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Articles containing the keyword 'deficiency'.

Category: Research article

article id 1734, category Research article
Jyrki Hytönen, Paula Jylhä, Keith Little. (2017). Positive effects of wood ash fertilization and weed control on the growth of Scots pine on former peat-based agricultural land – a 21-year study. Silva Fennica vol. 51 no. 3 article id 1734. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1734
Highlights: Weed control decreased and fertilization increased vegetation height and shading of seedlings; Weed control decreased mortality, but fertilization had no effect; Despite improved foliar K concentration though ash fertilization, all trees in the trial had severe K deficiency after 21 years; Weed control increased growth by 20 m3 ha–1 and fertilization by 35 m3 ha–1 in 21 years.

The impacts of weed control, ash fertilization and their interaction were tested for the afforestation of former agricultural peat-based soil with Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in northern Finland in a factorial arrangement of four treatments. Weed control with herbicides was carried out in July 1 and 2 years from planting, and wood ash (5 Mg ha–1) was applied in the spring of the 2nd year. Various vegetation, tree growth and nutrient assessments were made over the 21-year study period. Weed control decreased the weed cover by 36–56 percentage points, vegetation height by 4–26 cm and thus shading of seedlings by vegetation for at least 4 years after planting. For the same period, ash fertilization increased vegetation height by 6–15 cm and shading of seedlings. Weed control reduced seedling mortality by 27 percentage points in 21 years, but ash fertilization had no significant effect. Ash fertilization increased foliar potassium and boron concentrations, but its effect declined, and severe K-deficiency was recorded 21 years after planting. Up to the 9th year, weed control had a greater influence on growth than fertilization. Later the significance of fertilization increased due to an aggravated K-deficiency. Stand volume at year 21 for the untreated control plots was 8 m3 ha–1. Weed control and fertilization increased stand volume by 20 and 35 m3 ha–1, with a combined effect of 55 m3 ha–1. The effects of weed control and fertilization were additive and no significant interactions were found. Due to severe K-deficiencies, re-fertilization of all treatments would be necessary for the continued survival and growth of Scots pine.

  • Hytönen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Management and Production of Renewable Resources, Teknologiakatu 7, FI-67100 Kokkola, Finland ORCID ID: http://orcid.org/0000-0001-8475-3568 E-mail: jyrki.hytonen@luke.fi (email)
  • Jylhä, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Green technology, Teknologiakatu 7, FI-67100 Kokkola, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: paula.jylha@luke.fi
  • Little, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, George Campus, Western Cape, South Africa ORCID ID:E-mail: keith.little@nmmu.ac.za
article id 1301, category Research article
Mikko Moilanen, Jyrki Hytönen, Hannu Hökkä, Anssi Ahtikoski. (2015). Fertilization increased growth of Scots pine and financial performance of forest management in a drained peatland in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 49 no. 3 article id 1301. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1301
Highlights: All fertilizers containing phosphorus and potassium improved the P and K status and the stem growth of Scots pine still 26 years from application; Wood ash, containing more nutrients than other fertilizers, gave the strongest stand growth response and the highest net present value; Ash fertilizer treatment outperformed other fertilizer treatments and control in net present value, regardless of the applied discount rate, 3%, 4% or 5%.

The long-term effects of fertilization on the needle nutrient concentrations, growth and financial performance of a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand was examined in a thick-peated drained peatland forest located in Central Finland. At the trial establishment in 1985, the trees were suffering from P and K deficiencies, but their N status was good. The fertilizer treatments were Control, PK (rock phosphate + potassium chloride), ApaBio (apatite phosphorus + biotite) and wood ash, applied both with and without N and replicated six times. All treatments containing phosphorus and potassium increased foliar P and K concentrations above the deficiency limits up to the end of the study period of 26 years. The effect of the fertilization on stand volume growth of Scots pine was strong and continued still at the end of the study period. The trees on ApaBio and PK plots grew nearly two-fold and those on Ash plots over two-fold compared with the control plots. In a thinning made at the end of the study period the total logging removal on fertilized plots was 1.5–2.2 times greater and included more saw logs than on the control plots. Ash fertilizer treatment outperformed other fertilizer treatments as well as the control. With a 5% discounted equivalent annual income (EAI) of Ash fertilizer treatment was statistically significantly (p=0.009) almost three times higher than that of control. As a conclusion, fertilization (either using PK fertilizers or Ash) in N-rich drained peatlands is a financially feasible method of management.

