Current issue: 53(1)

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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
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Acta Forestalia Fennica
1953-1968
1933-1952
1913-1932

Articles containing the keyword 'elm'.

Category: Article

article id 7152, category Article
Jouko Einola. (1964). Yksityismetsätaloudelliset vaihtoehtolaskelmat. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 77 no. 4 article id 7152. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7152
English title: Alternative calculations in private forestry.

The purpose of this theoretical study was to define the factors related to wood production that affect the financial result of private forestry in Finland on the viewpoint of alternative calculation. The paper introduces the main concepts, analyses the outturn factors and discusses feasibility of some calculation methods, and finally draws up a business plan for a forest holding based on the chosen method.

In forestry, the quantitative and sustainability objectives for yield, the difference between annual proceeds and costs, and the capital value of the costs affect which factors are included in the calculation of profitability of forestry. The base-line situation for the alternative calculations is defined by an inventory. The future proceeds and costs are valuated and procedural models are formulated for the most advantageous alternatives. The main goal in private forestry is profit.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Einola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7141, category Article
Seppo Ervasti. (1963). Suomen sahateollisuuden kausivaihtelu. 1. Aineiston hankinta ja käsittely sekä tulosten luotettavuus. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 76 no. 1 article id 7141. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7141
English title: Seasonal variation in the sawmill industry of Finland I. Collection and treatment of the material and reliability of the results.

The purpose of this paper is 1) to establish the possible seasonal variation of the different phases of work in the sawmill industry in Finland, 2) to study the internal and external factors influencing the seasonal character of the sawmill industry, 3) to study ha time lags between the work phases of the sawmill industry, 4) to analyse the seasonal nature of the industry’s money transactions, and 5) to give information concerning the factors influencing employment. The investigation is based on questionnaires of a random sample of sawmills concerning the time period of 1958-1960. This paper concentrates on the methods of the study, the results are reported in a separate paper in the Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 75 vol 1.

It was concluded that if seasonal variation in the sawmill industry is to be analysed on the scale it has been in the present work, sampling is the cheapest and most practicable method of collecting the material. If seasonal fluctuation of the industry is to be calculated by size classes, the sample must be allocated into strata by measuring the heterogeneity of the classes with a parameter illustrating seasonal variation. It might be useful to apply these parameters already when the total size of the sample is determined. For the smallest sawmills, for which practically all data have to be collected from primary documents, the most practical method is perhaps to send collectors to the spots. To the larger sawmills the questionnaire can perhaps be sent by mail. A moving index should be obtained for calculation of a seasonal index, but this demands long time series. The collection of the data is described in detail.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ervasti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7133, category Article
Kullervo Kuusela, Aarne Nyyssönen. (1962). Tavoitehakkuulaskelma. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 74 no. 6 article id 7133. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7133
English title: The cutting budget for a desirable growing stock.
Original keywords: hakkuulaskelma; menetelmät
English keywords: cutting budget; methods

Because the ‘rental cut method’ is rather arduous and based partly on subjective analysis, new forms for a cutting budget has been developed. One of them is a method called stock development forecast, and another method will be described in this paper. The main characteristics of the present growing stock affecting the allowable cut are the forest area, site quality, forest composition by age and development classes, volume, and increment.

In the method described in this paper an analysis of the desirable stock is necessary. The allowable cut is a function of the current and desirable stock and the increment during the budget period. The budget is based on information about the forest area, site quality, growing stock and its structure, collected from an inventory. The desirable stock is described in the same sub-groups as is the current stock. An increment forecast is prepared by compound and an interest formulae and increment percentages are presented as a function of the stock age. The allowable cut shows the average amount of the cut during the management plan period.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kuusela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Nyyssönen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7133, category Article
Kullervo Kuusela, Aarne Nyyssönen. (1962). Tavoitehakkuulaskelma. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 74 no. 6 article id 7133. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7133
English title: The cutting budget for a desirable growing stock.
Original keywords: hakkuulaskelma; menetelmät
English keywords: cutting budget; methods

Because the ‘rental cut method’ is rather arduous and based partly on subjective analysis, new forms for a cutting budget has been developed. One of them is a method called stock development forecast, and another method will be described in this paper. The main characteristics of the present growing stock affecting the allowable cut are the forest area, site quality, forest composition by age and development classes, volume, and increment.

In the method described in this paper an analysis of the desirable stock is necessary. The allowable cut is a function of the current and desirable stock and the increment during the budget period. The budget is based on information about the forest area, site quality, growing stock and its structure, collected from an inventory. The desirable stock is described in the same sub-groups as is the current stock. An increment forecast is prepared by compound and an interest formulae and increment percentages are presented as a function of the stock age. The allowable cut shows the average amount of the cut during the management plan period.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kuusela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Nyyssönen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7120, category Article
Kullervo Kuusela. (1960). Maan kuvioiden ja puuston vaihtelu sekä sen vaikutus metsän inventoinnin tarkkuuteen. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 72 no. 3 article id 7120. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7120
English title: Variation of the site patterns and growing stock and its effect on the precision of forest inventory.

The purpose of the investigation was to study the characteristics of the site and the growing stock and the effect of their variation on the precision of forest inventory. The total area of the forest tract is considered to be already known or it can be measured with surveying. The sub-areas or strata and the mean timber volume of each wooded stratum are estimated by sampling. Thus, the total volume of each stratum is the product of the estimates of the area and mean volume. Only line method of sampling the areas will be examined. Field material was measured in the inventory of the Finnish State Forests with the method used in the third National Forest Inventory. The circular plots and the sample trees were measured in the forests of Inari district. In this systematic line-plot method the distance between the lines was 5 km.

The results show that the total area should be broken down into suitable strata, such as the full-stocked productive forest land and regeneration areas with mother trees. The mean volume for each stratum is estimated with the plot method. An advanced estimation of the approximate mean volume and the coefficient of variation in the strata are needed for calculating the optimum allocation of plots.

If the volume calculation is done with the diameter as variable the variation of the plot volumes is decreased. If the local volume table is used and the site and stock characteristics differ from the characteristics of the volume table stock, a significant systematic error is possible. Planning of efficient and economical forest inventories requires data concerning site and stock variation. It should be calculated and published systematically by geographical region.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kuusela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7111, category Article
Juhani Sarasto. (1960). Turpeen maatuneisuuden määrittämisestä : v. Postin maatumisasteen ja Pjavtshenkon maatumisprosentin vertailu. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 71 no. 2 article id 7111. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7111
English title: Determining decomposition decree of peat with von Post Humification Scale and Pjavtshenko's method.

