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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
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Articles containing the keyword 'cross-sectional area'.

Category: Research article

article id 511, category Research article
Luis Diego Pérez Cordero, Markku Kanninen. (2003). Heartwood, sapwood and bark content, and wood dry density of young and mature teak (Tectona grandis) trees grown in Costa Rica. Silva Fennica vol. 37 no. 1 article id 511. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.511
The aim of this study was to evaluate the heartwood, sapwood and bark content, and wood dry density in young and mature teak (Tectona grandis) trees. For this, 17 plantations were selected from 11 sites representing different climatic conditions and plantation densities (156 to 1600 trees ha–1, and line planting). From these plantations, a total of 87 trees with ages between 5 and 47 years were felled for stem analysis. The highest heartwood proportion of stem volume (over bark) was 61% and the lowest 0.4%. The sapwood proportion ranged between 24 and 72%, while bark represented from 14 to 37% of the total volume. Heartwood proportion was significantly different (P < 0.05) among climatic zones: ‘wet’ sites producing less heartwood than ‘dry’ sites. Stem diameter (under bark) and heartwood diameter at different stem heights differed among sample trees, even when plotted in relative values to avoid dependency with stem size. Dry density was statistically different between 8-year-old trees or younger and 47-year-old trees, and between line planting trees and 13-year-old trees or younger, but did not differ statistically between line planting trees and mature trees. No significant differences were found between climatic zones or between different stand densities. Dry density values for T. grandis plantations in Costa Rica are similar to those reported elsewhere.
  • Pérez Cordero, Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza (CATIE), Turrialba, Costa Rica ORCID ID:E-mail: diegoperez@costarricense.cr (email)
  • Kanninen, Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), Bogor, Indonesia ORCID ID:E-mail:

Category: Article

article id 7208, category Article
T. Heikkilä. (1927). Über die Ermittelung der Querfläche eines Stammes. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 32 no. 3 article id 7208. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7208
English title: On examining the cross-sectional area of a stem.
Original keywords: Querfläche; Formel; Stamm
English keywords: cross-sectional area; formula; stem

Because the cross-sectional area of a tree stem is ellipsis, it cannot be determined exactly with only the diameter measurement.  The article presents a formula and the calculation of the exact cross-sectional area. If the cross-sectional area is calculated as arithmetic mean of two diameter measurement, varies the error between two limit values. The error becomes smallest by calculating the area based on the biggest and the smallest diameter measurements. 

  • Heikkilä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5351, category Article
Tapani Repo. (1988). Physical and physiological aspects of impedance measurements in plants. Silva Fennica vol. 22 no. 3 article id 5351. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15508

Electrical impedance characteristics of plant cells are dependent on such physiological factors as physiological condition, developmental stage, cell structure, nutrient status, water balance and temperature acclimation. In the measurements also such technical and physical factors as type of electrodes, frequency, geometry of the object, inter-electrode distance and temperature have an effect. These factors are discussed especially with respect to the impedance method in frost resistance studies of plants.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Repo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4950, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1976). Lisähavaintoja haapatukkien poikkipinta-alan mittaamisesta. Silva Fennica vol. 10 no. 4 article id 4950. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14796
English title: Auxiliary observations on the measurement of the cross-sectional area of aspen logs.

In this study the area, 8 diameters, and 16 radii were measured of 174 discs representing aspen logs in a mill. The average difference between the largest and smallest diameter was 18 mm, or 7% of the longest diameter. The difference between the largest and smallest radius was 29 mm, or 22% of the longest radius. The diameter was on the average 2.4 mm longer than the two corresponding radii.

The exact area of each disc was measured using a planimeter. In comparison, the area based on the circle formula the diameter being the arithmetic mean of largest and smallest diameters overestimated the area by 1.7%. The results also indicated that the use of random direction in the measurement of diameter overestimated the cross-sectional area on the average by 1.8%.

The study is continuation of the earlier study where the bibliography is presented. As far as the results are comparable, they support each other.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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