  • Moilanen, Natural Resources Institute Finland, Natural resources and bioproduction, Paavo Havaksen tie 3, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: mikko.moilanen@luke.fi (email)
  • Hytönen, Natural Resources Institute Finland, Natural resources and bioproduction, Silmäjärventie 2, FI-69100 Kannus, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: jyrki.hytonen@luke.fi
  • Hökkä, Natural Resources Institute Finland, Natural resources and bioproduction, Eteläranta 55, FI-96301 Rovaniemi, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: hannu.hokka@luke.fi
  • Ahtikoski, Natural Resources Institute Finland, Natural resources and bioproduction, Paavo Havaksen tie 3, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: anssi.ahtikoski@luke.fi
article id 1301, category Research article
Mikko Moilanen, Jyrki Hytönen, Hannu Hökkä, Anssi Ahtikoski. (2015). Fertilization increased growth of Scots pine and financial performance of forest management in a drained peatland in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 49 no. 3 article id 1301. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1301
Highlights: All fertilizers containing phosphorus and potassium improved the P and K status and the stem growth of Scots pine still 26 years from application; Wood ash, containing more nutrients than other fertilizers, gave the strongest stand growth response and the highest net present value; Ash fertilizer treatment outperformed other fertilizer treatments and control in net present value, regardless of the applied discount rate, 3%, 4% or 5%.

The long-term effects of fertilization on the needle nutrient concentrations, growth and financial performance of a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand was examined in a thick-peated drained peatland forest located in Central Finland. At the trial establishment in 1985, the trees were suffering from P and K deficiencies, but their N status was good. The fertilizer treatments were Control, PK (rock phosphate + potassium chloride), ApaBio (apatite phosphorus + biotite) and wood ash, applied both with and without N and replicated six times. All treatments containing phosphorus and potassium increased foliar P and K concentrations above the deficiency limits up to the end of the study period of 26 years. The effect of the fertilization on stand volume growth of Scots pine was strong and continued still at the end of the study period. The trees on ApaBio and PK plots grew nearly two-fold and those on Ash plots over two-fold compared with the control plots. In a thinning made at the end of the study period the total logging removal on fertilized plots was 1.5–2.2 times greater and included more saw logs than on the control plots. Ash fertilizer treatment outperformed other fertilizer treatments as well as the control. With a 5% discounted equivalent annual income (EAI) of Ash fertilizer treatment was statistically significantly (p=0.009) almost three times higher than that of control. As a conclusion, fertilization (either using PK fertilizers or Ash) in N-rich drained peatlands is a financially feasible method of management.