Decomposition of the peat using von Post Humification Scale (1–10), developed by Lennart von Post, can be determined based on characteristics of peat, such as fibre integrity, colour and viscosity of exudate, and presence of colloidal particles, of handful of peat squeezed in the hand. It is easy to use and has proved useful in the practical work. The method developed by Pjavthenko is mostly based on specific weight off a dried sample in percentage, and requires analysis in the laboratory. The aim of this study was to compare the results of these two methods by measuring 156 peat samples representing different stages of decomposition.

The methods are based on different principles, which is reflected in small differences of the results. The maximum scores of the methods are clearly in different level. The maximum grade of 9–10 in von Post scale correspond decomposition percentage 51 in the scale of Pjavtsheko. However, the decomposition values in von Post scale are placed evenly on the scale of Pjavtshenko. This suggests that the von Post Scale is consistent and accurately developed. According to the study, the Pjavtshenko method is a good method to validate results of von Post Humification Scale, and can be used when decomposition of peat samples is determined in laboratory.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Sarasto, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7110, category Article
Kullervo Kuusela. (1959). Suurin kestävä hakkuusuunnite ja sen metsätaloudellinen merkitys. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 71 no. 1 article id 7110. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7110
English title: Largest permanent allowable cut and a method for its calculation.

The purpose of the investigation was to study the factors which determine the amount of the largest permanent allowable cut and to work out a method to estimate it. There is a need to have a ’short cut’ formula for rough preliminary estimates. The preliminary estimates will be checked by stock development forecasts. The largest allowable cut and its sustained basis are only guaranteed by a forecast through a period during which all the present tree stands have reached maturity and exploited.

Estimations of the largest permanent allowable cut are based on the data of the present and desirable growing stock. The present stock was a growing stock of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) dominated stands on Vaccinium type forests in Southern Finland. The connected Austrian formula is a simple way for preliminary estimation of the largest cut but its sustained basis must be checked by a stock development forecast.

In a stock development forecast the future increment and cut are calculated. For this purpose, the average site quality, tree species, age class and average volume in each class seem to be sufficient variables. The forecast is carried out within the limiting data of the present and desirable stock.

If there is an abundance of mature and over-mature stands, the largest permanent allowable cut is greater than the present increment, provided, however, that bulk of the cut is drawn by determined generation measures. Measured in solid cubic meters, the sustained cut from the Southern Finnish pine stock exceeds the present increment by 11%. With regard to the sustained saw timber production the cut can exceed the present increment by 5–7%.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kuusela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7487, category Article
Olavi Linnamies. (1959). Valtion metsät sekä niiden hoidon ja käytön yleissuunnitelma. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 68 no. 5 article id 7487. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7487
English title: The state forests of Finland and a general management plan for them based on an inventory made in 1951-1955.

The distances between the lines in the line survey in the first two National Inventories of Finland were too long to supply data for every State Forest district. Consequently, the Third National Forest Inventory offered an opportunity to supplement the inventory for State Forests in 1954 and 1955, and to gather data on forest resources of the State Fforests. On the basis of the results, a management plan for the State Forests was drafted. The first part of the paper describes the inventory procedure and results of the inventory, the second deduces future cuttings and a forest management programme.
In 1955 the total land area of the State Forests was 9.49 million ha. Drained peatlands cover 126,000 ha, drainable peatlands 798,000 ha and undrainable peatlands 2,621,000 ha. The average volume of growing stock in all State Forests was 55.2 m3/ha, including productive and unproductive forest land. The average increment in all State Forests was 1,39 m3/ha on productive land and in all lands in average 1,14 m3/ha.
Cutting budgets for the progressive yield were prepared by checking the silvicultural cut and estimating the allowable cut. They were made by age classes, developmental stages and for each region. The stock development was forecasted for a period of 40 years. In average the allowable cut was larger during the first decade than during the second. Allowable cut was estimated by the tree species and by timber assortments. The management plan included future forest management work, such as intermediate fellings, regeneration fellings, site preparation, artificial regenereation, tending of seedling stands, and draining of peatland.
The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Linnamies, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7487, category Article
Olavi Linnamies. (1959). Valtion metsät sekä niiden hoidon ja käytön yleissuunnitelma. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 68 no. 5 article id 7487. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7487
English title: The state forests of Finland and a general management plan for them based on an inventory made in 1951-1955.

The distances between the lines in the line survey in the first two National Inventories of Finland were too long to supply data for every State Forest district. Consequently, the Third National Forest Inventory offered an opportunity to supplement the inventory for State Forests in 1954 and 1955, and to gather data on forest resources of the State Fforests. On the basis of the results, a management plan for the State Forests was drafted. The first part of the paper describes the inventory procedure and results of the inventory, the second deduces future cuttings and a forest management programme.
In 1955 the total land area of the State Forests was 9.49 million ha. Drained peatlands cover 126,000 ha, drainable peatlands 798,000 ha and undrainable peatlands 2,621,000 ha. The average volume of growing stock in all State Forests was 55.2 m3/ha, including productive and unproductive forest land. The average increment in all State Forests was 1,39 m3/ha on productive land and in all lands in average 1,14 m3/ha.
Cutting budgets for the progressive yield were prepared by checking the silvicultural cut and estimating the allowable cut. They were made by age classes, developmental stages and for each region. The stock development was forecasted for a period of 40 years. In average the allowable cut was larger during the first decade than during the second. Allowable cut was estimated by the tree species and by timber assortments. The management plan included future forest management work, such as intermediate fellings, regeneration fellings, site preparation, artificial regenereation, tending of seedling stands, and draining of peatland.
The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Linnamies, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7483, category Article
Kustaa Kallio. (1958). Tutkimuksia hakkauslaskelmasta ja siihen perustuvasta metsän tuottoarvosta. 1. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 68 no. 1 article id 7483. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7483
English title: Studies on cutting budget and yield in terms of value based on the cutting budget. I.

An estimate of value of a forest holding is needed, for instance, when the holding is sold. There is, however, no standard method for forest valuation. This paper describes a method based on yield in terms of value that is estimated on the basis of cutting budget. The first, mensurational part of the investigation concentrates on calculation of cutting budget that can be used in forest valuation. Second part studies how chronological order of fellings changes allowable cut in forests that differ by age-class distribution and other structural properties. Structure and variation in the structure of silviculturally different forests are determined for the forests that form the data for the investigation.

