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Articles containing the keyword 'capacity'.

Category: Research article

article id 1687, category Research article
Hannu Hökkä, Jori Uusitalo, Harri Lindeman, Jari Ala-Ilomäki. (2016). Performance of weather parameters in predicting growing season water table depth variations on drained forested peatlands – a case study from southern Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 50 no. 4 article id 1687. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1687
Highlights: Four-week precipitation and evapotranspiration explain much of drained peatland water table depth variation during a growing season.

The amount of water in peat soil is one factor affecting its bearing capacity, which is a crucial aspect in planning peatland timber harvesting operations. We studied the influence of weather variables on the variation of drained peatland growing season water conditions, here the ground water table depth (WTD). WTD was manually monitored four times in 2014 and three times in 2015 in 10–30 sample plots located in four drained peatland forests in south-western Finland. For each peatland, precipitation and evapotranspiration were calculated from the records of the nearest Finnish Meteorological Institute field stations covering periods from one day to four weeks preceding the WTD monitoring date. A mixed linear model was constructed to investigate the impact of the weather parameters on WTD. Precipitation of the previous four–week period was the most important explanatory variable. The four-week evapotranspiration amount was interacting with the Julian day showing a greater effect in late summer. Other variables influencing WTD were stand volume within the three-metre radius sample plot and distance from nearest ditch. Our results show the potential of weather parameters, specifically that of the previous four-week precipitation and evapotranspiration, for predicting drained peatland water table depth variation and subsequently, the possibility to develop a more general empirical model to assist planning of harvesting operations on drained peatlands.

