two extreme distribution patterns were detected. One represented a non-layered structure with a vertically relative even shoot distribution, and the other a layered structure with a vertically highly uneven shoot distribution.

Close correlations existed between several components of tree architecture and it is suggested that changes in the phenotypic architecture in Scots pine follow an epigenetic pattern, which enables the prediction of adaptational changes in structural components. The structural characteristics related to high above-ground biomass were a long crown, high total shoot length, high number of branches per whorl and big shoots of low needle density occupying a big share of the crown volume.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Kuuluvainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kanninen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Salmi, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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