According to the study, even if the forests studied in the investigation included forests which structure differed in their age-class distribution from normal forests, they could be managed in a such way that in 5-6 decades the age-class distribution resemble that of a normal forest, and have growing stock that correspond the stock of forests in Southern Finland, about 80-110 m3/ha. Based on this, the cutting budgets of the later decades of the first rotation can be assumed to be nearly even. The original age-class distribution of the forest affects, however, allowable cut of the forests during the first decade. The revenues of the first decade have small impact on the value, the later decades strong. Consequently, development of the most valuable part of the allowable cut, timber trees, has big impact on the value. The results show that in young forests the planned cut including the proportion of timber trees increases, in middle-aged forest it is relatively even, and in old forest declining. The results indicate the order of magnitude the planned cut can be in near future in diferent kinds of forests, and when different felling regimes are used to reach different goals.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Kallio, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7481, category Article
Kullervo Kuusela. (1959). Kasvuennusteen suorittaminen hakkuulaskelman yhteydessä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 67 no. 7 article id 7481. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7481
English title: Increment forecast in connection with cutting budget.

The purpose of this study was to clarify increment forecast methods in connection with the cutting budget. The emphasis is laid on the Finnish increment per cent methods. A tentative attempt is made to carry out a passage calculation. Increment forecasts are accomplished for diameter class distribution of a 60 years old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand. The increment data for the growing stock are taken from the domestic increment calculating tables.

When comparing the results of the two methods, the increment values are expressed in rabatt per cent in which the forecasted annual increment is in proportion to the initial value of the growing stock. It will be emphasized that the weak point in the domestic budgets is in the relation between the increment of the developable stock and the increment of the exploitable stock. Almost all the Finnish increment data are from the developable trees and the estimates of the increment of the exploitable trees have not been on sufficient facts.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kuusela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7454, category Article
Lauri Heikinheimo. (1954). Metsätyövoiman tutkimusmenetelmä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 63 no. 1 article id 7454. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7454
English title: Method of surveying forest labour.

In Finland the general shortage of labour during the Second World War called attention to employment problems in forestry. After the war the scope widened to include sociological and human maters. The Finnish Rural Labour Force Study deals with the whole rural labour force, not only forest work. Due to the scale of the subject, pilot studies were started by the Institute of Forest Economics at the University of Helsinki and the Central Statistical Office and the Board of Agriculture in 1950. This article describes in detail the methods used in the pilot studies the and main survey.

The aim of the survey was to obtain a reliable picture of three subjects. 1) The labour input of the male rural population during the observation year, its distribution and the seasonal fluctuations in the structure of labour input. 2) The unemployment time of the rural population, the periods underemployment and its seasonal variation. 3) The number of male workers engaged for a shorter or longer period during the year in certain occupation. The paper discusses the different data sources and ways to collect the data either from enterprises or workers. One of the obstacles is the large number of enterprises in agriculture and forestry. Consequently, the total number of people employed in a particular industry, its distribution and the duration of the working season can be estimated only from a sample selected from the population.

The data of the survey is based on a systematic sample, collected by interviews, of the annual round of activity in 1950 of 44,667 men of 15-64 years of age living in Finnish rural communes. The interviews were made in connection with the 1950 census of Finland. The results of the survey are presented in the other articles of Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 63.

The PDF includes a comprehensive summary in English.

  • Heikinheimo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7454, category Article
Lauri Heikinheimo. (1954). Metsätyövoiman tutkimusmenetelmä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 63 no. 1 article id 7454. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7454
English title: Method of surveying forest labour.

In Finland the general shortage of labour during the Second World War called attention to employment problems in forestry. After the war the scope widened to include sociological and human maters. The Finnish Rural Labour Force Study deals with the whole rural labour force, not only forest work. Due to the scale of the subject, pilot studies were started by the Institute of Forest Economics at the University of Helsinki and the Central Statistical Office and the Board of Agriculture in 1950. This article describes in detail the methods used in the pilot studies the and main survey.

The aim of the survey was to obtain a reliable picture of three subjects. 1) The labour input of the male rural population during the observation year, its distribution and the seasonal fluctuations in the structure of labour input. 2) The unemployment time of the rural population, the periods underemployment and its seasonal variation. 3) The number of male workers engaged for a shorter or longer period during the year in certain occupation. The paper discusses the different data sources and ways to collect the data either from enterprises or workers. One of the obstacles is the large number of enterprises in agriculture and forestry. Consequently, the total number of people employed in a particular industry, its distribution and the duration of the working season can be estimated only from a sample selected from the population.

The data of the survey is based on a systematic sample, collected by interviews, of the annual round of activity in 1950 of 44,667 men of 15-64 years of age living in Finnish rural communes. The interviews were made in connection with the 1950 census of Finland. The results of the survey are presented in the other articles of Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 63.

The PDF includes a comprehensive summary in English.

  • Heikinheimo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7449, category Article
Valter Keltikangas. (1954). Metsäpalstan pinta-alan vaikutuksesta sen kauppahintaan. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 37 article id 7449. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7449
English title: The effect of area upon the value of a forest holding.

Forests have been priced by assessing separately the value of the land, small timber and heavy timber, and adding them together. This method of summing up gives a small woodlot the same price per hectare as a large forest area. In real estate sales the actual prices paid per hectare, however, are higher for small woodlots. The summing-up method thus over-values big forest holdings.

The figures obtained by the summing-up method should be corrected by using a reduction percentage. This value should increase with the growth of the forest area and should be higher for fully-stocked areas than those with small growing stock. A table of reduction percentages is presented, where an effort is made to eliminate the effect upon the statistics of the potential value of the land as building site and field. The results clearly indicate that the effect of area upon the price of a woodlot is fairly marked, even with very small parcels.

On the other hand, determination of the reduction percentages has some theoretical weaknesses. The author recommends a method of price evaluation which takes the factor of area directly into account, excluding arbitrary correction percentages. In this method the marketable part of the growing stock is evaluated at its felling value and its relative role decreases with the growth of the area. The rest of the growing stock together with the ground is priced as rental value. This method of professor Eino Saari does justice both to the area and to the fact that forest land and the growing tied to it form an inseparable whole.

The Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari’s 60th birthday.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Keltikangas, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7449, category Article
Valter Keltikangas. (1954). Metsäpalstan pinta-alan vaikutuksesta sen kauppahintaan. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 37 article id 7449. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7449
English title: The effect of area upon the value of a forest holding.

Forests have been priced by assessing separately the value of the land, small timber and heavy timber, and adding them together. This method of summing up gives a small woodlot the same price per hectare as a large forest area. In real estate sales the actual prices paid per hectare, however, are higher for small woodlots. The summing-up method thus over-values big forest holdings.

