Current issue: 53(3)

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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
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Acta Forestalia Fennica
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Articles containing the keyword 'conservation'.

Category: Research article

article id 10019, category Research article
Junyan Liu, Junfeng Tang, Si-Chong Chen, Wenbao Ma, Zheng Zheng, Tingfa Dong. (2019). Do tree cavity density and characteristics vary across topographical habitats in the tropics? A case study from Xishuangbanna, southwest China. Silva Fennica vol. 53 no. 1 article id 10019. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.10019
Highlights: Cavities were significantly more abundant in high- and low-slope than high-plateau habitats; There are more “butt hollow” cavities in high-slope habitat and they occurred at a lower height; More “crack” cavities in low-slope habitat and they had a narrower entrance diameter; Certain types of cavities are concentrated in specific habitats, which provide opportunities for forest management and biodiversity conservation.

Despite the influence of cavities on the survival and distribution of cavity-dependent fauna, the variation in the density and characteristics of tree cavities across different habitat types in tropical forests is unknown. In this study, we surveyed 26 312 living trees from 376 species and compared cavity density and characteristics (height, size, type, and orientation) across five habitat types (valley, low-slope, high-slope, high-gully, and high-plateau) in a 20-hectare tropical rainforest in southwest China. From a total of 2047 cavities, we found that cavity density was mainly driven by habitat rather than tree species richness or diameter at breast height (DBH), and the characteristics of cavities were not uniformly distributed across habitats. Cavities were significantly more abundant in high- and low-slope than high-plateau habitats. Compared with other habitats, more “butt hollow” cavity types were found in high-slope habitat and they occurred at a lower tree height, whereas more “crack” cavities were found in low-slope habitat and they had a narrower entrance diameter. Although the mean orientation of cavities faced towards the northeast, cavity orientation varied significantly across habitat types. Our results indicate that certain types of cavities are concentrated in specific habitat types, which can provide avenues for forest management and biodiversity conservation. We highlight the importance of habitat heterogeneity in providing resources for cavity nesters.

  • Liu, Key Laboratory of Southwest China Wildlife Resources Conservation of Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Environmental Science and Biodiversity Conservation (Sichuan Province) and Institute of Plant Adaptation and Utilization in Southwest Mountains, China West Normal University, Nanchong, Sichuan 637009, China; Key Laboratory of Tropical Forest Ecology, Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Mengla, Yunnan 666303, China ORCID ID:E-mail: liujunyan2300@163.com
  • Tang, Key Laboratory of Southwest China Wildlife Resources Conservation of Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Environmental Science and Biodiversity Conservation (Sichuan Province) and Institute of Plant Adaptation and Utilization in Southwest Mountains, China West Normal University, Nanchong, Sichuan 637009, China ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Chen, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Wakehurst Place, West Sussex RH17 6TN, UK; Mitrani Department of Desert Ecology, Swiss Institute for Dryland Environmental and Energy Research, Jacob Blaustein Institutes for Desert Research, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Midreshet Ben-Gurion, Beer-Sheva 8499000, Israel ORCID ID:E-mail: chensichong0528@gmail.com
  • Ma, Ecological Restoration and Conservation of Forests and Wetlands Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Sichuan Academy of Forestry, Chengdu 610081, China ORCID ID:E-mail: mawenbao_2000@126.com
  • Zheng, Key Laboratory of Tropical Forest Ecology, Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Mengla, Yunnan 666303, China ORCID ID:E-mail: dioeco@outlook.com
  • Dong, Key Laboratory of Southwest China Wildlife Resources Conservation of Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Environmental Science and Biodiversity Conservation (Sichuan Province) and Institute of Plant Adaptation and Utilization in Southwest Mountains, China West Normal University, Nanchong, Sichuan 637009, China ORCID ID:E-mail: dongtf@aliyun.com (email)
article id 1778, category Research article
Adriano Mazziotta, Dmitry Podkopaev, María Triviño, Kaisa Miettinen, Tähti Pohjanmies, Mikko Mönkkönen. (2017). Quantifying and resolving conservation conflicts in forest landscapes via multiobjective optimization. Silva Fennica vol. 51 no. 1 article id 1778. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1778
Highlights: We introduce a compatibility index quantifying how targeting a management objective in the forest landscape affects another objective; To resolve conflicts we find compromise solutions minimizing the maximum deterioration among objectives; We apply our approach for a case study of forest management for biodiversity conservation and development; Multiple use management and careful planning can reduce biodiversity conflicts in forest ecosystems.

Environmental planning for of the maintenance of different conservation objectives should take into account multiple contrasting criteria based on alternative uses of the landscape. We develop new concepts and approaches to describe and measure conflicts among conservation objectives and for resolving them via multiobjective optimization. To measure conflicts we introduce a compatibility index that quantifies how much targeting a certain conservation objective affects the capacity of the landscape for providing another objective. To resolve such conflicts we find compromise solutions defined in terms of minimax regret, i.e. minimizing the maximum percentage of deterioration among conservation objectives. Finally, we apply our approach for a case study of management for biodiversity conservation and development in a forest landscape. We study conflicts between six different forest species, and we identify management solutions for simultaneously maintaining multiple species’ habitat while obtaining timber harvest revenues. We employ the method for resolving conflicts at a large landscape level across a long 50-years forest planning horizon. Our multiobjective approach can be an instrument for guiding hard choices in the conservation-development nexus with a perspective of developing decision support tools for land use planning. In our case study multiple use management and careful landscape level planning using our approach can reduce conflicts among biodiversity objectives and offer room for synergies in forest ecosystems.