  • Hökkä, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Management and Production of Renewable Resources, Paavo Havaksen tie 3, FI-90014 Oulun yliopisto, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: hannu.hokka@luke.fi (email)
  • Uusitalo, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Green Technology, Kaironiementie 15, FI-39700 Parkano, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: jori.uusitalo@luke.fi
  • Lindeman, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Green Technology, Kaironiementie 15, FI-39700 Parkano, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: harri.lindeman@luke.fi
  • Ala-Ilomäki, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Green Technology, Jokiniemenkuja 1, FI-01370 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: jari.ala-ilomaki@luke.fi
article id 105, category Research article
Jaana Luoranen, Risto Rikala. (2011). Nutrient loading of Norway spruce seedlings hastens bud burst and enhances root growth after outplanting. Silva Fennica vol. 45 no. 3 article id 105. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.105
We studied the effects of late season nutrient loading (NLOAD) on the timing of bud burst, growth and changes in nitrogen (N) concentrations in the first growing season after seedlings were outplanted. Two-year-old Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) seedlings with three foliar nitrogen concentration levels (NLOAD levels 11.3, 22.5 and 27.5 g N kg-1 for L, M- and H-seedlings, respectively) were examined in the following three experiments: root growth capacity test (RGC), rooting experiment in the field and soil fertility experiment (‘rich’ or ‘poor’ soil) in the field. Bud burst in RGC was monitored daily and foliar N concentration (field experiments), height and root growth (rooting experiment) at monthly intervals. With respect to the RGC test, no differences in root growth were observed among the three NLOAD levels, but buds of H-seedlings burst 2–6 days earlier than others. In the rooting experiment, nutrient loading increased height and root growth but did not affect the timing of height growth. In the soil fertility experiment, foliar N of H- and M-seedlings decreased rapidly, but the decline was slower in rich soil. Current-year needles had more N in seedlings growing in rich soil and the N concentration declined until height growth ceased whereafter it increased until autumn. Improved growth from nutrient loading seems to last only for the first season after planting and the greatest benefits are enjoyed by seedlings planted in poor soils.
  • Luoranen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki Research Unit, Juntintie 154, FI-77600, Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: jaana.luoranen@metla.fi (email)
  • Rikala, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki Research Unit, Juntintie 154, FI-77600, Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 455, category Research article
Seppo Kellomäki, Matti Maajärvi, Harri Strandman, Antti Kilpeläinen, Heli Peltola. (2010). Model computations on the climate change effects on snow cover, soil moisture and soil frost in the boreal conditions over Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 44 no. 2 article id 455. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.455
This study considered how climate change affects the accumulation of snow, the soil moisture and soil frost at sites without tree cover in boreal conditions in Finland (60°–70°N). An increase of 4.5 °C in annual mean temperature and 20 % in annual precipitation were assumed for Finland by the year 2100 according to A2 emission scenario. Along with climate, the soil type of the permanent inventory plots of the Finnish National Forest Inventory was used. Soil and climate data were combined by using a process-based ecosystem model. Calculations were done for four periods: current climate (1971–2000), near future (2001–2020), mid-term future (2021–2050) and long-term future (2071–2100). According to our simulations, the average monthly duration and depth of snow decreased over the simulation period. However, the increasing precipitation may locally increase the snow depths in the mid-term calculations. In the autumn and winter, the average volumetric soil moisture content slightly increased in southern Finland during the near future, but decreased towards the end of the century, but still remained on a higher level than presently. In northern Finland, the soil moisture in the autumn and winter increased by the end of this century. In the summertime soil moisture decreased slightly regardless of the region. Throughout Finland, the length and the depth of soil frost decreased by the end of the century. In the south, the reduction in the depth was largest in the autumn and spring, while in the mid-winter it remained relatively deep in the middle of the century. In the north, the depth tended to increase during the first two calculation periods, in some areas, even during the third calculation period (2071–2100) due to reduced insulation effects of snow during cold spells. The wintertime increase in soil moisture and reduced soil frost may be reflected to reduced carrying capacity of soil for timber harvesting.
  • Kellomäki, University of Eastern Finland, School of Forest Sciences, Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: seppo.kellomaki@uef.fi (email)
  • Maajärvi, University of Eastern Finland, School of Forest Sciences, Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Strandman, University of Eastern Finland, School of Forest Sciences, Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kilpeläinen, University of Eastern Finland, School of Forest Sciences, Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Peltola, University of Eastern Finland, School of Forest Sciences, Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 207, category Research article
Mats T. Olsson, Maria Erlandsson, Lars Lundin, Torbjörn Nilsson, Åke Nilsson, Johan Stendahl. (2009). Organic carbon stocks in Swedish Podzol soils in relation to soil hydrology and other site characteristics. Silva Fennica vol. 43 no. 2 article id 207. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.207
Site characteristics influence soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks. In Podzols under Swedish forest land, SOC stocks were related to latitude, altitude, soil hydrological class categorized by mean groundwater level, mean annual precipitation, temperature sum during the growing season, total annual nitrogen (N) deposition and site capacity. SOC stocks were determined for the O-horizon and for total soil (O-horizon + mineral soil to a depth of 50 cm). Data from the Swedish National Forest Soil Inventory 1993–2001 were used (1477 field plots). The O-horizon was sampled with a core sampler and carbon (C) stocks were determined. For the mineral soil layers the SOC stock was calculated based on the SOC concentrations, bulk density and content of rock fragments. The results showed that the overall mean SOC stock was 2.8 and 8.2 kg C m–2 for O-horizon and total soil, respectively. Soil hydrological class strongly affected SOC stocks, which increased from on average 6.7 kg C m–2 at dry sites to 9.7 kg C m–2 at slightly moist sites. Corresponding values for the O-horizon were 2.0 to 4.4 kg C m–2. The correlation coefficients for the linear relationship between SOC stock and site characteristics were highest for N deposition, which explained up to 25% of variation, and latitude, which explained up to 20% of variation. Altitude had the lowest degree of explanation.
  • Olsson, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Dept of Soil and Environment, Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Erlandsson, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Dept of Soil and Environment, Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Lundin, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Dept of Soil and Environment, Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Nilsson, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Dept of Soil and Environment, Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: torbjorn.nilsson@mark.slu.se (email)
  • Nilsson, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Dept of Soil and Environment, Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Stendahl, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Dept of Soil and Environment, Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 399, category Research article
Torjus F. Bolkesjø. (2005). Projecting pulpwood prices under different assumptions on future capacities in the pulp and paper industry. Silva Fennica vol. 39 no. 1 article id 399. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.399
Capacity changes in the pulp and paper industry affect demand for pulpwood and thus pulpwood prices. This paper analyzes the impacts on roundwood prices in Norway of two possible capacity changes (one new machine and one close-down) that currently are high on the agenda in the Norwegian paper industry, and assesses the generality of the results obtained from these case studies. The two cases are implemented exogenously into a regionalized partial equilibrium forest sector model, and the capacity change scenarios are compared with a business as usual scenario assuming no demand shocks. The projected pulpwood prices change significantly in regions near mills where capacity shifts, at least for the close-down case, but only moderately at an aggregated national level. The reduction in prices under the close-down studied is higher than the price increase from the possible capacity increase case. The asymmetric price responses projected for the two case studies are supported by sensitivity analyses on other regions and cases (technologies). For the capacity increase case it is shown that the level of the projected pulpwood price is sensitive to assumptions on base-year prices and transport costs of imported roundwood, but the magnitudes of the price increases projected as a result of increased demand are less affected by these assumptions.
  • Bolkesjø, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Dept. of Ecology and Natural Resource Management, Høyskoleveien 14, NO-1432 Ås, Norway ORCID ID:E-mail: torjus.bolkesjo@umb.no (email)
article id 563, category Research article
Timo Pakkala, Ilkka Hanski, Erkki Tomppo. (2002). Spatial ecology of the three-toed woodpecker in managed forest landscapes. Silva Fennica vol. 36 no. 1 article id 563. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.563
The effects of landscape structure and forestry on the abundance and dynamics of boreal forest bird species have been studied widely, but there are relatively few studies in which the spatial structure and quality of the landscape have been related to the spatial ecology of bird species. In this paper, we present methods to measure territory and landscape quality for the three-toed woodpecker (Picoides tridactylus) and similar territorial forest bird species based on data from the Finnish multi-source national forest inventory and metapopulation theory. The three-toed woodpecker was studied with territory mapping within an area of 340 square km in southern Finland in 1987–2000. Altogether 195 breeding territory sites were observed. The spatial occurrence of the territories was aggregated, and the highest densities were observed in spruce-dominated old-growth forest areas. Both territory and landscape quality had significant consequences for the occurrence of the three-toed woodpecker. The spatial patterning and permanence of breeding and non-breeding territories were influenced by a combination of spatial dynamics of the species and the quality of the landscape, the latter being much influenced by forestry. The landscape-level spatial occurrence of the three-toed woodpecker in the study area may represent source-sink dynamics. The results of this paper suggest the presence of threshold values at different spatial scales, which may determine the occurrence of the three-toed woodpecker and similar species in managed forest landscapes.
  • Pakkala, Finnish Museum of Natural History, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 17, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: timo.pakkala@helsinki.fi (email)
  • Hanski, Department of Ecology and Systematics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 47, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Tomppo, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Unioninkatu 40 A, FIN-00170 Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:

Category: Review article

article id 313, category Review article
Heikki Hänninen, Koen Kramer. (2007). A framework for modelling the annual cycle of trees in boreal and temperate regions. Silva Fennica vol. 41 no. 1 article id 313. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.313
Models of the annual development cycle of trees in boreal and temperate regions were reviewed and classified on the basis of their ecophysiological assumptions. In our classification we discern two main categories of tree development: 1) fixed sequence development, which refers to irreversible ontogenetic development leading to visible phenological events such as bud burst or flowering, and 2) fluctuating development, which refers to reversible physiological phenomena such as the dynamics of frost hardiness during winter. As many of the physiological phenomena are partially reversible, we also describe integrated models, which include aspects of both fixed-sequence and fluctuating development. In our classification we further discern simple E-models, where the environmental response stays constant, and more comprehensive ES-models, where the environmental response changes according to the state of development. On the basis of this model classification, we have developed an operational modelling framework, in which we define an explicit state variable and a corresponding rate variable for each attribute of the annual cycle considered. We introduce a unifying notation, which we also use when presenting a selection of previously published models. To illustrate the various developmental phenomena and their modelling, we have carried out model simulations. Finally, we discuss the ecophysiological interpretation of the model variables, methodological aspects of the empirical development and testing of the models, the introduction of new aspects to the modelling, other closely related models, and applications of the models.
  • Hänninen, Plant Ecophysiology and Climate Change Group (PECC), Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Box 65, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: heikki.hanninen@helsinki.fi (email)
  • Kramer, Alterra, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands ORCID ID:E-mail:

Category: Article

article id 7158, category Article
Olavi Huuri. (1965). Männyn- ja kuusenkäpyjen varastoinnin vaikutus niistä saatavan siemenen itävyyteen. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 78 no. 5 article id 7158. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7158
English title: The effects of storage in cones on the viability of pine and spruce seeds.

Seed storing experiments with cones of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) were conducted in Oitti seed extracting plant in Southern Finland from February to December 1955. The pine cones were stores for 267 and the spruce coned for 304 days. In four of the storage methods the cones were packed in sacks and another four in wooden boxes. Sample of cones were taken once a month, seeds were extracted and the germinative capacity was tested. The remaining extracted seeds were placed in storage, and in January 1956 moved to cold seed cellar until 1962, when the viability of the seeds was tested.

According to the results, cleaned pine cones can be stores for at least nine months using almost all methods of storage which are commonly used at our seed traction plants, without hazarding the usability of the seeds. The seeds in spruce cones, however, seemed to be more sensitive to conditions during the storage. The germinative capacity of the spruce seeds began to decrease after the beginning of May. Later the seeds were infected with mould, which increased towards the end of the experiment.

Thus, preservation of the germinative capacity of the seeds of pine and spruce requires storage in different conditions. The results suggest that extraction of spruce seeds should be finished during the cold winter months. It seems that seed in the cones of pine and spruce endure storage in piles of paper or cloth sacks at least as well as in wooden boxes. Occasional warming of the storage, snow and foreign material among the cones and an over meter thick cone layer decreased the germinative capacity of spruce seeds during spring and summer. Spruce seeds that had been extracted immediately after collecting of the cones preserved their germinative capacity well during an eight years storage period.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Huuri, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7404, category Article
Valter Keltikangas. (1950). Suotyyppien liiketaloudellisesta ojituskelpoisuusjärjestyksestä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 58 no. 4 article id 7404. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7404
English title: Drainability of different peatland types from an economic perspective.

One of the factors that influence if a peatland is suitable for draining is the time required until fellings bring income, even if it the discounting calculations has uncertainties. This article discusses the factors that affect the economic profitability of draining peatlands.

The profitability of draining increases the more the yield or increase of the yield exceeds the costs of draining. Estimation of the yield is in Finland based on the peatland type, which reflects production capacity of the site. In addition, the growing stock of the site can vary in peatlands within same peatland type. The density and size of ditches affects the draining costs. Thus, productivity based on a peatland type alone does not describe well enough the drainability of a peatland area.