The figures obtained by the summing-up method should be corrected by using a reduction percentage. This value should increase with the growth of the forest area and should be higher for fully-stocked areas than those with small growing stock. A table of reduction percentages is presented, where an effort is made to eliminate the effect upon the statistics of the potential value of the land as building site and field. The results clearly indicate that the effect of area upon the price of a woodlot is fairly marked, even with very small parcels.

On the other hand, determination of the reduction percentages has some theoretical weaknesses. The author recommends a method of price evaluation which takes the factor of area directly into account, excluding arbitrary correction percentages. In this method the marketable part of the growing stock is evaluated at its felling value and its relative role decreases with the growth of the area. The rest of the growing stock together with the ground is priced as rental value. This method of professor Eino Saari does justice both to the area and to the fact that forest land and the growing tied to it form an inseparable whole.

The Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari’s 60th birthday.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Keltikangas, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7432, category Article
Ukko Rummukainen. (1954). Männyn ja kuusen käpysadosta ja sen arvioinnista vuosina 1950-1953. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 20 article id 7432. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7432
English title: Estimation of Scots pine and Norway spruce cone crop in 1950-1953.

The cone crop of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) has been assessed in Finland since 1930 annually by sending a questionnaire to forest professionals around the country. Based on the result it is decided if the crop is good enough for collection of the cones next winter. This article presents the results of cone surveys in 1950-1953, and suggest improvements in the method of the investigation.

According to the survey, Scots pine crop was best in 1952, when the crop was intermediate in the whole country, and relatively abundant in the county of Lapland. Norway spruce crop was best in 1951, when the crop was better than in average in the whole country. The evaluators had variable opinions whether the crop was good enough for cone collection or not. They assessed the pine cone collection more often as profitable than the spruce cone collection. Usual reasons to regard spruce cone collection as unprofitable were seed damages and the sites being too far away. To make the results more uniform and accurate, a suggestion to change the evaluation method is presented. The evaluation should be focused on the cone crop of mature stands.

The Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari’s 60th birthday.
The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Rummukainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7416, category Article
Erkki Laitakari. (1954). Nuori Hannikainen metsäpoliitikkona. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 4 article id 7416. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7416
English title: The young Hannikainen as a forest politician.
English keywords: biography; forestry

The article revises the accomplishments of professor Peter Woldemar Hannikainen, the former director of Forest Service of Finland, in the development of forest sector in the end of 1800s and beginning of 1900s.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Laitakari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7378, category Article
V. Lihtonen. (1943). Tutkimuksia metsän puuston muodostumisesta : tuottohakkauslaskelma. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 51 no. 2 article id 7378. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7378
English title: Studies on development of growing stock: calculation of cutting budget.

The aim of the study was to develop a method for calculating a cutting budget that is adapted to the present forest management practices. The cutting budget determines the volume of annual cuttings for a forest holding in a certain period of time. Effect of fellings on the cutting budget depends on the cutting methods used. The study aimed at proving that growth of the forest can be estimated based on growing stock and structure of the forests for a certain time period. Accordingly, adequate drain can be defined in advance. The cutting budget is based on age-class distribution of the forest holding, which is most applicable for even-aged forestry. Calculation is based on area of the forest land and estimated volume of the growing stock. Also, the quality of the forest soil can be taken into account when age-class distribution is used. A suitable period for estimating a cutting budget is suggested to be 20 years, which is divided in two 10-year periods. The cutting budget it is included in a forestry plan. An example of a cutting plan based on the method is presented.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Lihtonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7378, category Article
V. Lihtonen. (1943). Tutkimuksia metsän puuston muodostumisesta : tuottohakkauslaskelma. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 51 no. 2 article id 7378. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7378
English title: Studies on development of growing stock: calculation of cutting budget.

The aim of the study was to develop a method for calculating a cutting budget that is adapted to the present forest management practices. The cutting budget determines the volume of annual cuttings for a forest holding in a certain period of time. Effect of fellings on the cutting budget depends on the cutting methods used. The study aimed at proving that growth of the forest can be estimated based on growing stock and structure of the forests for a certain time period. Accordingly, adequate drain can be defined in advance. The cutting budget is based on age-class distribution of the forest holding, which is most applicable for even-aged forestry. Calculation is based on area of the forest land and estimated volume of the growing stock. Also, the quality of the forest soil can be taken into account when age-class distribution is used. A suitable period for estimating a cutting budget is suggested to be 20 years, which is divided in two 10-year periods. The cutting budget it is included in a forestry plan. An example of a cutting plan based on the method is presented.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Lihtonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7378, category Article
V. Lihtonen. (1943). Tutkimuksia metsän puuston muodostumisesta : tuottohakkauslaskelma. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 51 no. 2 article id 7378. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7378
English title: Studies on development of growing stock: calculation of cutting budget.

The aim of the study was to develop a method for calculating a cutting budget that is adapted to the present forest management practices. The cutting budget determines the volume of annual cuttings for a forest holding in a certain period of time. Effect of fellings on the cutting budget depends on the cutting methods used. The study aimed at proving that growth of the forest can be estimated based on growing stock and structure of the forests for a certain time period. Accordingly, adequate drain can be defined in advance. The cutting budget is based on age-class distribution of the forest holding, which is most applicable for even-aged forestry. Calculation is based on area of the forest land and estimated volume of the growing stock. Also, the quality of the forest soil can be taken into account when age-class distribution is used. A suitable period for estimating a cutting budget is suggested to be 20 years, which is divided in two 10-year periods. The cutting budget it is included in a forestry plan. An example of a cutting plan based on the method is presented.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Lihtonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7378, category Article
V. Lihtonen. (1943). Tutkimuksia metsän puuston muodostumisesta : tuottohakkauslaskelma. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 51 no. 2 article id 7378. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7378
English title: Studies on development of growing stock: calculation of cutting budget.

The aim of the study was to develop a method for calculating a cutting budget that is adapted to the present forest management practices. The cutting budget determines the volume of annual cuttings for a forest holding in a certain period of time. Effect of fellings on the cutting budget depends on the cutting methods used. The study aimed at proving that growth of the forest can be estimated based on growing stock and structure of the forests for a certain time period. Accordingly, adequate drain can be defined in advance. The cutting budget is based on age-class distribution of the forest holding, which is most applicable for even-aged forestry. Calculation is based on area of the forest land and estimated volume of the growing stock. Also, the quality of the forest soil can be taken into account when age-class distribution is used. A suitable period for estimating a cutting budget is suggested to be 20 years, which is divided in two 10-year periods. The cutting budget it is included in a forestry plan. An example of a cutting plan based on the method is presented.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Lihtonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7369, category Article
Eino Saari. (1942). Metsäojitusten yksityistaloudellisen edullisuuden määrääminen. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 16 article id 7369. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7369
English title: Calculating profitability for draining of peatlands.
Original keywords: suot; ojitus; kannattavuus; menetelmät

The article introduces methods that can be used to calculate economic profitability of draining of peatlands, and discusses their advantages and weaknesses. The time span from draining of a peatland and the future income is usually decades, which makes it difficult to assess profitability for the investment. For instance, income from future fellings depends on chosen rotation time, and price of timber that can fluctuate strongly.