  • Moilanen, Natural Resources Institute Finland, Natural resources and bioproduction, Paavo Havaksen tie 3, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: mikko.moilanen@luke.fi (email)
  • Hytönen, Natural Resources Institute Finland, Natural resources and bioproduction, Silmäjärventie 2, FI-69100 Kannus, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: jyrki.hytonen@luke.fi
  • Hökkä, Natural Resources Institute Finland, Natural resources and bioproduction, Eteläranta 55, FI-96301 Rovaniemi, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: hannu.hokka@luke.fi
  • Ahtikoski, Natural Resources Institute Finland, Natural resources and bioproduction, Paavo Havaksen tie 3, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: anssi.ahtikoski@luke.fi
article id 129, category Research article
Mikko Moilanen, Markku Saarinen, Klaus Silfverberg. (2010). Foliar nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium concentrations of Scots pine in drained mires in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 44 no. 4 article id 129. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.129
An imbalanced nutrient status in Scots pine stands on drained mires is primarily a consequence of excess nitrogen (N) in relation to mineral nutrients such as phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). In this study, the variation of foliar N, P, and K concentrations relative to some site and environmental characteristics was examined. Foliar nutrient concentrations were determined on needle samples collected from mires representing different drainage ages, site types, geographical locations and annual weather conditions. In the overall data (n = 971 samples in 333 stands) the foliar N concentration varied between 6.7 and 24.2 mg g-1, the P concentration between 0.83 and 2.32 mg g-1, and the K concentration between 2.22 and 6.23 mg g-1. The original (pre-drainage) mire site type proved to be an important factor in explaining the nutrient status of the trees: on originally forested sites, the nutrient balance (N versus K; N versus P) was mostly adequate, whereas on sparsely forested and treeless sites, K deficiency was common. N deficiency was the most common in forested ‘nitrogen-poor’ sites, while P and K deficiencies were more common in originally treeless or sparsely forested ‘nitrogen rich’ sites, where the nutrient imbalance was also the greatest. Over the whole data, 29% of the cases were diagnosed to be N-deficient, 51% P-deficient, and 25% K-deficient. The foliar N concentration increased with increasing temperature sum. The foliar K concentration decreased with increasing depth of the peat layer. On former treeless or sparsely forested sites, foliar K decreased slightly with increasing drainage age. In contrast, on thin-peated sites the foliar P concentration increased with increasing drainage age. The climate conditions (location), the original site type of the mire and peat thickness should be taken into account when planning silvicultural measures on mires drained for forestry.
  • Moilanen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Muhos and Parkano Research Units, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: mikko.moilanen@metla.fi (email)
  • Saarinen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Muhos and Parkano Research Units, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Silfverberg, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Muhos and Parkano Research Units, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 208, category Research article
Mikko Räisänen, Tapani Repo, Tarja Lehto. (2009). Cold acclimation of Norway spruce roots and shoots after boron fertilization. Silva Fennica vol. 43 no. 2 article id 208. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.208
Boron deficiency, manifested as shoot dieback, is a problem in conifer stands growing on soils with high nitrogen availability in Fennoscandia. Earlier observations on Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) suggest that freezing tolerance is decreased by boron deficiency. Here, the effect of boron fertilization on cold acclimation of Norway spruce was studied in a young stand with initially low boron status two years after fertilization. Buds, stems, needles and roots were collected at five sampling times during cold acclimation and subsequently exposed to series of freezing temperatures. Lethal temperatures of organs were assessed by electrolyte leakage method (EL) and visual scoring of damage (VS). Freezing tolerance of buds was measured also by differential thermal analysis (DTA). The mean boron (B) concentration in needles was 4 mg kg–1 in unfertilized and 21 mg kg–1 in B-fertilized trees while critical level of B deficiency is considered to be 5 mg kg–1. The risk for increased freezing injuries in the low-B trees was not evident since all trees achieved cold hardiness that would be sufficient in central Finland. At two sampling times out of five, shoots or stem of B-fertilized trees were slightly more freezing tolerant than non-fertilized trees. However, the present study does not give strong evidence for the hypothesis that decreased freezing tolerance in B deficiency would be a triggering factor for leader dieback in Norway spruce at the B levels studied.
  • Räisänen, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forest Sciences, P.O.Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland; (present address), FAForest, FI-83480 Ahonkylä, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Repo, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Unit, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Lehto, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forest Sciences, P.O.Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: tarja.lehto@joensuu.fi
article id 221, category Research article
Glen Murphy, Rod Brownlie, Mark Kimberley, Peter Beets. (2009). Impacts of forest harvesting related soil disturbance on end-of-rotation wood quality and quantity in a New Zealand radiata pine forest. Silva Fennica vol. 43 no. 1 article id 221. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.221