  • Mazziotta, University of Jyväskylä, Department of Biological and Environmental Science, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyväskylä, Finland; Center for Macroecology Evolution and Climate, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 15, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark; Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Kräftriket 2b, 11429 Stockholm, Sweden ORCID ID: http://orcid.org/0000-0003-2088-3798 E-mail: a_mazziotta@hotmail.com (email)
  • Podkopaev, University of Jyväskylä, Department of Biological and Environmental Science, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyväskylä, Finland; Systems Research Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, Newelska 6, 01-447 Warsaw, Poland ORCID ID:E-mail: dmitry.podkopaev@ibspan.waw.pl
  • Triviño, University of Jyväskylä, Department of Biological and Environmental Science, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyväskylä, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: maria.trivino@jyu.fi
  • Miettinen, University of Jyväskylä, Faculty of Information Technology, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyväskylä, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: kaisa.miettinen@jyu.fi
  • Pohjanmies, University of Jyväskylä, Department of Biological and Environmental Science, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyväskylä, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: tahti.t.pohjanmies@jyu.fi
  • Mönkkönen, University of Jyväskylä, Department of Biological and Environmental Science, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyväskylä, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: mikko.monkkonen@jyu.fi
article id 1566, category Research article
Valdir Marcos Stefenon, Jordana Caroline Nagel, Igor Poletto. (2016). Evidences of genetic bottleneck and fitness decline in Luehea divaricata populations from southern Brazil. Silva Fennica vol. 50 no. 5 article id 1566. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1566
Highlights: Signatures of genetic bottlenecks and reduction of populations’ fitness were observed in populations of Luehea divaricata in southern Brazil; Lower levels of observed heterozygosity are correlated with populations’ fitness, decreasing germination capacity and increasing the proportion of anomalous germinated plantlets; Promoting the connection among populations is proposed as a key strategy towards conservation of L. divaricata genetic resources in its southernmost distribution range.

Extant populations growing in regions that were refugia during the last glacial period are expected to show higher genetic diversity than populations that moved from these refugia into new areas in higher latitudes. Such new populations likely faced harsher climatic conditions, being established with reduced population size and experiencing the effects of genetic bottlenecks. In this study we employed data from nuclear SSR markers for detecting molecular signatures of genetic bottlenecks, and germination experiments to evaluate reduction of populations’ fitness in natural populations of Luehea divaricata Mart. et Zucc., growing in the southern range of the species distribution (around 30°S latitude). Signatures of genetic bottlenecks and reduction of populations’ fitness were observed in all populations. Lower levels of observed heterozygosity are correlated with populations’ fitness, decreasing germination capacity and increasing the proportion of anomalous germinated plantlets. Promoting the connection among populations is proposed as a key strategy towards conservation of L. divaricata genetic resources in its southernmost distribution range. The offspring from crosses among populations would significantly increase the observed heterozygosity and fitness of multiple populations.