In Finnish classification of site quality of the peatlands, the treeless bogs and rich fens have been given too high a class compared to well stocked spruce swamps and pine swamps. Also, the drainability of two spruce and pine swamps can differ markedly in economic point of view if the tree’s quality, volume and ability to recover differ. The article discusses different methods to assess profitability of draining that have been descibed in the previous studies. It is suggested that the classification of peatlands by their drainability should be more selective.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Keltikangas, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5506, category Article
Risto Heikkilä, Sauli Härkönen. (1993). Moose (Alces alces L.) browsing in young Scots pine stands in relation to the characteristics of their winter habitats. Silva Fennica vol. 27 no. 2 article id 5506. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15667

Moose (Alces alces L.) browsing was studied in young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands mixed with deciduous trees in high-density winter ranges. The proportional use of twig biomass decreased as the availability increased. The total as well as proportional biomass consumption were higher on the moist than on the dry type of forest. The per tree consumption of pine was higher on the moist type, where the availability of pine was lower. Deciduous trees were more consumed on the moist type, where their availability was relatively high. The consumption of pine saplings increased as the availability of birch increased. Pine stem breakages were most numerous when birch occurred as overgrowth above pine and at high birch densities. The availability of other deciduous tree species did not correlate with browsing intensity of Scots pine. Moose browsing had seriously inhibited the development of Scots pines in 6% of the stands, over 60% of available biomass having been removed. Rowan and aspen were commonly over-browsed and their height growth was inhibited, which occurred rarely by birch. There was no difference in the proportion of young stands in forest areas with high and low moose density. A high proportion of peatland forests was found to indicate relatively good feeding habitats in the high-density areas.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Heikkilä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Härkönen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5340, category Article
Martti Saarilahti. (1988). Development in techniques for studying forest roads on peatlands. Silva Fennica vol. 22 no. 1 article id 5340. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15497

A light seismic method, a short-pulse radar and a microwave probe are tested in assessing the properties of a forest road constructed on peatland. The light seismic method gave reliable values for estimating the bearing capacity of the road. It was found that bearing capacity was mostly dependent on embankment thickness, but quality of fabric might also have an influence. Embankment thickness and peat depth can be measured on the radiogram, and some additional information on road bed and peat obtained. The microwave peat probe permits recording of the continuous moisture profile in situ, which improves accuracy of planning.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Saarilahti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5262, category Article
Markku Nygren. (1986). Männyn siementen syyskeräys. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 1 article id 5262. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15441
English title: Autumn harvested Scots pine seeds: the effect of cone storage and germination conditions on germination capacity.

Six seed collections were made in September–December 1984 in a natural Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand in Southern Finland. The seeds were germinated immediately after the cone collection and three photoperiods (0.8 and 24 hours) were used in germination tests.

The seeds collected in September and October possessed relative dormancy, i.e. they did not germinate in darkness and at 10°C. Later in November and December the seeds were capable to germinate in darkness and at low temperature also. The gradual change in germination capacity is attributed to chilling temperatures in natural environments or in cone storage.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Nygren, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5210, category Article
Heikki Smolander, Juha Lappi. (1984). The interactive effect of water stress and temperature on the CO2 response of photosynthesis in Salix. Silva Fennica vol. 18 no. 2 article id 5210. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15389

The interactive effects of water stress and temperature on the CO2 response of photosynthesis was studied in Salix sp. cv. Aquatica using the closed IRGA system. A semi-empirical model was used to describe the CO2 response of photosynthesis. The interactive effect of water stress and temperature was divided into two components: the change in CO2 conductance and the change in the photosynthetic capacity. The CO2 conductance was not dependent on the temperature when the willow plant was well watered, but during water stress it decreased as the temperature increased. The photosynthetic capacity of the willow plant increased along with an increase in temperature when well-watered, but during water stress temperature had quite opposite effect.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Smolander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Lappi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5156, category Article
Martti Saarilahti. (1982). Tutkaluotaukseen perustuva metsäautotien kantavuuden arvioimismenetelmä. Silva Fennica vol. 16 no. 1 article id 5156. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15071
English title: Predicting the bearing capacity of forest roads using a radar sounding.

Good correlation between radar reflection depth when using a FM-CW radar during winter and bearing capacity measurements during spring breakup was found. Therefore, it might be possible to evaluate the bearing capacity of forest roads using the radar sounding technique.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Saarilahti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5154, category Article
Satu Huttunen, Sinikka Kallio, Marketta Karhu. (1981). The effect of air pollution on transplanted mosses. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 4 article id 5154. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15381

The use of forest mosses as bioindicators was tested with transplanted experiments. One transplantation experiment was made to study effects of air pollutants on two forest moss species, Hylocomnium splendens (Hedw.) Schimp. and Pleurozium schreberi (Willd. ex Brid.) Mitt. Another transplantation was used to study the nitrogen fixation capacity of blue-green algae in the Hylocomnium and Pleurozium moss layers. The surface structure of the moss species was studied by scanning electron microscopy. The air pollution induced changes in the surface structure of moss cells were observable soon after the transplantation. In polluted industrial areas the fertilizing effect of air-borne nitrogen compounds increased the photosynthetic activity of mosses before their destruction. Stress respiration was also observable in polluted areas. The nitrogen fixing capacity decreased or was almost inhibited in all the air-polluted environments.

  • Huttunen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kallio, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Karhu, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5130, category Article
Martti Saarilahti. (1981). Mikroaaltotutka jään paksuuden mittaukseen. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 4 article id 5130. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15187
English title: Radar measurement of ice thickness on ice roads and landing.