The long-term effect of soil disturbance (litter removal, topsoil removal and compaction) from forest harvesting on wood quality and quantity of second-rotation Pinus radiata growing on a clay loam soil, was assessed at the end the rotation, 26 years after planting. Relative to Control plots, average tree and stand total volume at rotation end was not significantly affected by litter removal and nil or light compaction, but was significantly reduced by 28% by litter and topsoil removal and moderate subsoil compaction, and further reduced by 38% by heavy compaction. Wood density at breast height in the inner rings of trees in the most disturbed treatments was elevated by up to 30 kg m–3. This occurred because these treatments were more N deficient as reflected by foliar N levels during the first 11 years of growth relative to the Control. However, no treatment differences in wood density were evident in outer rings, and by rotation age overall mean density did not differ significantly between treatments. Neither acoustic velocity of standing trees, nor acoustic velocity of logs, was significantly affected by soil disturbance, indicating that stiffness of lumber cut from trees in the trial was likely to be similar for all treatments. Economic impacts of soil disturbance and compaction on this soil type will therefore result largely from the considerable negative impacts on final tree size, with little or no compensation from improved wood properties.
  • Murphy, Forest Engineering, Resources and Management Department, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, USA ORCID ID:E-mail: glen.murphy@oregonstate.edu (email)
  • Brownlie, Scion Research, Rotorua, New Zealand ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kimberley, Scion Research, Rotorua, New Zealand ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Beets, Scion Research, Rotorua, New Zealand ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 492, category Research article
Seppo Kaunisto, Tytti Sarjala. (2003). Foliar potassium concentrations of bilberry, bog bilberry and downy birch as indicators of potassium nutrition of Scots pine on a drained peatland. Silva Fennica vol. 37 no. 3 article id 492. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.492
Leaves of bilberry (V. myrtillus), bog bilberry (V. uliginosum) and downy birch (B. pubescens) were collected five times during a growing season from 18 plots in a drainage area, and needles of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) once during the following winter from the same plots at Parkano, southern Finland. The aim was to study the potassium nutrition of the test plants and relationships between the foliar potassium concentrations of Scots pine and of the test plants. The estimation of the potassium nutrition of test plants was based on the accumulation of putrescine in foliage. Apart from single observations, elevated putrescine concentrations were found when the potassium concentrations were < 5 mg g–1 in bilberry, < 4 mg g–1 in bog bilberry and < 6 mg g–1 in downy birch, and the highest concentrations below the potassium levels of 3.0–3.5 mg g–1. At the concentrations of 2–3 mg g–1 the accumulation increased pronouncedly in bog bilberry but less in downy birch and only slightly in bilberry. The foliar potassium concentrations in test plants correlated closely with the concentrations in pine needles. The concentrations of all species in August were quite stable at the levels of the severe and slight potassium deficiency of pine (3.5 and 4.5 mg g–1 respectively) indicating that August would be suitable for collecting foliage. The concentrations in bog bilberry were very close to the concentrations in pine at the severe and those in bilberry at the slight deficiency level of pine. All test plants could be used for predicting the potassium nutrition of Scots pine, but additional research is needed for the practical application of the method.
  • Kaunisto, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Parkano Research Station, Kaironiementie 54, FIN-39700 Parkano, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: seppo.kaunisto@metla.fi (email)
  • Sarjala, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Parkano Research Station, Kaironiementie 54, FIN-39700 Parkano, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 492, category Research article
Seppo Kaunisto, Tytti Sarjala. (2003). Foliar potassium concentrations of bilberry, bog bilberry and downy birch as indicators of potassium nutrition of Scots pine on a drained peatland. Silva Fennica vol. 37 no. 3 article id 492. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.492
Leaves of bilberry (V. myrtillus), bog bilberry (V. uliginosum) and downy birch (B. pubescens) were collected five times during a growing season from 18 plots in a drainage area, and needles of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) once during the following winter from the same plots at Parkano, southern Finland. The aim was to study the potassium nutrition of the test plants and relationships between the foliar potassium concentrations of Scots pine and of the test plants. The estimation of the potassium nutrition of test plants was based on the accumulation of putrescine in foliage. Apart from single observations, elevated putrescine concentrations were found when the potassium concentrations were < 5 mg g–1 in bilberry, < 4 mg g–1 in bog bilberry and < 6 mg g–1 in downy birch, and the highest concentrations below the potassium levels of 3.0–3.5 mg g–1. At the concentrations of 2–3 mg g–1 the accumulation increased pronouncedly in bog bilberry but less in downy birch and only slightly in bilberry. The foliar potassium concentrations in test plants correlated closely with the concentrations in pine needles. The concentrations of all species in August were quite stable at the levels of the severe and slight potassium deficiency of pine (3.5 and 4.5 mg g–1 respectively) indicating that August would be suitable for collecting foliage. The concentrations in bog bilberry were very close to the concentrations in pine at the severe and those in bilberry at the slight deficiency level of pine. All test plants could be used for predicting the potassium nutrition of Scots pine, but additional research is needed for the practical application of the method.
  • Kaunisto, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Parkano Research Station, Kaironiementie 54, FIN-39700 Parkano, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: seppo.kaunisto@metla.fi (email)
  • Sarjala, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Parkano Research Station, Kaironiementie 54, FIN-39700 Parkano, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:

Category: Article

article id 5633, category Article
Seppo Kaunisto, Tytti Sarjala. (1997). Critical needle potassium concentrations indicated by diamine putrescine in Norway spruce growing on peat soils. Silva Fennica vol. 31 no. 4 article id 5633. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8535

Dormant needles from 129 Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) trees from the 2nd and 3rd topmost whorls were collected from spruce stands locating fairly close to each other. Tree height varied from 8 to 25 metres. Trees with and without visual potassium deficiency symptoms in needles were selected and analysed for nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, boron, copper, zinc, and 3 free polyamines putrescine, spermine and spermidine.

The concentrations of all the analysed nutrients ranged from deficient to satisfactory levels. Free putrescine, spermidine and spermine concentrations in the current needles had a wide variation between the trees. Spermidine had a positive and spermine a negative correlation with potassium. Putrescine had a strong negative correlation with potassium with statistically significant increase in putrescine starting at potassium concentrations below 5.4 mg/g dry weight. The regression between putrescine and potassium changed from a linear to a non-linear form at the potassium concentration of 4.2–4.6 mg/g dry weight representing a severe K deficiency limit. The corresponding K/P ratio was 2.6–2.7. Extremely low phosphorus concentrations (P < 1.0 mg/g) lowered putrescine concentrations, but otherwise the relationships between putrescine, spermidine or spermine and potassium concentrations were unaffected by tree nutrition. At adequate potassium levels the putrescine concentrations were only slightly lower in trees taller than 20 metres than in trees of 8–16 metres height. The results show that the needle putrescine concentration can be used quite reliably for describing potassium nutrition of Norway spruce in varying nutritional and tree size conditions.

  • Kaunisto, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Sarjala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5565, category Article
Tytti Sarjala, Seppo Kaunisto. (1996). Effect of different potassium sources on the seasonal variation of potassium and free polyamines in Scots pine needles. Silva Fennica vol. 30 no. 4 article id 5565. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8500

Seasonal fluctuations in free polyamines, spermidine, spermine, putrescine and potassium concentrations were studied for two years (1992–1993) in three needle years of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) grown on a drained mire in western Finland. Seven different fertilizer treatments involving five different sources of potassium were used.

Putrescine concentrations were high in winter and in May but low in summer. High peaks in putrescine in March and May could be found in unrefertilized or rock phosphate treatments. Spermidine and spermine concentrations were high in March and May. In December spermine concentrations were low. Biotite increased the needle potassium concentrations less than the other potassium fertilizers but the putrescine concentrations or the putrescine/spermidine ratio to about the same level. This suggests that biotite, although very slowly soluble, can reasonably satisfy potassium nutrition of young pine trees.

The potassium concentrations of needles in all the fertilization treatments were higher in winter than in summer. The response of putrescine to the potassium concentration was strongly negative in all the needle years and sampling times. In March, May and December the response of putrescine to potassium was fairly similar in both years but not in June and August. The results suggest that the potassium concentrations during the growing season cannot be used for estimating the potassium nutrition of trees, because the variation between the years may be substantial, whereas the needle putrescine concentration or putrescine/spermidine ratio indicates the suboptimum potassium status of Scots pine fairly well. Needle putrescine concentrations over 500 nmol g-1FW quite regularly coincided with a unsatisfactory potassium nutrition and concentrations over 1,000 nmol g-1FW were a reliable indication of potassium deficiency. Putrescine/spermidine ratios below 5 indicated a satisfactory potassium nutrition in all needle years throughout the year.

  • Sarjala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kaunisto, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5481, category Article
Pekka Nygren, Pertti Hari. (1992). Effect of foliar application with acid mist on the photosynthesis of potassium-deficient Scots pine seedlings. Silva Fennica vol. 26 no. 3 article id 5481. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15642

The interactive effects of potassium deficit and foliar application with acid water (pH 5.5, 4.5, 4.0 and 3.0 given consecutively) on CO2 exchange rate of Pinus sylvestris L. seedlings was investigated in field conditions. No reduction of the CO2 exchange rate was observed in the seedlings supplied with sufficient potassium. Only the seedlings having the lowest needle K concentration (2.4 mgg-1) had an apparently low CO2 exchange rate before the applications with acid water. The CO2 exchange rate of most of the seedlings with low needle K concentration (3.9–6.0 mgg-1) decreased after the acid water application. The threshold acidity for the reduction varied between pH 4,0 and 3.0 depending on the needle K concentration. The reduction was more apparent at high irradiance. It was concluded that acid precipitation disturbs the CO2 exchange only in conditions of mineral nutrient deficit.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Nygren, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Hari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4953, category Article
Seppo Kellomäki, Pertti Hari. (1976). Rate of photosynthesis of some forest mosses as a function of temperature and light intensity and effect of water content of moss cushion on photosynthetic rate. Silva Fennica vol. 10 no. 4 article id 4953. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14799

