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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
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Acta Forestalia Fennica
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Articles containing the keyword 'cutting budget'.

Category: Article

article id 7133, category Article
Kullervo Kuusela, Aarne Nyyssönen. (1962). Tavoitehakkuulaskelma. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 74 no. 6 article id 7133. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7133
English title: The cutting budget for a desirable growing stock.
Original keywords: hakkuulaskelma; menetelmät
English keywords: cutting budget; methods

Because the ‘rental cut method’ is rather arduous and based partly on subjective analysis, new forms for a cutting budget has been developed. One of them is a method called stock development forecast, and another method will be described in this paper. The main characteristics of the present growing stock affecting the allowable cut are the forest area, site quality, forest composition by age and development classes, volume, and increment.

In the method described in this paper an analysis of the desirable stock is necessary. The allowable cut is a function of the current and desirable stock and the increment during the budget period. The budget is based on information about the forest area, site quality, growing stock and its structure, collected from an inventory. The desirable stock is described in the same sub-groups as is the current stock. An increment forecast is prepared by compound and an interest formulae and increment percentages are presented as a function of the stock age. The allowable cut shows the average amount of the cut during the management plan period.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kuusela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Nyyssönen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7131, category Article
Olavi Linnamies. (1961). Valtion metsien hakkuusuunnite ja sen toteutumisen edellytykset. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 74 no. 4 article id 7131. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7131
English title: The allowable cut in the State Forests of Finland and the condition for its realization.

Two lines can be defined in the management planning for the State Forests of Finland: 1) general planning for regions and inspectional sub-regions based on forest inventory, and 2) management plans for individual districts based on the revision of each district after 10–15 years. Long-term planning is has recently been alleviated by several new methods, such as stock-development forecast and yield tables.

A stock-development forecast and cutting budget were prepared separately for each State Forest region. The present growing stock was based on the data collected in the inventory in 1951–1955. Desirable stock for each region was calculated. The methods to calculate total cut during near future, allowable cut, allowable cut by timber products, the long-term development of the allowable cut, and conditions for realizing the allowable cut are presented in the paper.

The development of the growing stock towards a desirable condition requires also realization of a silvicultural program. Because the Finnish forest industry is expanding vigorously, the amount of the allowable cut on a sustained basis must be estimated carefully. Otherwise the demand for wood may exceed the supply. Though there are many sources of error in preparing a long-term cutting budget, it was considered necessary for State Forestry. An approximate estimate of the largest cut on a sustained basis and a program of silvicultural measures necessary to increase the yield gradually has been worked out.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Linnamies, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7483, category Article
Kustaa Kallio. (1958). Tutkimuksia hakkauslaskelmasta ja siihen perustuvasta metsän tuottoarvosta. 1. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 68 no. 1 article id 7483. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7483
English title: Studies on cutting budget and yield in terms of value based on the cutting budget. I.

An estimate of value of a forest holding is needed, for instance, when the holding is sold. There is, however, no standard method for forest valuation. This paper describes a method based on yield in terms of value that is estimated on the basis of cutting budget. The first, mensurational part of the investigation concentrates on calculation of cutting budget that can be used in forest valuation. Second part studies how chronological order of fellings changes allowable cut in forests that differ by age-class distribution and other structural properties. Structure and variation in the structure of silviculturally different forests are determined for the forests that form the data for the investigation.

According to the study, even if the forests studied in the investigation included forests which structure differed in their age-class distribution from normal forests, they could be managed in a such way that in 5-6 decades the age-class distribution resemble that of a normal forest, and have growing stock that correspond the stock of forests in Southern Finland, about 80-110 m3/ha. Based on this, the cutting budgets of the later decades of the first rotation can be assumed to be nearly even. The original age-class distribution of the forest affects, however, allowable cut of the forests during the first decade. The revenues of the first decade have small impact on the value, the later decades strong. Consequently, development of the most valuable part of the allowable cut, timber trees, has big impact on the value. The results show that in young forests the planned cut including the proportion of timber trees increases, in middle-aged forest it is relatively even, and in old forest declining. The results indicate the order of magnitude the planned cut can be in near future in diferent kinds of forests, and when different felling regimes are used to reach different goals.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Kallio, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7481, category Article
Kullervo Kuusela. (1959). Kasvuennusteen suorittaminen hakkuulaskelman yhteydessä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 67 no. 7 article id 7481. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7481
English title: Increment forecast in connection with cutting budget.