When calculating the profitability, the drained area can be treated as a separate unit of account or as a part of the forest holding. In the first case, several methods can be used. First, yield in terms of value is a suitable method only if the peatland has no existing forest. Second, annual yield of a drained peatland and peatland in natural state can be compared. In this case yield can be defined in several ways. Third method uses value increment of the growing stock. Fourth method estimates value of increment for both the growing stock and land. Fifth method is based on present value of the future felling income, and sixth on actual value of the growing stock and yield in terms of value.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Saari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7368, category Article
Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. (1942). J. P. Norrlinin nuoruusvuodet : professori Norrlinin omien muistiinpanojen pohjalla. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 15 article id 7368. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7368
English title: Adolescence of professor J.P. Norrlin.
English keywords: memoir; botanist

The article describes the adolescence and the birth of his interest in botany of well-known Finnish botanist, professor Johan Petter Norrlin, born in 1842, specialized in Hieracium species.

  • Cajander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7338, category Article
Sakari Saarnijoki. (1937). Tampereen kaupungin ja sen lähiympäristön koristepuista ja -pensaista. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 46 no. 3 article id 7338. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7338
English title: Ornamental trees and shrubs in city of Tampere and the surrounding areas.
English keywords: park; garden; exotic species; shrub; fruit tree

The article is a report of the exotic tree and shrub species found in major parks and gardens in the city of Tampere, in Southern Finland, and the surrounding areas, including fruit trees and berry bushes. The survey of species was conducted in 1934-1935. There was a total of 221 tree and shrub species in the 245 parks and gardens of the city. Exotic species was found 193, of which 37 was introduced only recently. The frequency of 199 species in Tampere area and the condition of each species is listed. Most common are the native species of the genus Picea, Pinus, Betula, Acer, Prunus and Sorbus. Of the exotic species only Malus pumila (Mill.) is commonly cultivated. Relatively common are Ulmus montana (With.), Tilia cordata (Mill.) and Fraxinus excelsior (L.).

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Saarnijoki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7306, category Article
Ilmari Vuoristo. (1934). Sahatukkien teko- ja ajopalkat todellista työvaikeutta vastaaviksi. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 29 article id 7306. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7306
English title: Felling and hauling wages that correspond the actual requirements of the work.

Forest work in Finland has generally been paid by the job. The wages in 1930s were based on variable measuring units and principles in different parts of the country. The rates did not often take into account how difficult the individual stands are to harvest. The studies have shown that the productivity of logging depends on size of the stems, density of the stand, branchiness of the trees, terrain and depth of snow cover. The article suggests a wage system which takes into account the differences of the cutting areas.

Wages of felling and hauling logs that are payed per the trunk or cubic meter should be adjusted so that the earnings of an employee depends not on the quality of the stand. The quality of the stand influences the stumpage price of the wood, because of the versatile harvesting costs. If the demands of the job in a challenging stand are not compensated for the workers, the higher harvesting costs are inequitably balanced by lowering the wages of the forest workers.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Vuoristo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7292, category Article
Valter Keltikangas. (1934). Kustannuksista metsätalouden tuloslaskennassa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 15 article id 7292. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7292
English title: The placing of expenses in the balance sheet of forest management.

The term ‘expenses’ is in forestry insufficiently defined, and its use in the balance sheet of forest management is unclear. In dynamic balance theory the actual working expenses and capital expenditure are separated. The article discusses what should be considered working expenses and what capital expenditure when dealing with certain costs of the forest management, for example costs of administration, cultivation of forests, log-floating channels, and roads and drainage of peatlands.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Keltikangas, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7284, category Article
K. Linkola. (1934). Die Flatterulme (Ulmus laevis Pall.) in der Gegend des Vanajavesisees. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 7 article id 7284. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7284
English title: European white elm (Ulmus laevis Pall.) in the region of Vanajavesi-lake.

The article describes the distribution of the European white elm; its sites and vegetation communes; phenotype (size and form); variations in the leaves; inflorescence and fruiting; germinative capacity of the seeds; regeneration, both vegetative propagation and from seeds; commercial use of the timber; and the history of European white elm.

The PDF contains a summary in Finnish.  

  • Linkola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7284, category Article
K. Linkola. (1934). Die Flatterulme (Ulmus laevis Pall.) in der Gegend des Vanajavesisees. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 7 article id 7284. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7284
English title: European white elm (Ulmus laevis Pall.) in the region of Vanajavesi-lake.

The article describes the distribution of the European white elm; its sites and vegetation communes; phenotype (size and form); variations in the leaves; inflorescence and fruiting; germinative capacity of the seeds; regeneration, both vegetative propagation and from seeds; commercial use of the timber; and the history of European white elm.

The PDF contains a summary in Finnish.  

  • Linkola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7280, category Article
Gust. Komppa. (1934). Zur Kenntnis der Nadelöle einiger in Finnland gewachsener ausländischer Nadelhölzer. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 3 article id 7280. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7280
English title: Knowledge on the needle oil of certain exotic coniferous trees growing in Finland.

The aim of the study was to find out firstly whether there are differences between the etheric oils of botanically alike but in different climatic conditions growing trees, and secondly whether the oils from alike trees are also alike. This article shortly describes the chemical composition of  Pseudotsuga Douglasii cecian Schwerin and Pinus Murrayana Engelm. The needle samples are from Mustiala Arboretum.

The first mentioned contains α-pinene, camphene, bornyl acetate, probably also limonene but no geraniol. Pinus Murraya’s oil contains pinene, camphene, borneol and cadinene.

The PDF contains a summary in Finnish.  

  • Komppa, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7280, category Article
Gust. Komppa. (1934). Zur Kenntnis der Nadelöle einiger in Finnland gewachsener ausländischer Nadelhölzer. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 3 article id 7280. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7280
English title: Knowledge on the needle oil of certain exotic coniferous trees growing in Finland.

The aim of the study was to find out firstly whether there are differences between the etheric oils of botanically alike but in different climatic conditions growing trees, and secondly whether the oils from alike trees are also alike. This article shortly describes the chemical composition of  Pseudotsuga Douglasii cecian Schwerin and Pinus Murrayana Engelm. The needle samples are from Mustiala Arboretum.