  • Stefenon, Nucleus of Genomics and Molecular Ecology, Interdisciplinary Center of Biotechnological Research, Universidade Federal do Pampa, BR290 km, 97300-000, São Gabriel, RS, Brazil ORCID ID:E-mail: valdirstefenon@unipampa.edu.br (email)
  • Nagel, Nucleus of Genomics and Molecular Ecology, Interdisciplinary Center of Biotechnological Research, Universidade Federal do Pampa, BR290 km, 97300-000, São Gabriel, RS, Brazil ORCID ID:E-mail: jordana.nagel@yahoo.com.br
  • Poletto, Laboratory of Plant Protection, Universidade Federal do Pampa, BR290 km, 97300-000, São Gabriel, RS, Brazil ORCID ID:E-mail: igorpoletto@unipampa.edu.br
article id 1073, category Research article
Pedro Sánchez-Gómez, Juan F. Jiménez, Juan B. Vera, Francisco J. Sánchez-Saorín, Juan F. Martínez, Joseph Buhagiar. (2013). Genetic structure of Tetraclinis articulata, an endangered conifer of the western Mediterranean basin. Silva Fennica vol. 47 no. 5 article id 1073. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1073
Highlights: The employment of ISSR molecular markers has shown moderate genetic diversity and high genetic differentiation in Tetraclinis articulata; Genetic structure of populations seems to be influenced by the anthropogenic use of this species since historical times, or alternatively, by the complex palaeogeographic history of the Mediterranean basin; Results could be used to propose management policies for conservation of populations.
Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl) Masters is a tree distributed throughout the western Mediterranean basin. It is included in the IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) red list, and protected by law in several of the countries where it grows. In this study we examined the genetic diversity and genetic structure of 14 populations of T. articulata in its whole geographic range using ISSR (inter simple sequence repeat) markers. T. articulata showed moderate genetic diversity at intrapopulation level and high genetic differentiation. The distribution of genetic diversity among populations did not exhibit a linear pattern related to geographic distances, since all analyses (principal coordinate analysis, Unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean dendrogram and Bayesian structure analysis) revealed that spanish population grouped with Malta and Tunisia populations. Although it is possible that T. articulata earlier was natural in Southeast Spain, results suggest that the current population has been reintroduced into the Iberian Peninsula in historical times, due to its utility in mining and building. In addition, results could be used to propose management guidelines for the conservation of T. articulata.
  • Sánchez-Gómez, Departamento de Biología Vegetal (Botánica), Universidad de Murcia, Campus de Espinardo s/n, E-30100 Murcia, Spain ORCID ID:E-mail: psgomez@um.es
  • Jiménez, Departamento de Biología Vegetal (Botánica), Universidad de Murcia, Campus de Espinardo s/n, E-30100 Murcia, Spain ORCID ID:E-mail: fjimenez@um.es (email)
  • Vera, Departamento de Biología Vegetal (Botánica), Universidad de Murcia, Campus de Espinardo s/n, E-30100 Murcia, Spain ORCID ID:E-mail: jbveraperez@gmail.com
  • Sánchez-Saorín, Dirección General de Medio Ambiente, Consejería de Presidencia de la Región de Murcia, C/ Catedrático Eugenio Úbeda nº3, E-30071 Murcia, Spain ORCID ID:E-mail: fjavier.sanchez3@carm.es
  • Martínez, Dirección General de Medio Ambiente, Consejería de Presidencia de la Región de Murcia, C/ Catedrático Eugenio Úbeda nº3, E-30071 Murcia, Spain ORCID ID:E-mail: juanf.martinez@carm.es
  • Buhagiar, Argotti Herbarium and Gardens (UOM), Triq Vincenzo Bugeja Floriana VLT 16, Malta ORCID ID:E-mail: joseph.buhagiar@um.edu.mt
article id 908, category Research article
Sattar Ezzati, Akbar Najafi, M. A. Rab, Eric K. Zenner. (2012). Recovery of soil bulk density, porosity and rutting from ground skidding over a 20-year period after timber harvesting in Iran. Silva Fennica vol. 46 no. 4 article id 908. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.908
Ground-based skidding can have detrimental effects on soil properties trough soil profile disturbance and compaction that can persist for decades. We investigated the recovery of physical properties of disturbed brown soils on four abandoned downhill skid trails in a deciduous mountain forest in northern Iran. The most recent skidding operations had taken place 1–5 yrs, 6–10 yrs, 11–15 yrs, and 16–20 yrs ago, providing a 20-year chronosequence with four 5-year recovery periods. For each recovery period, mean values for soil bulk density (BD), total porosity (TP), macroporosity (MP), soil moisture content (SM), and rut depth (RD) were assessed for three levels of traffic intensity (Primary (PS), Secondary (SS) and Tertiary (TS) skid trails) and two levels of slope gradients (Gentle (G) and Steep (S)) and compared to those in undisturbed (control) areas. Over the 20-year recovery period, PS trails on gentle slopes exhibited mean values that were 35–42% (BD), 3–7% (SM), and 13–19 cm (RD) greater and 18–24% (TP) and 19–28% (MP) lower compared to undisturbed areas; on steep PS trails, values were 40–46% (BD), 2–13% (SM), and 13–21 cm (RD) greater and 23–27% (TP) and 28–35% (MP) lower, respectively. While RD and SM recovered, 20 years was not long enough for the other physical soil properties, particularly on steep slopes. To minimize soil disturbance, skidding should be confined to areas with gentle slopes and alternative harvesting methods such as cable yarding should be used where slope gradients exceed 20%.
  • Ezzati, Department of Forestry and Forest Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 64414-356, Iran ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Najafi, Department of Forestry and Forest Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, P. Box 64414-356, Iran ORCID ID:E-mail: a.najafi@modares.ac.ir (email)
  • Rab, Soil Physics Future Farming Systems Research Division, Department of Primary Industries, Victoria, Australia ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Zenner, Department of Ecosystem Science and Management, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA ORCID ID:E-mail: eric.zenner@psu.edu
article id 905, category Research article
Katarzyna A. Jadwiszczak, Danuta Drzymulska, Agata Banaszek, Piotr Jadwiszczak. (2012). Population history, genetic variation and conservation status of the endangered birch species Betula nana L. in Poland. Silva Fennica vol. 46 no. 4 article id 905. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.905
The effective conservation of species requires data on the levels and distribution of genetic diversity within and among populations. In this study, we estimated the genetic variation in three isolated populations of Betula nana in Poland. An analysis of 11 nuclear microsatellites revealed moderate mean heterozygosities (HO=0.556, HE=0.562), low mean number of alleles per locus (A=4.57) and no inbreeding in the total sample. An M-ratio test indicated that each population had experienced a severe bottleneck in the past. Tests for heterozygosity excess revealed that a significant decrease in the numbers of individuals in two populations had occurred quite recently. The large number of private alleles and very restricted number of migrants between populations (Nm=0.35) strongly suggest that genetic drift and geographic isolation are the primary factors responsible for the reduction of genetic variation in the Polish populations of B. nana. We detected two cpDNA haplotypes in the study populations, which can be explained in terms of either the genetic drift acting on the relict localities or a postglacial recolonisation from distinct refugia. Palynological data indicated that one refugium could be located in the Carpathians and their northern foreland. The primary threat to B. nana in Poland is the overgrowth of its habitats by competing species, which has likely resulted in a lack of generative reproduction in the mountain populations.
  • Jadwiszczak, Institute of Biology, University of Białystok, wierkowa 20B, 15-950 Białystok, Poland ORCID ID:E-mail: kszalaj@uwb.edu.pl (email)
  • Drzymulska, Institute of Biology, University of Białystok, wierkowa 20B, 15-950 Białystok, Poland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Banaszek, Institute of Biology, University of Białystok, wierkowa 20B, 15-950 Białystok, Poland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Jadwiszczak, Institute of Biology, University of Białystok, wierkowa 20B, 15-950 Białystok, Poland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 84, category Research article
Asko Lõhmus, Piret Lõhmus. (2011). Old-forest species: the importance of specific substrata vs. stand continuity in the case of calicioid fungi. Silva Fennica vol. 45 no. 5 article id 84. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.84
Appropriate conservation management of old-forest species depends on the causes of their old-forest affinity, which, however, are insufficiently known. Calicioid fungi are often considered old-forest dependent because of their special requirements for microhabitat, microclimate, and stand continuity for at least two tree generations. We demonstrate that, for several methodological or interpretational problems, published studies do not provide unequivocal evidence for such mechanisms and even for old-forest dependency of calicioids in general. We then analyse a large Estonian dataset (ca. 2300 records of 32 species) representing various management types and site types to answer whether old forests have more calicioid species, and any specific species, than could be expected for the substratum availability observed. Although old growth had more species and records than mature managed stands or cutover sites, those substratum types that occurred at roughly similar abundances also hosted comparable numbers of species in different management types. The characteristic substrata adding extra species to old growth were snags and root-plates of treefall mounds; wood surfaces in general comprised more than half of all calicioid records. Although substratum abundance did not fully explain the species-richness contrast between old growth and mature stands, additional evidence suggested that the unexplained variance is rather due to small-scale habitat characteristics than stand-scale continuity or microclimate. Finally, we review the evidence for old-forest affinity of calicioid species and distinguish a set of threatened species. We conclude that the availability of specific substrata is the main limiting factor for calicioid fungi in forests, and its quantitative and stochastic nature explains the large random and region-specific variation in the published lists of ‘old-forest species’.
  • Lõhmus, Department of Zoology, Institute of Ecology and Earth Sciences, University of Tartu, Vanemuise st. 46, EE-51014, Tartu, Estonia ORCID ID:E-mail: asko.lohmus@ut.ee (email)
  • Lõhmus, Department of Botany, Institute of Ecology and Earth Sciences, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 35, category Research article
Tapio Rantala. (2011). Democratic legitimacy of the forest sector and nature conservation decision-making in Finnish print media discussion. Silva Fennica vol. 45 no. 1 article id 35. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.35