Light and economic FM-CW radar has been developed for controlling the bearing capacity of ice roads and landings on ice used for timber transportation and storage of timber in Finland. It was tested on natural ice and ice roads of three lakes in Southern Finland and one location on sea on the southren coast of Finland (a total of 166 observations). Ice thickness varied from 0 to 100 cm. Correlation coefficient between auger and radar measured ice thickness was r=0.99 and absolute error varied from -10 to +7 cm. The quality of ice had no influence, but by improving the interpretation of results, also the quality factors might be detected.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Saarilahti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5126, category Article
Martti Saarilahti. (1981). Koneiden uppoaminen suometsien puunkorjuussa. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 3 article id 5126. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15067
English title: Sinkage of forest machines during harvesting operations on peatlands.

Questionnaires were sent out to determine the volume of wood harvested from peatlands during 1978 and the harvesting problems encountered. In total there were 110 responses which accounted for 8 million m3 of wood harvested, of which 1.0 million m3 (14%) was harvested from peatlands. The largest proportion of wood harvested from peatlands was during the winter. Most of the respondents reportet that they wait for the soil frost to set before harvesting is started on peatlands. Respondents indicated a total of 263 machines bogging down in to the soil or, for 1978, a total for Finland of 750 to 1,000 machines.
The PDF includes a summary in English.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Saarilahti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7040, category Article
Yrjö Ilvessalo. (1920). Metsämaitten puuntuotantokyvyn, nykyisen tuoton ja puunkulutuksen välisestä suhteesta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 15 no. 2 article id 7040. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7040
English title: The relation of the productive capacity of forests, their current production and wood utilization.

Annual variations in wood utilization makes it complicated to estimate the balance between wood utilization and wood production of forests. According to the article, the balance is unsustainable especially in the private forests in the southern part of Finland. The annual wood utilization of the country was 37.3 million m3 in 1913, and the annual wood production 35.2 million m3, according to a report of a committee that was appointed to find methods to prevent overcutting. The committee suggested legislation to forbid forest devastation. Also the growth of the forests could be increased, if the forests are well managed, the article argues. To prove this, the potential wood production capacity is estimated for the municipalities of Viipuri, Mikkeli and Kuopio, and compared to the present wood production and wood utilization of the area.

The PDF includes a German summary.

  • Ilvessalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5120, category Article
Pentti Sepponen. (1981). Kivennäismaan raekoon tunnuksista ja niiden käyttökelpoisuudesta eräiden maan ominaisuuksien kuvaamiseen. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 2 article id 5120. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15061
English title: Particle size distribution characteristics of mineral soil and their applicability for describing some soil properties.

The particle size distribution affects several properties of the soil, thus, the ability to define the texture type of the soil as accurately as possible in field conditions is essential. The soil particle size classification devised by Atterberg (1912) is used in Finnish forestry. The study is based on a small laboratory material. The correlation between some characteristics of the soil particle size distribution, field capacity and cation exchange capacity were determined.

The particle size characteristics such as the relative proportion of different particle sizes, average particle size (Md) and parameters depicting the degree of sorting were determined. The relative proportion of soil particles below 0.06 mm correlated best with both field capacity and cation exchange capacity. Similarly, the average particle size and the degree of sorting correlated well with the field capacity and the cation exchange capacity.

The use of sorting characteristics is not well-suited to the type of soil sample material containing a high proportion of particles of varying size as was used in this material. Such characteristics are probably more easily applicable to the fine sand and sand sediments which are predominant in Finnish forest soils. The most useful particle size distribution characteristics in soils having a great variation in particle sizes were the average particle size and the relative proportion of silt and clay. Thus, the nutrient and water status of the soil can be predicted to some extent by examining the percentage of silt and clay, average particle size and the degree of sorting.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Sepponen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5120, category Article
Pentti Sepponen. (1981). Kivennäismaan raekoon tunnuksista ja niiden käyttökelpoisuudesta eräiden maan ominaisuuksien kuvaamiseen. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 2 article id 5120. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15061
English title: Particle size distribution characteristics of mineral soil and their applicability for describing some soil properties.

The particle size distribution affects several properties of the soil, thus, the ability to define the texture type of the soil as accurately as possible in field conditions is essential. The soil particle size classification devised by Atterberg (1912) is used in Finnish forestry. The study is based on a small laboratory material. The correlation between some characteristics of the soil particle size distribution, field capacity and cation exchange capacity were determined.

The particle size characteristics such as the relative proportion of different particle sizes, average particle size (Md) and parameters depicting the degree of sorting were determined. The relative proportion of soil particles below 0.06 mm correlated best with both field capacity and cation exchange capacity. Similarly, the average particle size and the degree of sorting correlated well with the field capacity and the cation exchange capacity.