The purpose of this study was to clarify increment forecast methods in connection with the cutting budget. The emphasis is laid on the Finnish increment per cent methods. A tentative attempt is made to carry out a passage calculation. Increment forecasts are accomplished for diameter class distribution of a 60 years old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand. The increment data for the growing stock are taken from the domestic increment calculating tables.

When comparing the results of the two methods, the increment values are expressed in rabatt per cent in which the forecasted annual increment is in proportion to the initial value of the growing stock. It will be emphasized that the weak point in the domestic budgets is in the relation between the increment of the developable stock and the increment of the exploitable stock. Almost all the Finnish increment data are from the developable trees and the estimates of the increment of the exploitable trees have not been on sufficient facts.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kuusela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7378, category Article
V. Lihtonen. (1943). Tutkimuksia metsän puuston muodostumisesta : tuottohakkauslaskelma. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 51 no. 2 article id 7378. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7378
English title: Studies on development of growing stock: calculation of cutting budget.

The aim of the study was to develop a method for calculating a cutting budget that is adapted to the present forest management practices. The cutting budget determines the volume of annual cuttings for a forest holding in a certain period of time. Effect of fellings on the cutting budget depends on the cutting methods used. The study aimed at proving that growth of the forest can be estimated based on growing stock and structure of the forests for a certain time period. Accordingly, adequate drain can be defined in advance. The cutting budget is based on age-class distribution of the forest holding, which is most applicable for even-aged forestry. Calculation is based on area of the forest land and estimated volume of the growing stock. Also, the quality of the forest soil can be taken into account when age-class distribution is used. A suitable period for estimating a cutting budget is suggested to be 20 years, which is divided in two 10-year periods. The cutting budget it is included in a forestry plan. An example of a cutting plan based on the method is presented.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Lihtonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7626, category Article
Aarne Nyyssönen, Risto Ojansuu. (1982). Metsikön puutavaralajirakenteen, arvon ja arvokasvun arviointi. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 179 article id 7626. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7626
English title: Assessment of timber assortments, value and value increment of stands in Finland.

The paper is the final report of a study on the estimation of value increment and inherent variables of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) stands. The main aim was to obtain improved criteria for decision-making concerning the priority of stands for regeneration.

The construction of various estimation models and their reliability are discussed in detail. The study, together with some previous papers, has resulted in a system which on the basis of a number of easily assessed stand variables gives for the stands concerned the volume of stems, percentages of timber assortments, stumpage value, volume increment and value increment.

The following examples are given with regard to the practical application of the results, in addition to the determination of the relative maturity of stands: 1) The study of various trends in stand development; the comparison between the volume and value variables. 2) The estimation of timber assortments needed for a cutting budget, trees marked for felling etc. 3) The calculation of the value of forests.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Nyyssönen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Ojansuu, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7553, category Article
Leo Ahonen. (1971). Diskonttausarvo ja hakkuitten ajallinen tahdistus. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 119 article id 7553. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7553
English title: Discount value and time sequence of fellings.

The aim of the study was to discover a model by which the determination of the discount value of a woodlot can be simplified so as to make it possible to avoid both the computation of a cutting budget and the customary discount procedure itself. The regression analysis of the cutting budget data that indicates the discounted amount of the fellings to be expected and the assortment composition can be discovered rather accurately as a function of the measured stand characteristics only.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Ahonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7600, category Article
Pekka Kilkki. (1968). Income-oriented cutting budget. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 91 article id 7600. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7600

The aim of this study was to develop cutting budget methods for a forest undertaking. Cutting budget provides information on the future income from the forest undertaking, and on the development of the forest.

Two cutting budget models have been developed, by the application of simulation and linear programming. Both of the models are deterministic in nature, i.e. there is only one possible outcome once the stated input information has been given. To make the models simpler, it has been assumed that thinning and clear cutting with reforestation are the only activities that can occur in the forest. The models are directly applicable only to forests consisting of even-aged Scots pine stands at three different forest types. However, they can easily be extended to cover forests comprising several tree species and more sites.

In the light of this study, simulation seems today to be more appropriate than linear programming in the preparation of cutting budgets. However, the increasing capacity of computers may even in the near future make linear programming quite competitive, especially as if it is borne in mind that the theoretical basis of linear programming is much firmer than that of simulation. The most advisable cutting budget method might consist of a combination of simulation and linear programming. Simulation could be employed to find a rough cutting schedule, and linear programming to test and improve the solution.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Kilkki, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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