Current issue: 53(3)

Under compilation: 53(4)

Impact factor 1.683
5-year impact factor 1.950
Silva Fennica 1926-1997
1990-1997
1980-1989
1970-1979
1960-1969
Acta Forestalia Fennica
1953-1968
1933-1952
1913-1932

Articles containing the keyword 'drying'.

Category: Research article

article id 910, category Research article
Gernot Erber, Christian Kanzian, Karl Stampfer. (2012). Predicting moisture content in a pine logwood pile for energy purposes. Silva Fennica vol. 46 no. 4 article id 910. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.910
Determining the moisture content of naturally dried fuel stock without frequent measuring is a problem still unsolved. Modelling moisture content based on automatically captured meteorological data could provide a solution. An accurate model would allow the drying period and the point of chipping to be optimised. For the experimental study, a metal frame supported by load sensors and loaded with 17 tons of logwood was set up next to a meteorological station. A multiple linear regression model was used to link meteorological and load data to provide a formula for determining the moisture content. The pile dried for a period of 14 months (average temperature of 7.3 °C, a humidity of 81%, and 777 mm of rainfall). The overall moisture content dropped from 50.1% to 32.2%. The regression model, which based on daily means and sums of meteorological parameters, provided a mean deviance from the observed curve of –0.51%±0.71% within the period of investigation. Relative humidity was found to be most important parameter in drying. Increased moisture content resulting from rainfall greater than 30 mm per day reverted back to pre-rainfall values within two to three days, if no other rainfall events followed. Covering the pile would have a positive effect on the drying performance. In terms of economic benefit it could be shown that natural drying is beneficial. Overall this study shows that meteorological data used in site specific drying models can adequately predict the moisture content of naturally dried logwood.
  • Erber, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Peter Jordan-Strasse 82, 1190 Wien, Austria ORCID ID:E-mail: gernot.erber@boku.ac.at (email)
  • Kanzian, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Peter Jordan-Strasse 82, 1190 Wien, Austria ORCID ID:E-mail: christian.kanzian@boku.ac.at
  • Stampfer, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Peter Jordan-Strasse 82, 1190 Wien, Austria ORCID ID:E-mail: karl.stampfer@boku.ac.at
article id 190, category Research article
Katri Luostarinen, Veikko Möttönen. (2009). Effect of felling season, storage and drying on colour of silver birch (Betula pendula) wood from four different growing sites. Silva Fennica vol. 43 no. 4 article id 190. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.190
Darkening of birch wood during artificial drying is a significant problem regarding the use of its timber as raw material by the mechanical wood industry. In the future, an increasing proportion of birch timber will be obtained from plantation forests, which differ from natural forests in many respects. In this investigation sample boards of Betula pendula, both from naturally regenerated stands and plantations, were sawn into the dimensions used as raw material for parquet billets. Growing site, felling season, and storage of logs were taken into account as possible factors affecting wood colour changes during drying. The wood of birches from fertile plantations remained lighter-coloured during conventional drying than the wood of naturally regenerated birches from low- and medium-fertile stands. The reason may be the difference in tree age and growth rate between natural and planted stands. Thus, it could be beneficial to grow birch in fertile stands so that the trees reach log size as young as possible. The results of this study emphasise the good quality of the birch wood from planted stands compared to natural stands with regard to its colour.
  • Luostarinen, Faculty of Forest Sciences, University of Joensuu, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: katri.luostarinen@joensuu.fi (email)
  • Möttönen, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Lappeenranta University of Technology, P.O. Box 20, FI-53851 Lappeenranta, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 198, category Research article
Henrik Heräjärvi. (2009). Effect of drying technology on aspen wood properties. Silva Fennica vol. 43 no. 3 article id 198. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.198
This article reports the impacts of three different drying treatments on selected physical and mechanical properties of European (Populus tremula L.) and hybrid (P. tremula x tremuloides) aspen wood. The material originates from 5 European aspen stands and 7 hybrid aspen stands in southern and central Finland. After processing the logs at a saw mill, sawn timber samples were dried using 1) conventional warm air drying, 2) press drying, or 3) heat treatment into Thermo-S grade by the Finnish Thermowood® method. Finally, small clearwood specimens were manufactured from different within-stem positions for the measurements of physical and mechanical properties. Both press dried and heat treated specimens absorbed water at significantly slower pace than the conventionally dried specimens. In normal climate, the conventionally dried, press dried and heat treated specimens conditioned at equilibrium moisture contents of 12.2, 8.7, and 8.9 per cent, respectively. It appears that the butt logs between 2–6 metres contain the lightest and, thus, weakest wood in aspen stems. Radial compression strength was at its highest in heat treated specimens, whereas conventionally and press dried specimens did not differ from each other. Press dried specimens had the highest longitudinal compression strength, also heat treated specimens showed higher values than the conventionally dried ones. Radial Brinell hardness of press dried specimens was higher than that of conventionally dried or heat treated specimens. Both modulus of elasticity and modulus of rupture were at their highest in press dried specimens. Irrespective of the drying treatment, the tangential shear strength of European aspen specimens was approximately 5% higher than that of hybrid aspen. Heat treated specimens indicated significantly lower tangential shear strength values than the conventionally dried ones. In case of both aspen species, the longitudinal tensile strengths of heat treated specimens were significantly lower than those of conventionally and press dried specimens. Heat treated specimens had the highest variability among the results. The inherent flaws in aspen wood material, e.g., wetwood and density
  • Heräjärvi, Metla, Joensuu Research Unit, Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: henrik.herajarvi@metla.fi (email)
article id 278, category Research article