The use of sorting characteristics is not well-suited to the type of soil sample material containing a high proportion of particles of varying size as was used in this material. Such characteristics are probably more easily applicable to the fine sand and sand sediments which are predominant in Finnish forest soils. The most useful particle size distribution characteristics in soils having a great variation in particle sizes were the average particle size and the relative proportion of silt and clay. Thus, the nutrient and water status of the soil can be predicted to some extent by examining the percentage of silt and clay, average particle size and the degree of sorting.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Sepponen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5078, category Article
Seppo Kellomäki, Pertti Hari. (1980). Eco-physiological studies on young Scots pine stands. I. Tree class as indicator of needle biomass, illumination and photosynthetic capacity of crown system. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 3 article id 5078. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15019

The concept of tree class as indicated by dominant, codominant, intermediate and suppressed trees is analysed using empirical material representing 13 younger Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands. The relative needle biomass, i.e. the needle biomass related to the maximum needle biomass in the stand, was closely related to the relative height of the tree and independent of the stand characteristics. Furthermore, the relative illumination of the crown system was related to the relative height of the trees as well as the relative photosynthetic capacity and tree-to-tree variation in growth. When calculated per needle biomass unit it appeared that height growth, radial growth, needle growth and other growth parameters were the highest in the suppressed trees. The suppressed trees thus appear to be more efficient in utilizing available resources than other tree classes. The ecologic significance of the results is discussed.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Kellomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Hari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5067, category Article
Veikko Koski. (1980). On the variation of flowering and seed crop in mature stands of Pinus sylvestris L. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 1 article id 5067. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15008

The paper discusses the variation of flowering and seed crop of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands based on literature published in Finland. According to the studies, the list of good seed years given by different authors do not completely match, and no essentially new about the periodicity of the seed crop or the causes of variation has been found. The difficulty in classification of the seed crops in different years in different stands and locations can be handled through the concept of capacity. It is suggested in the paper that to be able to compare the occurrence of good flowering and seed years of different stands and localities, a case exceeding 50% of the capacity is described as abundant, and a case exceeding 75% as very heavy.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Koski, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5006, category Article
Seppo Kellomäki. (1978). Typpilannoituksen vaikutus havupuiden fotosynteesikapasiteettiin. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 3 article id 5006. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14860
English title: Effects of nitrogen fertilization on photosynthetic capacity of coniferous trees.

The effect of nitrogen fertilizers on the photosynthetic capacity of conifers is assessed on the basis of literature. The review emphasizes the role of changes of needle mass as a factor affecting the result of nutrient application. In particular, the increase in needle mass results in a considerable increase in photosynthetic capacity. The effect of fertilization on the photosynthetic rate seems to be of minor importance. The effect on the photosynthetic rate is, however, poorly documented as is the case for the effect of fertilization on the respiration rate. There is evidence that proper application of nitrogen fertilizers may double the photosynthetic capacity of conifers, mainly as a result of increase in needle mass.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kellomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4936, category Article
Erkki Wuolijoki. (1976). Metsäkoneiden heilunnan ergonomiset haitat. Silva Fennica vol. 10 no. 2 article id 4936. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14781
English title: Ergonomic effects of jolting of forest machines.

The paper deals mainly with the effects of jolting of forest tractors and processors on the health and working capacity of the driver. The literature surveyed presents especially the following points of interest: Jolting of the machine may hamper the focusing of the eyes and mastery of the controls. Long-term exposure to jolting may result in reduced sympathetic nervous activity at rest, and may impair an already existing back problem. Workers exposed to vibration, get more frequently gastric changes and changes in reproductive functions than usual. Jolting, as also the other negative physical factors of working environment, must be minimized as early as possible during the design of the machines.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Wuolijoki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4921, category Article
Simo Hannelius. (1975). Ojitusalueiden kulkukelpoisuudesta puunkorjuussa. Silva Fennica vol. 9 no. 3 article id 4921. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14763
English title: On the trafficability of drained peatlands in harvesting.

During the next decade there will be a marked increase in the allowable cut in drained peatlands. At the same time, the mechanization in logging proceeds, and in short-distance haulage the use of forwarders will increase. This study, based on literature and some observations, deals with logging conditions in drained peatlands with special reference to the suitability of heavy logging machines for use in such terrain. In addition, soil frost and the bearing capacity of the frozen peat soil were studied.

Freezing of the soil in a drained peatland area depends prevailingly on the weather conditions during early winter. The factors influencing soil freezing of a drained peatland are completely different from those regulating the freezing of natural peat soils. The frost penetrates in general deeper in the drained than virgin peatland. The topmost peat layer does not, however, freeze uniformly. Generally speaking, the bearing capacity of a drained peat soil is lower than that of undrained peat due to lower water content.

It is concluded that heavy logging machines are probably not fitted for use in drained areas on peatland even if the average soil frost values recorded would suggest it. Moreover, because of their extremely superficial root systems, peatland forests are exposed to damages by heavy machines in thinning operations.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Hannelius, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4888, category Article
Olavi Luukkanen. (1973). Havaintoja kuusen vapaapölytysjälkeläistöjen ja männyn metsikköalkuperien CO2-aineenvaihdunnasta. Silva Fennica vol. 7 no. 4 article id 4888. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14726
English title: Observations on CO2 exchange in open pollinated progenies of Norway spruce and provenances of Scots pine.