The first mentioned contains α-pinene, camphene, bornyl acetate, probably also limonene but no geraniol. Pinus Murraya’s oil contains pinene, camphene, borneol and cadinene.

The PDF contains a summary in Finnish.  

  • Komppa, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7098, category Article
K. T. Jutila. (1926). Tutkimuksia Perä-Pohjolan ja Lapin talous- ja asutusoloista III. Maanviljelyksestä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 28 no. 3 article id 7098. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7098
English title: Studies on the economic conditions and colonization of Perä-Pohjola and Lapland III. Plant culture.
English keywords: agriculture; forestry; cattle; farms; Lapland

Only 0.1% of the land area of Perä-Pohjola and Lapland is arable land. The study includes a detailed survey of 154 farms in the area. Part of the results are presented in the second part of the article series about Perä-Pohjola and Lapland (Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 18). The farms had in average 1.87 hectares of arable land and 16.1 hectares of meadows. Cattle-manure was the most important dressing. The main crops were barley, hay, potatoes and rye. The article includes a detailed description about the cultivation methods.

The PDF includes a summary in English. This is a third part of four-article series on the natural resources in the area of Perä-Pohjola and Lappi. The article includes a detailed survey of the farms in the area.

  • Jutila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5409, category Article
Jukka Lippu, Pasi Puttonen. (1990). Istutustaimen juuriston alkukehitys kasvupaikalla. Silva Fennica vol. 24 no. 1 article id 5409. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15561
English title: The early development of seedling roots at the planting site: A literature review.

The structure and functional responses of roots in planted seedlings when acclimatizing at the planting site are reviewed. A wide range of methods for classifying roots has been employed, and the terminology used is not uniform. Roots can be classified by their morphology, origin, and function. The temporal and spatial variation of soil temperature, moisture, structure, and concentration of nutrients are among the most important properties to which root systems acclimatize. In order to reliably describe the function of the root system, several parameters usually have to be measured. Studies on the root-soil interface have indicated that roots are not necessarily in continuous contact with soil. The control mechanism of root growth is inadequately known and theoretically formulated. Generally, only the mass needed for water and nutrient uptake has been allocated to the roots. However, the amount of photosynthates allocated to the roots is high. Acclimatization of seedlings out at the planting site is a complicated process which is influenced by the growing conditions at both the nursery and at the site. The function, distribution and structure of roots are controlled by the environment in a way similar to the shoot, but the control mechanism is imperfectly known.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Lippu, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Puttonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5381, category Article
Jouko Hämäläinen. (1989). Ajatuksia metsän arvon määrittämisestä. Silva Fennica vol. 23 no. 2 article id 5381. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15538
English title: Thoughts about forest valuation.

In this article the methods of forest valuation, especially the sales value tables previously published in Finland are critically examined. In this connection attention is drawn to the rate of interest used in calculating the forest values.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Hämäläinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5381, category Article
Jouko Hämäläinen. (1989). Ajatuksia metsän arvon määrittämisestä. Silva Fennica vol. 23 no. 2 article id 5381. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15538
English title: Thoughts about forest valuation.

In this article the methods of forest valuation, especially the sales value tables previously published in Finland are critically examined. In this connection attention is drawn to the rate of interest used in calculating the forest values.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Hämäläinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5381, category Article
Jouko Hämäläinen. (1989). Ajatuksia metsän arvon määrittämisestä. Silva Fennica vol. 23 no. 2 article id 5381. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15538
English title: Thoughts about forest valuation.

In this article the methods of forest valuation, especially the sales value tables previously published in Finland are critically examined. In this connection attention is drawn to the rate of interest used in calculating the forest values.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Hämäläinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5377, category Article
Maija Jarva, Arja Tervahauta. (1989). Neulasten rikkianalyysi. Silva Fennica vol. 23 no. 2 article id 5377. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15534
English title: A comparison of sulphur analysis of conifer needle samples.

The results of an intercalibration of sulphur analysis by 24 laboratories are evaluated. The analysis was made by one or more of six methods. The following three methods were found to be satisfactory as regards relative speed and reliability: Leco S analysis, X-ray fluorescence, and vacuum ICO emission spectroscopy.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Jarva, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Tervahauta, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5377, category Article
Maija Jarva, Arja Tervahauta. (1989). Neulasten rikkianalyysi. Silva Fennica vol. 23 no. 2 article id 5377. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15534
English title: A comparison of sulphur analysis of conifer needle samples.

The results of an intercalibration of sulphur analysis by 24 laboratories are evaluated. The analysis was made by one or more of six methods. The following three methods were found to be satisfactory as regards relative speed and reliability: Leco S analysis, X-ray fluorescence, and vacuum ICO emission spectroscopy.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Jarva, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Tervahauta, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5323, category Article
Matti Leikola. (1987). Metsien hoidon aatehistoriaa. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 4 article id 5323. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15480
  • Leikola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5242, category Article
Suomen tilastoseura, Finnish Society of Forest Science. (1985). Metsien inventoinnin tilastolliset menetelmät. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 3 article id 5242. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15421
English title: Statistical methods in forest inventory.

At a joint meeting of the Finnish Statistical Society and the Society of Forestry in Finland on 17.10.1984, papers were presented on the history and mathematical foundations of statistical methods used in forest inventory in Finland. The advantages and applicability of Bayresian methods and methods of spatial statistics were also discussed. In two papers, forest inventories were examined as part of a forest information system and the information demands of the user were discussed.

This article includes eight presentation held in the meeting. The papers have each a summary in English.

  • Suomen tilastoseura, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Finnish Society of Forest Science, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5241, category Article
Mikko Raatikainen, Esko Rossi, Irene Vänninen. (1985). Kotipihlajan marjasadon määritysmenetelmät ja marjasato. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 2 article id 5241. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15420
English title: Methods of estimation of berry yield and berry yield of rowan tree (Sorbus aucuparia).

Berry yield of rowan tree (Sorbus aucuparia L.) was studied by picking and weighing the berries in a tree, counting the number of clusters by the eye, estimating the number of clusters by samples of 0.5 m2, and by counting the dropped berries. In the last tree methods average weight of berries in a cluster was assessed by weighing a sample of clusters. The size of the tree and the abundance of the berries influenced the choice of method. The first two methods suited for small trees, the third for a tall tree with berries in abundance, and the fourth for those cases where birds had eaten a large portion of the berries.