The photosynthetic rate of Pleurosium schreberi (Willd.), Hylocomnium splendens (Hedw.) and Dicranum undulatum (Sw.) grown in plastic containers was monitored with infrared gas analyser in open air under natural weather conditions. It proved that the photosynthetic rate of wet moss cushions was satisfactorily predicted by temperature and light intensity. In dry moss cushions this kind of model gave too high an estimate for photosynthetic rate. Water requirements of each moss species were found to be moderate, and water content of moss cushions limited photosynthetic rate only under serious water deficiency.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Kellomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Hari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4882, category Article
Hannu Mannerkoski. (1973). Ekologisia havaintoja eräältä ojitetulta suolta. Silva Fennica vol. 7 no. 2 article id 4882. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14718
English title: Ecological investigations in a drained peatland area.

The paper deals with the relationships between macronutrients, ground vegetation and tree crop on a drained peatland area in Central Finland. The former herb-rich spruce swamp was drained in 1930s. The Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) stand was established by planting under a nurse crop of birch, which was removed later.

There was a negative correlation between the thickness of the peat layer and the volume and mean height of the growing stock. This was found to depend on the negative correlation prevailing between the potassium content of the topmost peat layer and the thickness of the peat cover. The deficiency of potassium is clearly discernible as deficiency symptoms in the needles, the intensity of which showed a strong correlation with the stand characteristics studied. Among the nutrient characteristics of the topmost peat layer, total potassium and the N/K and P/K ratios showed the closest correlation with the stand characteristics. The communities into which the ground vegetation was divided differed from each other with regard to the calcium content of the peat substrate.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Mannerkoski, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4876, category Article
Tapio Lehtiniemi, Juhani Sarasto. (1973). Kokemuksia rauduksen istutuksesta ojitetuille soille. Silva Fennica vol. 7 no. 1 article id 4876. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14706
English title: Betula verrucosa plantations on peat.

The aim of the present study was to assess whether two-year old Betula verrucosa Ehrh. (now Betula pendula Roth.) transplants can be used in afforestation of drained peatlands and what factors affect the development of the young trees. The seedlings were planted in 1967. The site was repair planted next spring due to mortality caused by a undefined fungal disease, and the plantations were fertilized with NPK fertilizer (soil application. The seedlings were measured twice a year until the autumn 1970.

Only 28% of the original transplants, and 73.4% of the repair plantations were alive in 1970. In some cases, fertilization improved the results, while in others it was detrimental to the trees or had no effect on survival. According to peat analysis, the poor survival and development of the plants could be due to the too high ratios of N/Ca and N/P. Stunted or dead trees displayed often necrosis caused by Godronia multispora. According to the experiences, Betula verrucosa plantations are inferior to those obtained with Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). In addition, the results indicate that in old draining areas calcium and phosphorus are often too low in comparison to nitrogen.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lehtiniemi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Sarasto, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4860, category Article
Pentti Erjala, Jussi Saramäki. (1972). Astiakoemenetelmä suotyyppien lannoitustarpeen määrityksessä. Silva Fennica vol. 6 no. 1 article id 4860. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14663
English title: Determination of the need for fertilizer application of drained peat soils with the pot method.

The possibilities of using a pot method to determine the need for fertilizer application were studied. Seedlings of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) were grown in peat samples that had cylindrical shape with a diameter of 25 cm and height of 35 cm. The samples represented three different peatland types, and were fertilized with two levels of phosphorus, potash and nitrogen. Two transplants were planted per pot. The development of the seedlings was followed for three years.

Phosphorus seemed to be of greatest importance for the growth of the seedlings, but nitrogen was also required in the poorest peatland type. Potash did not give statistically significant results. NPK application gave the best response. The usability of the method was studied by following the development of the roots. It seemed that the diameter of the pots was too small and restricted the growth of the root systems.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Erjala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Saramäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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