Photosynthesis and dark respiration in five families of autochtonous Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) and in seedlings from twenty Finnish stands of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) were investigated in constant environmental conditions. Values of CO2 exchange were compared with the height growth and weight of seedlings in Norway spruce and with the weight alone in Scots pine. No statistically significant differences were found in CO2 exchange among progenies or stands. Photosynthetic efficiency and photosynthetic capacity showed a positive correlation both in spruce and in pine. Growth and net photosynthetic capacity were linearly and positively correlated in pine. Spruce and a higher light compensation point than pine. The use of an open IRGA system with several simultaneous measurements and the trap-type cuvette construction in genetic work are discussed.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Luukkanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4819, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1970). Hakkuutähteiden merkityksestä puuston vaurioitumisen ja raiteenmuodostuksen kannalta harvennusmetsissä. Silva Fennica vol. 4 no. 2 article id 4819. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14608
English title: Significance of logging waste in thinnings as to scars and tracks in the terrain.

The purpose of this study was to explain whether it is possible to affect, in practical working site conditions, by means of logging waste on the strip road, the depth of the track which is formed in terrain transportation and the injuries of the growing stand. Five 20 m long investigation areas with logging waste and five similar areas without logging waste were arranged on one strip road at Teisko logging site in Southern Finland. The logging waste layer was mainly Norway spruce and 10–15 cm thick. A KL–836 B forwarder was used. The type of soil was loam.

The logging waste affected the depth of the track only by decreasing the wear of humus layer. Even decreasing effect of logging waste on the injuries in the growing stand was minor. At Kitee working site in Eastern Finland strip roads were studied. The type of soil was thick, rather mouldered peat. The thickness of logging waste was 3–4 times greater than in Teisko, mainly spruce. A Volvo Nalle SM 460 forwarder was used. The effect of the logging waste on the depth of the tracks was clearly to be noticed. On basis of the appearance of the tracks one could assume that the difference was due to different wear of the humus, and not so much due to the quantity of logging waste that improves the carrying capacity of terrain.

In some extent logging waste was also found to affect the amount and quality of tree injuries. In practical working conditions, the importance might be small, since in the experiments an unrealistically great amount of logging waste was used.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7631, category Article
Carl Johan Westman. (1983). Taimitarhamaiden fysikaalisia ja kemiallisia ominaisuuksia sekä niiden suhde orgaanisen aineksen määrään. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 184 article id 7631. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7631
English title: Physical and physio-chemical properties of forest tree nursery soils and their relation to the amount of organic matter.

The aims of the present study were to determine physical and physio-chemical properties of some Finnish forest tree nursery soils, and to examine relationships between these properties and the amount of organic matter in the soil.

The following soil tillage layer properties of 33 fields belonging to 8 forest tree nurseries were determined: soil particle size distribution, organic matter content, bulk density and density of solids, total pore space, soil water volume at potentials pF 2.0 and 4.2, available water content and air space at potential pF 2.0, active acidity, electrical conductivity index and cation exchange capacities at pH 4.5 and 8.0. The soil texture class of the tillage layer parent material was sand, only in a few cases did higher percentage of silt and clay indicate a morainic nature of parent material. The amount of organic material in the soils varied within wide limits, reflecting differences in amelioration policy between the single nurseries.

Relationships between the physical properties of the soil parent material and those related to fertility were in most cases strongly influenced by the amount of soil organic matter. Soil density values decreased as the organic matter content increased from 2 to 25%, giving rise to the increase in the total pore space. However, the amount of water held at potential pF 2.0 and the available water content did not increase with increasing organic matter content. This was due to the absence of the particle fraction in the sand. Nursery soil amelioration, involving in most cases a mixture of Sphagnum peat with sand, thus gives rise to an increase in the content of drainable water.

Cation exchange capacities were positively correlated with the organic matter content. However, the absolute number of exchange sites expressed as equivalents in the tillage layer did not increase in accordance with the increase in organic matter content due to the influence of the organic matter content upon the ratio of solids in the voids.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Westman, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7631, category Article
Carl Johan Westman. (1983). Taimitarhamaiden fysikaalisia ja kemiallisia ominaisuuksia sekä niiden suhde orgaanisen aineksen määrään. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 184 article id 7631. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7631
English title: Physical and physio-chemical properties of forest tree nursery soils and their relation to the amount of organic matter.

The aims of the present study were to determine physical and physio-chemical properties of some Finnish forest tree nursery soils, and to examine relationships between these properties and the amount of organic matter in the soil.

The following soil tillage layer properties of 33 fields belonging to 8 forest tree nurseries were determined: soil particle size distribution, organic matter content, bulk density and density of solids, total pore space, soil water volume at potentials pF 2.0 and 4.2, available water content and air space at potential pF 2.0, active acidity, electrical conductivity index and cation exchange capacities at pH 4.5 and 8.0. The soil texture class of the tillage layer parent material was sand, only in a few cases did higher percentage of silt and clay indicate a morainic nature of parent material. The amount of organic material in the soils varied within wide limits, reflecting differences in amelioration policy between the single nurseries.