The study explores perceived democratic legitimacy of forest-related decision-making processes in the Finnish print media discourse. The data consists of the readers’ letters in four journals (n = 530), and the comments given during the preparation of the Finnish National Forest Program (n = 140). The objective is to identify the patterns of democratic legitimacy and respective performance evaluations of actual decision-making processes. The patterns can be classified as support for: (A) democracy and other forms of government, (B) different forms of participation, and (C) principles of democracy. The principles can be further classified into 1) core regime, 2) input, 3) throughput, and 4) output principles. Democratic legitimacy was found to be an important source of legitimacy in the public discussion since democratic patterns were found in more than half of the texts. The most common core legitimacy principles included freedom of speech, good national and international standing, forerunnership, and legality at national and international level. The central principles related to input legitimacy included popular sovereignty, a voice for the people, popular participation, openness, presenting alternatives, and urgency. The consensus and majority rules were found to be the most prominent throughput principles. Democratic output legitimacy included accountability, responsibility, cooperation, commitment, responsiveness, the possibility to appeal, credibility, comprehensiveness, and understandability. The findings suggest that among the writers of readers’ letters there is less contestation regarding the principles of democratic legitimacy but there are significant disagreements concerning the performance of decision-making processes. The negative performance evaluations were two times more frequent than the positive evaluations.
  • Rantala, Department of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: tapio.rantala@helsinki.fi (email)
article id 35, category Research article
Tapio Rantala. (2011). Democratic legitimacy of the forest sector and nature conservation decision-making in Finnish print media discussion. Silva Fennica vol. 45 no. 1 article id 35. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.35
The study explores perceived democratic legitimacy of forest-related decision-making processes in the Finnish print media discourse. The data consists of the readers’ letters in four journals (n = 530), and the comments given during the preparation of the Finnish National Forest Program (n = 140). The objective is to identify the patterns of democratic legitimacy and respective performance evaluations of actual decision-making processes. The patterns can be classified as support for: (A) democracy and other forms of government, (B) different forms of participation, and (C) principles of democracy. The principles can be further classified into 1) core regime, 2) input, 3) throughput, and 4) output principles. Democratic legitimacy was found to be an important source of legitimacy in the public discussion since democratic patterns were found in more than half of the texts. The most common core legitimacy principles included freedom of speech, good national and international standing, forerunnership, and legality at national and international level. The central principles related to input legitimacy included popular sovereignty, a voice for the people, popular participation, openness, presenting alternatives, and urgency. The consensus and majority rules were found to be the most prominent throughput principles. Democratic output legitimacy included accountability, responsibility, cooperation, commitment, responsiveness, the possibility to appeal, credibility, comprehensiveness, and understandability. The findings suggest that among the writers of readers’ letters there is less contestation regarding the principles of democratic legitimacy but there are significant disagreements concerning the performance of decision-making processes. The negative performance evaluations were two times more frequent than the positive evaluations.
  • Rantala, Department of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: tapio.rantala@helsinki.fi (email)
article id 205, category Research article
Pekka Vakkari, Mari Rusanen, Katri Kärkkäinen. (2009). High genetic differentiation in marginal populations of European white elm (Ulmus laevis). Silva Fennica vol. 43 no. 2 article id 205. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.205
Studies on the amount of genetic variation in marginal populations and differentiation between them are essential for assessment of best gene conservation strategies and sampling schemes. Thirteen marginal populations of Ulmus laevis in southern Finland and one in Estonia were investigated for genetic variation in 20 allozyme loci. Population differentiation among Finnish stands was high, Fst = 0.290, and mean genetic diversity low, He = 0.088. The differentiation follows the isolation-by-distance structure within the core of the distribution area (lake Vanajavesi). Fairly high frequency of recurrent genotypes was observed, but this did not have an influence on the genetic parameters. The observed genetic structure is consistent with the central-marginal hypothesis. In the light of the results, the Finnish gene conservation strategy for U. laevis seems to be on a sound basis.
  • Vakkari, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Unit, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: pekka.vakkari@metla.fi (email)
  • Rusanen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Unit, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kärkkäinen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Unit, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 286, category Research article
Riitta Hänninen, A. Maarit I. Kallio. (2007). Economic impacts on the forest sector of increasing forest biodiversity conservation in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 41 no. 3 article id 286. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.286
In the next coming years, political decisions will be made upon future actions to safeguard forest biodiversity in Southern Finland. We address the economic consequences on the Finnish forest sector of conserving additional 0.5% to 5% of the old growth forest land in Southern Finland. The impacts on supply, demand and prices of wood and forest industry production are analysed employing a partial equilibrium model of the Finnish forest sector. An increase in conservation raises wood prices and thus the production costs of the forest industry. This makes sawnwood production fall, but does not affect paper and paperboard production. The forest owners’ aggregated wood sales income is unaffected or slightly increased, because an increase in stumpage prices offsets the decrease in the harvests. If conservation increases wood imports, negative effects on forest industry become smaller whereas aggregated forest owners’ income may decline depending on the magnitude of import substitution.
  • Hänninen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Unioninkatu 40 A, FI-00170 Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: riitta.hanninen@metla.fi (email)
  • Kallio, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Unioninkatu 40 A, FI-00170 Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: maarit.kallio@metla.fi
article id 297, category Research article
Antti Marjokorpi, Jukka Salo. (2007). Operational standards and guidelines for biodiversity management in tropical and subtropical forest plantations – How widely do they cover an ecological framework? Silva Fennica vol. 41 no. 2 article id 297. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.297
The development of standards and guidelines to secure sustainable forest management at different geographical scales has expanded greatly during the past fifteen years. Most of these efforts, however, have been formulated for natural forests only; those designed specifically for forest plantations are relatively few. The global forest plantation area is expanding rapidly, with obvious positive and negative impacts on biodiversity. We characterize the key concepts of biodiversity in tropical and subtropical forest plantations and present an analysis of how these elements are covered in the eight principal operational standards and guidelines for sustainable plantation forestry. We also examine the applicability of standards and guidelines in plantations established and managed under different initial settings. The results indicate that the standards and guidelines address certain key elements of biodiversity comprehensively, meanwhile others are ignored or receive only slight attention. There is also substantial variation between the sets in their nature (performance- vs. process-based), scope, congruity in concepts and hierarchy, and specificity. The standards and guidelines seldom take into account the varying initial settings for plantation establishment and the consequent variation in critical factors in biodiversity conservation and management. We recommend that standards and guidelines should be developed so as to pay more attention to the type and operating environment of plantations, to cover all key factors of biodiversity, and to consider building closer relationships between the social and ecological aspects of biodiversity.
  • Marjokorpi, Stora Enso, Wood Supply, Talvikkitie 40 C, FI-01300 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: antti.marjokorpi@storaenso.com (email)
  • Salo, Department of Biology, University of Turku, FI-20140 Turku, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 304, category Research article
Joanna Kosinska, Andrzej Lewandowski, Wladyslaw Chalupka. (2007). Genetic variability of Scots pine maternal populations and their progenies. Silva Fennica vol. 41 no. 1 article id 304. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.304
The genetic variability of Scots pine was investigated in six populations from Poland representing two maternal populations and their natural and artificial progenies. Thirteen enzyme systems controlled by 25 allozyme loci were analyzed using starch gel electrophoresis. Progeny populations maintained a high and similar level of genetic variation to that observed in the maternal populations. As expected, much closer genetic relationships were observed between maternal populations and their respective progeny than between the two maternal populations themselves. Progeny populations had the same major alleles, but differed in the number of rare alleles. Therefore, probably not all rare alleles were transferred from the maternal stands to the progenies. In addition, new rare alleles appeared in the progeny populations, possibly as a result of external pollen flow into the maternal populations.
  • Kosinska, Department of Human Medical Genetics, Medical University of Warsaw, Oczki 1, 02-007 Warsaw, Poland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Lewandowski, Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Dendrology, 62-035 Kórnik, Poland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Chalupka, Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Dendrology, 62-035 Kórnik, Poland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 383, category Research article
Lena Gustafsson, Leif Appelgren, Anders Nordin. (2005). Biodiversity value of potential forest fertilisation stands, as assessed by red-listed and ‘signal’ bryophytes and lichens. Silva Fennica vol. 39 no. 2 article id 383. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.383
In Sweden ca. 20 000 ha forestland is fertilised each year. By using red-listed and ‘signal’ bryophytes and lichens as indicators, we investigated whether forest stands planned for fertilisation have a biodiversity value, and thus if restrictions due to conservation aspects are motivated. Species occurrences were registered in detailed line-transect analysis, with a record size of 10 x 10 m, in 74 coniferous forest stands with a mean age of 57 years in East-Central Sweden. On the 230 ha totally surveyed, 10 red-listed and 37 signal species were found. The mean number of records ha–1 of red-listed bryophytes and lichens was 0.26 ha–1, which is considerably less than previously found in mature production stands and woodland key habitats. Red-listed species were found in 31% of the stands and signal species in 95%. More than 70% of all records of red-listed species and 30% of the records of the signal species were found in moist micro-sites. If rare bryophytes and lichens are to be preserved in fertilisation stands, improved instructions regarding avoidance of important micro-sites are needed.