Katri Luostarinen. (2007). The effect of annual ring orientation and drying method on deformations, casehardening and colour of silver birch (Betula pendula) boards. Silva Fennica vol. 41 no. 4 article id 278. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.278
Deformations of timber, caused mainly by anisotropic shrinkage, can be partially directed by controlling annual ring orientation through different sawing patterns. Ring orientation also affects the movement of water from within the board to its surface, with rapidity of drying having implications for the wood colour. Here sawn silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) timber was classed into two groups according to ring orientation. Two drying methods were used. The final moisture content was lower and the colour lighter in dried boards with radial than with tangential flats, but deformations were larger in radial than in tangential boards. Both drying and ring orientation affected the final moisture content and moisture gradient of the boards. Very small differences in board sizes or shape had an effect on both colour and deformations. The results support the need for accurate sawing and for classing silver birch timber sawn into parquet billets according to ring orientation in order to optimise the drying quality.
  • Luostarinen, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: katri.luostarinen@joensuu.fi (email)
article id 278, category Research article
Katri Luostarinen. (2007). The effect of annual ring orientation and drying method on deformations, casehardening and colour of silver birch (Betula pendula) boards. Silva Fennica vol. 41 no. 4 article id 278. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.278
Deformations of timber, caused mainly by anisotropic shrinkage, can be partially directed by controlling annual ring orientation through different sawing patterns. Ring orientation also affects the movement of water from within the board to its surface, with rapidity of drying having implications for the wood colour. Here sawn silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) timber was classed into two groups according to ring orientation. Two drying methods were used. The final moisture content was lower and the colour lighter in dried boards with radial than with tangential flats, but deformations were larger in radial than in tangential boards. Both drying and ring orientation affected the final moisture content and moisture gradient of the boards. Very small differences in board sizes or shape had an effect on both colour and deformations. The results support the need for accurate sawing and for classing silver birch timber sawn into parquet billets according to ring orientation in order to optimise the drying quality.
  • Luostarinen, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: katri.luostarinen@joensuu.fi (email)
article id 652, category Research article
M. J. Youngman, G. D. Kulasiri, I. M. Woodhead, G. D. Buchan. (1999). Use of combined constant rate and diffusion model to simulate kiln-drying of Pinus radiata timber. Silva Fennica vol. 33 no. 4 article id 652. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.652
This paper presents the use of a combined constant drying-rate and diffusion model to simulate the drying of Pinus radiata timber under kiln-drying conditions. The constant drying-rate and diffusion coefficients of the model, which control the drying rate of individual pieces of timber, were determined from calibrating the model against the experimental drying curves obtained under the kiln-drying conditions. The experimental drying curves were obtained from the gravimetric measurements of the moisture content of timber during kiln drying. Statistical relationships were developed for the constant drying-rate and the diffusion coefficients of the model as functions of kiln temperature and the dry basis density of timber. To determine the effects of variability of timber, a simulation scheme was developed based on the model, the probability distribution of the density of timber, the equations for the constant drying-rate coefficient and the diffusion coefficient. The model and the associated simulation method provides a simple way to estimate the drying time of a stack of timber using parameters determined from experimental results for the specific timber kiln.
  • Youngman, Lincoln University, Appl. Management and Computing Division, P.O. Box 84, Canterbury, New Zealand ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kulasiri, Lincoln University, Appl. Management and Computing Division, P.O. Box 84, Canterbury, New Zealand ORCID ID:E-mail: kulasird@tui.lincoln.ac.nz (email)
  • Woodhead, Lincoln University, Appl. Management and Computing Division, P.O. Box 84, Canterbury, New Zealand ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Buchan, Lincoln University, Appl. Management and Computing Division, P.O. Box 84, Canterbury, New Zealand ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 652, category Research article
M. J. Youngman, G. D. Kulasiri, I. M. Woodhead, G. D. Buchan. (1999). Use of combined constant rate and diffusion model to simulate kiln-drying of Pinus radiata timber. Silva Fennica vol. 33 no. 4 article id 652. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.652
This paper presents the use of a combined constant drying-rate and diffusion model to simulate the drying of Pinus radiata timber under kiln-drying conditions. The constant drying-rate and diffusion coefficients of the model, which control the drying rate of individual pieces of timber, were determined from calibrating the model against the experimental drying curves obtained under the kiln-drying conditions. The experimental drying curves were obtained from the gravimetric measurements of the moisture content of timber during kiln drying. Statistical relationships were developed for the constant drying-rate and the diffusion coefficients of the model as functions of kiln temperature and the dry basis density of timber. To determine the effects of variability of timber, a simulation scheme was developed based on the model, the probability distribution of the density of timber, the equations for the constant drying-rate coefficient and the diffusion coefficient. The model and the associated simulation method provides a simple way to estimate the drying time of a stack of timber using parameters determined from experimental results for the specific timber kiln.
  • Youngman, Lincoln University, Appl. Management and Computing Division, P.O. Box 84, Canterbury, New Zealand ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kulasiri, Lincoln University, Appl. Management and Computing Division, P.O. Box 84, Canterbury, New Zealand ORCID ID:E-mail: kulasird@tui.lincoln.ac.nz (email)
  • Woodhead, Lincoln University, Appl. Management and Computing Division, P.O. Box 84, Canterbury, New Zealand ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Buchan, Lincoln University, Appl. Management and Computing Division, P.O. Box 84, Canterbury, New Zealand ORCID ID:E-mail:

Category: Article

article id 7311, category Article
S. E. Multamäki. (1934). Metsäojien mittojen ja muodon muuttumisesta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 34 article id 7311. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7311
English title: Changing of dimensions and form of forest ditches after the drainage in Finland.

The aim of the study was to investigate how the drain network and dimensions of ditches change after the drainage. The studied drained peatlands were situated in the municipalities of Parkano and Virrat in Central Finland. The ditches were in average 15 and 17 years old. The depth and width in the surface of the peatland were in average one quarter smaller than after the drainage. The width at the bottom of the ditch has, however, almost doubled. Peat had sunken more in peatlands with thick peat layer and higher humidity. Sinking of peat influenced the depth of the ditches. The volume of the ditches decreased about 30%. The decrease of the ditches by the drying and sinking of the peat was greater than the increase caused by erosion.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Multamäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5161, category Article
Juhani Päivänen. (1982). Physical properties of peat samples in relation to shrinkage upon drying. Silva Fennica vol. 16 no. 3 article id 5161. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15076

The study discusses the amount of shrinkage of volumetric undisturbed peat samples when drying to an oven-dry (105°C) condition. The amount of shrinkage is related to various physical properties of peat. In addition, some observations were performed on the shrinkage phenomenon during the drying process. The study results may be used when predicting the shrinkage of peat samples with various peat properties. Knowledge of this kind is particularly important in connection with peat harvesting.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Päivänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:

Register
Click this link to register for Silva Fennica submission and tracking system.
Log in
If you are a registered user, log in to save your selected articles for later access.
Contents alert
Sign up to receive alerts of new content
Your selected articles

Committee on Publication Ethics A Trusted Community-Governed Archive