Relationships between the physical properties of the soil parent material and those related to fertility were in most cases strongly influenced by the amount of soil organic matter. Soil density values decreased as the organic matter content increased from 2 to 25%, giving rise to the increase in the total pore space. However, the amount of water held at potential pF 2.0 and the available water content did not increase with increasing organic matter content. This was due to the absence of the particle fraction in the sand. Nursery soil amelioration, involving in most cases a mixture of Sphagnum peat with sand, thus gives rise to an increase in the content of drainable water.

Cation exchange capacities were positively correlated with the organic matter content. However, the absolute number of exchange sites expressed as equivalents in the tillage layer did not increase in accordance with the increase in organic matter content due to the influence of the organic matter content upon the ratio of solids in the voids.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Westman, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7578, category Article
Yrjö Ilvessalo, Mikko Ilvessalo. (1975). Suomen metsätyypit metsiköiden luontaisen kehitys- ja puuntuottokyvyn valossa. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 144 article id 7578. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7578
English title: The forest types of Finland in the light of natural development and yield capacity of forest stands.

The aim of the present study was to describe the forest types of Finnish mineral forest lands as a uniform whole in the light of stand development and wood production.

The study shows that it has been possible to work out uniform age-based development series for different stand characteristics for forest types on mineral forest lands in Finland. There is generally a clear difference in the development series of various stand characteristics and their average values between different forest types. The exceptions in a few places have been explained as depending on certain factors. The differences between adjacent forest types in order of their quality are of varying magnitude, thus differing from a schematic site quality classification obtained through calculation. Consequently, each forest type has its own development series with regard to the stand characteristics.

The number of forest types in the whole country is rather high. However, the different forest types are limited to different parts cf the country in such a way that there is no need for more than 5–6 forest types and 4 northerly sub-forms (-types) in each region, except in the border areas between the regions. In Finland the forest types have been the basis of forest site classification in forest research and practical forestry over a period of half a century. In pointing out the necessity of further study of forest types, Cajander has stressed the examination of differences in the compositions of vegetation between different classes of density of tree-stand and building up average descriptions of vegetation in such classes in young, middle-age and old stands. The same may be caused by some other factors which also are of essential influence to the composition of the vegetation.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ilvessalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Ilvessalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7563, category Article
Juhani Päivänen. (1973). Hydraulic conductivity and water retention in peat soils. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 129 article id 7563. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7563

The paper is a part of a larger study of the basic hydrologic properties of peat. This part of the study deals with the hydraulic conductivity and water retention capacity of peat and with their dependence on some of its structural properties. The data of the study was collected in Central Finland (61°50'N; 24°20'E) from drained peatlands. The limits of the quantitative range of variation in the hydraulic conductivity of peat can be put at 2.0 x 10-6 and 1.1 x 1O-2 cm/sec. The variation occurring in the hydraulic conductivity of peat is extremely large. At saturation peat contains 82–95 volume per cent of water. The bulk density of peat seemed to be the factor best able to explain its water retention capacity. The quantity of water which can be removed from a site by draining decreases with increasing bulk density in such a way that it, in the case of well decomposed peat (bulk density 0.20 g/cm3) is slightly less than one third of that for slightly decomposed peat (bulk density 0.05 g/cm3). Also, the possibilities to estimate the quantities of water superfluous, available and unavailable to the plant cover is discussed.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Päivänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4721, category Article
S. A. Wilde. (1963). Theory of relativity, soil science, and forest mensuration. Silva Fennica no. 115 article id 4721. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14276

No other manifestation of life is allied more conspicuously to the theory of relativity as the growth of forest stands which is a function of the inherent growth potential of trees, the productive capacity of environment, and time.

The height over age quotient of a forest stand is usually the most reliable indicator of the productive forces of the habitat. Stem analysis have shown that increment of a tree at different ages is closely correlated with the extension of roots into individual geological horizons of different productive capacity. Growth curves of stands of a same tree species growing on different soils can be disparate due to different conditions. The temporal variety of tree growth on different sites is of prime importance in the construction of yield tables. Investigations of natural plant communities of Finland provided one rational approach towards the construction of yield tables. By confining mensuration analyses to define floristic types, the Finnish foresters harmonized their records with Einstein’s formula for space-time matrix of material events.

  • Wilde, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4443, category Article
Oskari Jalmari Lukkala. (1927). What points of view have to be taken into consideration, when draining swamp lands for afforestation. Silva Fennica no. 4 article id 4443. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8391

Draining of peatlands requires careful planning because of its costs. Only peatlands that have sufficient growth capacity in future should be drained. The future growth capacity can be estimated based on peatland type, the botanical composition of the peat layers and the quality of the surface peat layer of the swamp.

Also the draining methods should be cost effective. To keep the amount of drains low, the drain network and drain lines should be planned so that each drain has high drain effectivity. Most of the peatlands drained in Finland have been forested. Especially the young trees regain soon their growth when the peat begins to dry. It is recommended to leave the young trees, but most profitable to harvest the older forests in the drained area. Practical experiences have shown that even drained open peatlands can be naturally regenerated. Natural regeneration is almost guaranteed to succeed on peatlands, which have seed trees.

A summary in Finnish is included in the PDF.

  • Lukkala, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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