The berry yields of 88 rowan trees were studied in Central Finland in 1983, a year of exceptionally high berry yield. The yield of berries averaged 23 kg per tree, the number of clusters 1,249 per tree and the number of berries 42,500 per tree.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Raatikainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Rossi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Vänninen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5230, category Article
Erkki Kaila. (1985). Havaintojen käsittely ja aineiston muodostus metsäntutkimuksen tiedonhallinnan näkökulmasta. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 1 article id 5230. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15409
English title: Observation manipulation and data matrix derivation from the viewpoint of data management.

Data management is pointed out as a phase of research process. It covers research activities from observation recording to data matrix derivation. Some concepts of logical and physical database implementation are introduced.

The TUTKA -software system is introduced and observed as an instrument of research data management. Attention is paid to TUTKA’s five design criteria. Database implementation and use with TUTKA are observed precisely. Three different phases of implementing a data base are specified. Finally, some aspects to the data management of forest research are presented.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kaila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5191, category Article
Juha Lappi. (1983). Metsänuudistamisen vaatiman ajan merkitys uudistamispäätöksissä. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 3 article id 5191. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15174
English title: Elevation of the time factor in reforestation decisions.

Length of the regeneration period is a criterion commonly used for comparing different reforestation methods. The time factor should be evaluated using a realistic system for long-term planning. In this paper the preliminary evaluation is made by simplified calculations based on the development series. The slow regeneration method is assumed to be otherwise equal to the rapid one but it has a 5- or 10-years delay at the beginning, and the rotation is thus the final cutting age plus 5- or 10-years delay. Cost of the time delay is taken to be the difference in reforestation costs that makes the rapid and the slow methods equivalent. Calculations are made using zero costs for the slow method; but if the cost of the slow method increases, the critical cost difference decreases very slowly. The final cutting age and the regeneration method must be decided simultaneously. Therefore, the cost of the time delay is presented as a function of final cutting age. By maximizing the average annual revenue, rotation can be even increased if more rapid but more expensive regeneration method is used.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lappi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5191, category Article
Juha Lappi. (1983). Metsänuudistamisen vaatiman ajan merkitys uudistamispäätöksissä. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 3 article id 5191. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15174
English title: Elevation of the time factor in reforestation decisions.

Length of the regeneration period is a criterion commonly used for comparing different reforestation methods. The time factor should be evaluated using a realistic system for long-term planning. In this paper the preliminary evaluation is made by simplified calculations based on the development series. The slow regeneration method is assumed to be otherwise equal to the rapid one but it has a 5- or 10-years delay at the beginning, and the rotation is thus the final cutting age plus 5- or 10-years delay. Cost of the time delay is taken to be the difference in reforestation costs that makes the rapid and the slow methods equivalent. Calculations are made using zero costs for the slow method; but if the cost of the slow method increases, the critical cost difference decreases very slowly. The final cutting age and the regeneration method must be decided simultaneously. Therefore, the cost of the time delay is presented as a function of final cutting age. By maximizing the average annual revenue, rotation can be even increased if more rapid but more expensive regeneration method is used.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lappi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5191, category Article
Juha Lappi. (1983). Metsänuudistamisen vaatiman ajan merkitys uudistamispäätöksissä. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 3 article id 5191. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15174
English title: Elevation of the time factor in reforestation decisions.

Length of the regeneration period is a criterion commonly used for comparing different reforestation methods. The time factor should be evaluated using a realistic system for long-term planning. In this paper the preliminary evaluation is made by simplified calculations based on the development series. The slow regeneration method is assumed to be otherwise equal to the rapid one but it has a 5- or 10-years delay at the beginning, and the rotation is thus the final cutting age plus 5- or 10-years delay. Cost of the time delay is taken to be the difference in reforestation costs that makes the rapid and the slow methods equivalent. Calculations are made using zero costs for the slow method; but if the cost of the slow method increases, the critical cost difference decreases very slowly. The final cutting age and the regeneration method must be decided simultaneously. Therefore, the cost of the time delay is presented as a function of final cutting age. By maximizing the average annual revenue, rotation can be even increased if more rapid but more expensive regeneration method is used.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lappi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5183, category Article
Risto Ojansuu, Helena Henttonen. (1983). Kuukauden keskilämpötilan, lämpösumman ja sademäärän paikallisten arvojen johtaminen Ilmatieteen laitoksen mittaustiedoista. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 2 article id 5183. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15099
English title: Estimation of the local values of monthly mean temperature, effective temperature sum and precipitation sum from the measurements made by the Finnish Meteorological Office.

Methods involving the use of moving averages, trend surfaces and their combination are compared in deriving local values of monthly mean temperatures and precipitation sums from the observations made by the Finnish Meteorological Office. Correlation between meteorological variables and sea index, lake index and height above sea level were used in the trend surface method and in the combined method. Combined method, with a trend surface calculated from means of a long time period, was the most reliable method to estimate long local time series.

A method to calculate unbiased estimates of effective temperature sums from monthly mean temperatures is presented.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ojansuu, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Henttonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5183, category Article
Risto Ojansuu, Helena Henttonen. (1983). Kuukauden keskilämpötilan, lämpösumman ja sademäärän paikallisten arvojen johtaminen Ilmatieteen laitoksen mittaustiedoista. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 2 article id 5183. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15099
English title: Estimation of the local values of monthly mean temperature, effective temperature sum and precipitation sum from the measurements made by the Finnish Meteorological Office.

Methods involving the use of moving averages, trend surfaces and their combination are compared in deriving local values of monthly mean temperatures and precipitation sums from the observations made by the Finnish Meteorological Office. Correlation between meteorological variables and sea index, lake index and height above sea level were used in the trend surface method and in the combined method. Combined method, with a trend surface calculated from means of a long time period, was the most reliable method to estimate long local time series.

A method to calculate unbiased estimates of effective temperature sums from monthly mean temperatures is presented.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ojansuu, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Henttonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5160, category Article
P. M. A. Tigerstedt. (1982). Metsäpuiden populaatiogenetiikka. Helsingissä 1981 pidetyn symposion tutkimusraportit. Silva Fennica vol. 16 no. 2 article id 5160. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15075
English title: Population genetics of forest trees.

The publication comprises proceedings of a conference held in Helsinki in 1981. Forest tree populations are investigated for population genetic structure, mating systems, mechanisms of genetic adaptation and ecological adaptation. Methods and techniques used in population genetic research of forest trees are presented. Much concern is given to applications by means of forest tree breeding, particularly the seed orchard breeding technique. Generally, the application of population genetics in cultivated forests is discussed.

The PDF includes a preface and the presentations of the conference (25 short papers) in English, and a comprehensive summary of the themes of the conference in Finnish.