  • Gustafsson, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Conservation Biology, Box 7002, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: lena.gustafsson@nvb.slu.se (email)
  • Appelgren, Belfragegatan 34H, SE-462 37 Vänersborg, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Nordin, Museum of Evolution, Botany, Norbyvägen 16, SE-752 36 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 393, category Research article
Seppo Rouvinen, Anne Rautiainen, Jari Kouki. (2005). A relation between historical forest use and current dead woody material in a boreal protected old-growth forest in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 39 no. 1 article id 393. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.393
Assessing the human impact on the naturalness and vegetation characteristics of protected areas is one of the key issues when designing forest conservation networks in Fennoscandia. We studied the small-scale, detailed relationship between forest utilization history and the current availability of dead woody material in a protected old-growth forest area in North Karelia, eastern Finland. From the study area of 32.4 ha, all the stumps (diameter ≥ 5 cm and height < 1.3 m, classified as natural, man-made and of undetermined origin) were measured using 25 x 25 m sub-plots. Standing and fallen dead trees (dbh ≥ 5 cm) were measured on 50 x 50 m plots in an area of 7.8 ha. The average number of stumps was 130 per ha, and over half of the stumps were classified as man-made. However, the historical documents since the 1910s showed no logging in the area: some of the largest man-made stumps probably originated from an earlier time, but most of those stumps were made considerably later. The variation in the total number of stumps (per ha) was great (range 0–560/ha, 0–16 m2/ha), with no clear clustering in space. However, clustering of man-made stumps was detected. The average volume of pooled standing and fallen trees was 84 m3/ha, with a range of 37–146 m3/ha. The other noticeable man-made disturbance besides logging was notching of aspens, which has a scatteredly significant influence on the amount of dead trees. In conclusion, the protected old-growth forest was not as a whole in a natural state but showed different degrees of human impact from virtually untouched patches to quite heavily managed patches. The results suggest that the number of man-made stumps may be a relatively quick and easy method of assessing the naturalness of woody biomass structure in the Fennoscandian boreal forests.
  • Rouvinen, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forestry, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: seppo.rouvinen@joensuu.fi (email)
  • Rautiainen, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forestry, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kouki, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forestry, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 485, category Research article
Helen Uliczka. (2003). Nature conservation efforts by forest owners – intentions and practice in a Swedish case study. Silva Fennica vol. 37 no. 4 article id 485. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.485
Before a forest operation Swedish forest owners need to fill in a registration form. Since 1994, when a new Swedish Forestry Act came into force, intended nature conservation measures can also be noted on the form. I evaluate 1) if the self-reported nature conservation intentions displayed any trends from 1995 to 2000, and 2) if the intentions were implemented. All forms from these years, in one municipality, were analysed and the stand structure retention was measured on 40 clear-cuts. The intentions, noted as check-marks on the form, showed an increasing trend during these years. However, the increase may be an artefact of changes the form during the time period. The number of check-marks on the forms and the stand structure items actually present on the 40 clear-cuts showed a positive relation. The clear-cuts with ≤ 3 check-marks on the form had lower amounts of the three most common items, than those with ≥ 4 check-marks. To conclude 1) a true increase in the self-reported intentions of the forest owners could not be established; 2) the intentions were generally followed by associated practices on the clear-cuts; 3) the amounts of stand structures retained were probably not enough to reach the biodiversity goal of the Forestry Act. The registration form could be improved to become less open for interpretation and contain quantified recommendations. Self-reported intentions of the forest owners could then possibly be used as indicators of real structural retention, which could facilitate planning and allow for making predictions about the future forests.
  • Uliczka, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Forest Faculty, Department of Conservation Biology, Grimsö Wildlife Research Station, SE-730 91 Riddarhyttan, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: helen.uliczka@nvb.slu.se (email)
article id 526, category Research article
Matleena Kniivilä, Olli Saastamoinen. (2002). The opportunity costs of forest conservation in a local economy. Silva Fennica vol. 36 no. 4 article id 526. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.526
Costs generated by nature conservation are repeatedly under discussion. Most often the costs of conservation are estimated as aggregate figures at the national or regional level or alternatively, for a forest owner. In this study they were examined at the local level, in the forestry dependent municipality of Ilomantsi in Eastern Finland. The estimations of lost net revenues (stumpage income less silvicultural costs), wages, entrepreneurial income and profits, employment and value added were based on alternative forest management plans calculated for conservation areas. The annual losses as regards employment during the first decade were estimated to be 5.7–20.4 jobs. Later, the employment effects were estimated to be 2.4–6.3 lost jobs. Although the value added lost during the first decade was estimated to be at maximum only 3.4% of the present total value added of the municipality, the share of the value added of forestry was estimated to be higher than the mere protected forest land share would indicate. The use of conservation areas for forestry would create a moderate increase of employment in forestry, i.e. 3.8–14%, during the first decade, but it would later stabilise at a much lower level. Employment impacts at the municipal level were estimated as very small (at maximum 0.9%), but on the other hand, for some villages even single jobs may matter. The main reasons for the minor impacts were the high mechanisation rate of logging and the major flow of stumpage income outside the locality.
  • Kniivilä, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forestry, P.O. Box 111, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: matleena.kniivila@joensuu.fi (email)
  • Saastamoinen, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forestry, P.O. Box 111, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 526, category Research article
Matleena Kniivilä, Olli Saastamoinen. (2002). The opportunity costs of forest conservation in a local economy. Silva Fennica vol. 36 no. 4 article id 526. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.526
Costs generated by nature conservation are repeatedly under discussion. Most often the costs of conservation are estimated as aggregate figures at the national or regional level or alternatively, for a forest owner. In this study they were examined at the local level, in the forestry dependent municipality of Ilomantsi in Eastern Finland. The estimations of lost net revenues (stumpage income less silvicultural costs), wages, entrepreneurial income and profits, employment and value added were based on alternative forest management plans calculated for conservation areas. The annual losses as regards employment during the first decade were estimated to be 5.7–20.4 jobs. Later, the employment effects were estimated to be 2.4–6.3 lost jobs. Although the value added lost during the first decade was estimated to be at maximum only 3.4% of the present total value added of the municipality, the share of the value added of forestry was estimated to be higher than the mere protected forest land share would indicate. The use of conservation areas for forestry would create a moderate increase of employment in forestry, i.e. 3.8–14%, during the first decade, but it would later stabilise at a much lower level. Employment impacts at the municipal level were estimated as very small (at maximum 0.9%), but on the other hand, for some villages even single jobs may matter. The main reasons for the minor impacts were the high mechanisation rate of logging and the major flow of stumpage income outside the locality.
  • Kniivilä, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forestry, P.O. Box 111, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: matleena.kniivila@joensuu.fi (email)
  • Saastamoinen, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forestry, P.O. Box 111, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 675, category Research article
Per Linder, Peter Jonsson, Mats Niklasson. (1998). Tree mortality after prescribed burning in an old-growth Scots pine forest in northern Sweden. Silva Fennica vol. 32 no. 4 article id 675. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.675
Tree mortality and input of dead trees were studied after a prescribed burning in a forest reserve in northern Sweden. The stand was a multi-layered old-growth forest. The overstorey was dominated by Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and the understorey consisted of mixed Scots pine and Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.). Ground vegetation was dominated by ericaceous dwarf-shrubs and feathermosses. The stand has been affected by six forest fires during the last 500 years. The prescribed burning was a low intensity surface fire that scorched almost 90% of the ground. Tree mortality for smaller pines and spruces (DBH < 10 cm) was over 80% in the burned parts of the reserve. For larger pines, 10–50 cm DBH, mortality showed a decreasing trend with increasing diameter, from 14% in class 10–20 cm DBH to 1.4% in class 40–50 cm DBH. However, pines with DBH ≥ 50 cm had a significantly higher mortality, 20%, since a high proportion of them had open fire scars containing cavities, caused by fungi and insects, which enabled the fire to burn inside the trunks and hollow them out. The fire-induced mortality resulted in a 21 m3 ha–1 input of dead trees, of which 12 m3 ha–1 consisted of trees with DBH ≥ 30 cm. An increased mortality among larger trees after low-intensity fires has not previously been described in Fennoscandian boreal forests, probably owing to a lack of recent fires in old-growth stands. However, since large pines with open fire scars were once a common feature in the natural boreal forest, we suggest that this type of tree mortality should be mimicked in forestry practices aiming to maintain and restore natural forest biodiversity.
  • Linder, Department of Forest Vegetation Ecology, SLU, S-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Jonsson, Department of Forest Vegetation Ecology, SLU, S-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Niklasson, Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, SLU, Box 49, S-230 53 Alnarp, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:

Category: Research note

article id 92, category Research note
Adam Felton, Erik Andersson, David Ventorp, Matts Lindbladh. (2011). A comparison of avian diversity in spruce monocultures and spruce-birch polycultures in southern Sweden. Silva Fennica vol. 45 no. 5 article id 92. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.92
The replacement of some spruce monocultures with stands composed of planted Norway spruce (Picea abies) and naturally regenerated birch (Betula spp.) has a range of potential benefits, but the implications for biodiversity are generally unknown. Here we conduct a paired replicated study in southern Sweden of the avian biodiversity found within Norway spruce monocultures, and within Norway spruce stands possessing approximately 20% birch. Our research leads us to three findings. First, avian diversity was significantly higher in the spruce–birch polycultures. Second, spruce–birch polycultures exclusively attracted broadleaf-associated bird species and retained the majority of conifer-associated bird species found in the spruce monocultures. Third, avian biodiversity within the spruce–birch polycultures did not incorporate threatened taxa. We suggest that in addition to the apparent benefits for stand level diversity, widespread use of spruce–birch polycultures could provide a means of softening the matrix for broadleaved-associated species, while concurrently providing an increased broadleaf base from which future conservation actions could be implemented. Our results are relevant to multi-use forestry, and recent policy initiatives by forest certification agencies which aim to increase broadleaf-associated biodiversity within conifer-dominated production forest landscapes.
  • Felton, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, Alnarp, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: adam.felton@ess.slu.se (email)
  • Andersson, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, Alnarp, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Ventorp, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, Alnarp, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Lindbladh, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, Alnarp, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:

Category: Discussion article

article id 572, category Discussion article
Timo Kuuluvainen, Kaisu Aapala, Petri Ahlroth, Mikko Kuusinen, Tapio Lindholm, Tapani Sallantaus, Juha Siitonen, Harri Tukia. (2002). Principles of ecological restoration of boreal forested ecosystems: Finland as an example. Silva Fennica vol. 36 no. 1 article id 572. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.572
  • Kuuluvainen, Department of Forest Ecology, University of Helsinki, P.O.Box 27 FIN-00014, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: timo.kuuluvainen@helsinki.fi (email)
  • Aapala, Finnish Environment Institute, Expert Services Department, Nature Division, P.O. Box 140, FIN-00251 Helsinki ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Ahlroth, University Museum, Section of Natural History, P.O. Box 35, FIN-40351, Jyväskylä, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kuusinen, Ministry of the Environment, Land Use Department, P.O.Box 380, FIN-00131 Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Lindholm, Finnish Environment Institute, Expert Services Department, Nature Division, P.O. Box 140, FIN-00251 Helsinki ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Sallantaus, Pirkanmaa Regional Environment Centre, P.O. Box 297, FIN-33101 Tampere, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Siitonen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Centre, P.O. Box 18, FIN-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: juha.siitonen@metla.fi
  • Tukia, Finnish Environment Institute, Expert Services Department, Nature Division, P.O. Box 140, FIN-00251 Helsinki ORCID ID:E-mail:

Category: Article

article id 5636, category Article
Timo Pukkala, Jyrki Kangas, Matleena Kniivilä, Anne-Mari Tiainen. (1997). Integrating forest-level and compartment-level indices of species diversity with numerical forest planning. Silva Fennica vol. 31 no. 4 article id 5636. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8538

The study proposes a technique which enables the computation of user-defined indices for species diversity. These indices are derived from characteristics, called diversity indicators, of inventory plots, stand compartments, and the whole forest holding. The study discusses the modifications required to be made to typical forest planning systems due to this kind of biodiversity computation. A case study illustrating the use of the indices and a modified forest planning system is provided. In the case study, forest-level species diversity index was computed from the volume of dead wood, volume of broadleaved trees, area of old forest, and between-stand variety.

At the stand level, the area of old forest was replaced by stand age, and variety was described by within-stand variety. All but one of the indicators were further partitioned into two to four sub-indicators. For example, the volume of broadleaved trees was divided into volumes of birch, aspen, willow, and other tree species. The partial contribution of an indicator to the diversity index was obtained from a sub-priority function, determined separately for each indicator. The diversity index was obtained when the partial contributions were multiplied by the weights of the corresponding indicators and then were summed. The production frontiers computed for the harvested volume and diversity indices were concave, especially for the forest-level diversity index, indicating that diversity can be maintained at satisfactory level with medium harvest levels.

  • Pukkala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kangas, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kniivilä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Tiainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5604, category Article
Nigel Dudley, Jean-Paul Jeanrenaud, Adam Markham. (1996). Conservation in boreal forests under conditions of climate change. Silva Fennica vol. 30 no. 2–3 article id 5604. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9249

Addressing the potential impact of climate change on boreal forest ecosystems will require a range of new conservation techniques. During the early 1990s, the scope of WWF's (the World Wide Fund for Nature) forest policy work has broadened from a focus on tropical moist forests to a more general consideration of all the world's forests. Climate change is only one of a series of threats currently facing boreal forests.

Planning conservation strategies that take account of global warming is not easy when there are many computer models of climate change, sometimes predicting very different ecological effects. Climate change could result in some particularly extreme problems for the boreal forest biome. A summary of the problems and opportunities in boreal forests is presented. WWF has also been drawing up strategies for conservation on a global, regional and national level. The organization has concluded that conservation strategies aimed at combatting climate change need not be in direct conflict with other conservation planning requirements. However, proposals have emerged for ways to address the impacts of climate change that would have detrimental impacts on existing conservation plans.

  • Dudley, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Jeanrenaud, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Markham, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5499, category Article
Niels Elers Koch. (1993). Outlines of environmental policy concerning forests in the European Community. Silva Fennica vol. 27 no. 1 article id 5499. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15660

The paper, presented at the seminar ”Forestry in Europe: Implications of European Integration for National Forestry”, discusses the effects of first Forestry Action Programme in the European Community, UNCED 1992, the European Community’s new Forestry Strategy and the second Forestry Action Programme directives of conservation of habitats on forestry within the EC.

  • Koch, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5118, category Article
Matti Nuorteva, Jyrki Patomäki, Lennart Saari. (1981). Large poplar longhorn, Saperda carcharias (L.), as food for white-backed woodpecker, Dendrocopos leucotos (Bechst.). Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 2 article id 5118. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15059

In a locality in Southern Finland where the white-backed woodpecker, Dendrocopos leucotos (Bechst.), was previously breeding was found many conical borings excavated during the winter in young aspens (Populus tremula L.) on average 8.1 cm in diameter. Full-grown larvae of Saperda carcharias (L.) (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) hibernated in pupal chambers constructed about 0.5 m above ground level. Below this chamber the larva has usually prepared an exit hole. After the larva has blocked itself in the pupating chamber it is easy to prey for the woodpecker during the whole winter.

There were usually 1–5 conical borings in the same trunk. The number of these borings did not correspond with the amounts of larvae eaten, since the woodpecker often made these borings in places from which it could not obtain a prey. The woodpeckers stopped excavating in those cases when the larvae in the galleries were dead. The exit holes and the conical borings occluded within a few years. The galleries within the tree will not heal and several years later a new larva may utilize them. In the wintering habitats of the white-backed woodpecker the availability of food could be improved by increasing the amount of S. sarcharias larvae. This is easily done by encouraging young aspens.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Nuorteva, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Patomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Saari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5037, category Article
Peitsa Mikola. (1979). Environmental content of forestry education in Europe. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 3 article id 5037. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14894

Traditionally, European forest education has emphasized environmental conservation. Forest education reflects the needs of society. After the industrial revolution, rapidly growing forest industries needed an increasing amount of wood, and the emphasis of forestry education was on timber production on the basis of sustained yield, and on efforts for progressively raising yields.

The technical and economic development of the recent decades introduced two themes in the environmental content of forest education: 1) The changing role of forests in society increase importance of protection and recreational functions of forests, and 2) modern technology has caused great changes in the forestry itself. These changes have to be taken into account also in the forest education. The environmental content of forest education can be divided into two broad fields, the ecological basis and environmental influences of various forest operations, and forest management for non-production uses. In both fields university curricula include a) basic courses, obligatory for all forestry students, b) optional courses, and c) advanced courses for higher degrees.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Mikola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4911, category Article
Leo J. Salo. (1974). Wilderness-alueet Yhdysvaltain kansallispuistoissa. Silva Fennica vol. 8 no. 4 article id 4911. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14755
English title: Wilderness areas in American national parks.

The paper deals with the establishment and present situation of the national parks in USA. The aim of the establishment of national parks was, on the one hand, to preserve part of the natural environment, and on the other hand, to reserve areas suitable for recreation. In addition to the national parks, or rather within them, so-called wilderness areas have been established since 1964. In these areas even such measures as fire and insect control are avoided to the greatest extent possible. The use of the wilderness areas for recreation is restricted to foot and horse trails as well as watercourses, all motorized transportation being prohibited. Campgrounds are provided with only the most primitive comforts. So far only a few wilderness areas have been established in the national parks, but there are tens of suitable areas that have been reserved for this purpose.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Salo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4824, category Article
Peitsa Mikola. (1970). Metsä- ja puutalouden tehtävät luonnonsuojelussa. Silva Fennica vol. 4 no. 3 article id 4824. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14613
English title: The role of forestry and forest industries in conservation.

The purpose of forestry has hitherto been seen mainly as economic conservation, i.e. the use and management of timber resources on a sustainable yield basis. Along with the rising standard of living, however, amenity values of the environment will become more appreciated, which means that forestry and forest industries will be concerned with conservation of immaterial resources of nature as well. Since inland lakes cover some 10% of the surface area of Finland, and forests occupy more than 70% of the land area, forests and lakes are essential constituents of the Finnish environment during both work and leisure.

The main task of the pulp and paper industry in conservation is the control of water pollution. Today some 10% of Finnish lakes are polluted. Pulp and paper industries contribute 75% of the total waste water load of the Finnish lakes. Increasing water pollution can be prevented by improved processing technology, waste water treatment, and economic use of industrial wastes. Thus, the waste water load of the lakes has not increased in the last 10 years, despite doubling of pulp and paper production. According to the prognoses, by the year 2000 the waste water load from pulp and paper industries will be reduced to one half or one fourth of the present level although the capacity will still be increasing.

In forest management more emphasis should be paid on the aesthetic and recreational values of forests. Along with increasing leisure the need for recreational areas is growing. Scenic and recreational aspects must be considered in the management of industrial forests, too. With wise management, high timber yield is compatible with the maintenance of an enjoyable environment. Good silviculture takes account of timber production, wildlife management and landscape architecture simultaneously. National forestry development programs must be based on the principle of the multiple use of forests.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Mikola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7588, category Article
Niilo Söyrinki, Risto Salmela, Jorma Suvanto. (1977). Oulangan kansallispuiston metsä- ja suokasvillisuus. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 154 article id 7588. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7588
English title: The forest and mire vegetation of the Oulanka National Park, Northern Finland.

The Oulanka National Park is situated in the district of Kuusamo on the eastern border of Finland, close to the Arctic Circle and within the coniferous forest zone. It covers a surface area of 107 km2, and is known for the richness of its vegetation and flora, a product of a varied bedrock pattern including occurrences of dolomite. A description is given of the vegetation of the 9 forest and 47 peatland types distinguishable in the area by means of tables based on quadrat surveys. The distribution of each forest and peatland type is described in a vegetation map. The vegetation types are discussed in terms of the structure of their soil and the ecological and floristic features of their plant cover.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Söyrinki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Salmela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Suvanto, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4640, category Article
Jaakko Jalas. (1953). Rokua : suunnitellun kansallispuiston kasvillisuus ja kasvisto. Silva Fennica no. 81 article id 4640. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9102
English title: Vegetation and flora in the planned national park of Rokua in Northern Finland.

The 4.4 km2 sized area of Rokua is a sandy ridge situated in the transitional zone between Central and Northern Finland. It has been suggested to become a new national park due to its, in the area unique landscape and geological characteristics.

The vegetation of the area has been little studied. A vegetation analysis was performed in 1945, 1947 and 1949. Due to low nutrients in the sandy soil, the number of species is relatively low, including 236 vascular plants. The climate is continental. Lichen covering of soil in the Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) dominated forests is mostly intact compared to the more northern areas, because grazing of reindeer has been little. Fellings have increased in the surrounding areas of the planned national park. The article includes a detailed description of vegetation and flora in the area.

The article includes a summary in German.

  • Jalas, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4639, category Article
Luonnon- ja kansallispuistokomitea. (1953). Uusien luonnon- ja kansallispuistojen perustaminen valtion maille : luonnon- ja kansallispuistokomitean mietintö. Silva Fennica no. 79 article id 4639. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9101
English title: Establishment of new nature parks and national parks on the state-owned lands in Finland.

The article is report of the Nature Park and National Park Committee appointed by the Government of Finland in 1950. It contains a proposal for establishment of new nature parks and natural parks on state-owned lands in Finland. The article also includes a draft of act and decree for establishment of the new nature parks and national parks.

In order to replace the nature reserves lost through the 1944 Armistice with new areas and to create a comprehensive network of nature and national parks, including Southern Finland, the committee proposes new protected areas. The proposal includes the following nature parks: Jussaari, Vaskijärvi, Vesijako, Sinivuori, Häädetkeidas, Salamajärvi, Ulvinsalo, Paljakka, Runkaus, Maltio, Sompio, and Kevo. National parks include Liesjärvi, Linnansaari, Petkeljärvi, Pyhähäkki, Rokua, Oulanka-Juuma, and Lemmenjoki. The total area of the suggested new 23 nature reserves is 1,425 km2. The committee suggets that the administration of the new nature parks and national parks should remain in the responsibility of Forest Service and Forest Research Institute.

The article contains a summary in English

  • Luonnon- ja kansallispuistokomitea, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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