  • Tigerstedt, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5156, category Article
Martti Saarilahti. (1982). Tutkaluotaukseen perustuva metsäautotien kantavuuden arvioimismenetelmä. Silva Fennica vol. 16 no. 1 article id 5156. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15071
English title: Predicting the bearing capacity of forest roads using a radar sounding.

Good correlation between radar reflection depth when using a FM-CW radar during winter and bearing capacity measurements during spring breakup was found. Therefore, it might be possible to evaluate the bearing capacity of forest roads using the radar sounding technique.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Saarilahti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5109, category Article
Esteri Ohenoja, Liisa Pohjola. (1981). Metsämaan lämpöolojen mittaaminen ruokosokerin inversioon perustuvalla menetelmällä. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 2 article id 5109. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15050
English title: Sucrose inversion method for measuring the temperature conditions in forest soil.

The use and problems of the sucrose inversion method for the study of forest humus and soil are discussed. The method is based on the temperature dependence of sucrose inversion, changes in rotation angle being determined with a circle polarimeter. Average temperatures and thermal sums for forest humus in different forests in Finland were measured, using this method, for a period of ca. 100 days. The results are not considered definitive but are regarded rather as examples. Average temperatures were somewhat higher in the humus of dry and poor heath forests than in that of moist and herb-rich forests, with exceptions that could be explicable by topographic position.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ohenoja, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pohjola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5109, category Article
Esteri Ohenoja, Liisa Pohjola. (1981). Metsämaan lämpöolojen mittaaminen ruokosokerin inversioon perustuvalla menetelmällä. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 2 article id 5109. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15050
English title: Sucrose inversion method for measuring the temperature conditions in forest soil.

The use and problems of the sucrose inversion method for the study of forest humus and soil are discussed. The method is based on the temperature dependence of sucrose inversion, changes in rotation angle being determined with a circle polarimeter. Average temperatures and thermal sums for forest humus in different forests in Finland were measured, using this method, for a period of ca. 100 days. The results are not considered definitive but are regarded rather as examples. Average temperatures were somewhat higher in the humus of dry and poor heath forests than in that of moist and herb-rich forests, with exceptions that could be explicable by topographic position.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ohenoja, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pohjola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5076, category Article
Veikko Koski. (1980). Minimivaatimukset männyn siemenviljelyksille Suomessa. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 2 article id 5076. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15017
English title: Minimum requirements for seed orchards of Scots pine in Finland.

In order to be recorded in the national list of untested seed orchards, set by law, a seed orchard must attain certain objectives. It is impossible to define universal requirements for all categories of seed orchards of all species. The present paper suggests minimum requirements for a clonal region seed orchards of Pinus sylvestris L in Finland. The clonal composition as well as factors influencing on the mating pattern have been given precise numerical threshold values. To be approved the seed orchard must fulfil all the requirements at the same time. The goal is to control the genetic superiority of the forest reproductive material obtained from registered untested seed orchards.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Koski, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5000, category Article
Hannu Mannerkoski. (1978). Säteilymittarin m/Frankfurt soveltuvuus energiatasemittauksiin. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 3 article id 5000. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14854
English title: Use of chemical totalizer of radiation in energy balance measurements.

The investigation is concerned with testing chemical totalizer of radiation (Frankfurt radiometer) for use in measuring the components of a simple energy balance (latent heat = net radiation – sensible heat) so as to gain an estimate for evaporation. The meter is based on the temperature dependence of the inversion rate of sugar solution. The relationship is exponential. It was found that radiation sums for 2–6-day periods can be reliably determined with this meter when global radiation is below 20 MJ·m-2d-1. Determining sensible heat is noticeably inaccurate, and hence the calculation of evaporation values, too. In comparing evaporation from different types of ground and plant cover one thus has to be content with drawing conclusions on the basis of net radiation values. The totalizer is therefore only suited to describing radiation conditions.

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  • Mannerkoski, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4997, category Article
Pasi Jartti. (1978). Tyvilahon määritysmenetelmistä. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 2 article id 4997. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14851
English title: Measurement of internal decay in living trees.

The physical methods currently available for measuring the internal decay of living trees is examined in this study. Although this is mainly a review, it can be concluded that some measurements shed more light on the problem. Examination of ultrasonic methods reveals that the coupling of ultrasonic energy from the transducer to the tree is not efficient. Both impulse and ultrasonic testing work best with decayed and hollow trees. The electrical resistance measurements of stumps gave resistance values for sound wood 300–400 kΩ, for decayed and discoloured wood about 12 kΩ and for cambium about 12 kΩ. The neutron activation gives good results, and in particular it reveals nicely the increasing concentration of potassium in decayed wood. The internal decay of living trees was not examined.

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  • Jartti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4994, category Article
Martti Saarilahti. (1978). Seismisten luotausmenetelmien soveltuvuus metsäautoteiden pohjatutkimuksiin. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 2 article id 4994. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14848
English title: Seismic survey methods in forest road construction.

The aim of the study was to find out the technical and economical applicability of seismic survey methods of sub-surface earth investigations in forest road planning. Two seismographs, SOIL-TEST MD 1 and BISON 1570, were tested in studyin 31 cuts and 3 gravel areas. The devices proved to be usable in field conditions. Sounding one spot costs about 75 Fmk and methods’ rentability is greatly based on the ration between expected and unexpected events, which depends on the areal geology. It is profitable to purchase the device especially if digging out of unexpected bedrock causes high costs.

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  • Saarilahti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4987, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1978). Havaintoja kokopuuhakkeen tiheyden laskemisesta. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 1 article id 4987. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14841
English title: Observations on the calculations of the basic density of total tree chips.
Original keywords: kokopuuhake; hake; menetelmät
English keywords: chips; basic density; methods

In this study two methods of determining the basic density of total tree chips are compared. The method of Mäkelä (1977) is based on the volumes of Scots pine, Norway spruce, birch, and alder in a logging area, and the age of the trees. In the other method the basic density of total tree chips is measured by the common displacement method. The correlation was 0,730 in the material of 22 logging areas. Besides this it was found that the basic density of chips increases as the size of the chip particles increases with the exception of the smallest particles.

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  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4947, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1976). Kokopuuhakkeen tiheyden mittaaminen. Silva Fennica vol. 10 no. 3 article id 4947. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14793
English title: Measurement of basic density of total tree chips.
Original keywords: hake; mittausmenetelmät; tiheys

The paper describes a method for the measurement of basic density of total tree chips. In the method the chips are placed in a container, which is immersed in a cylinder full of water, and the container is weighted at two levels. In the upper part of the cylinder the pressure against the air bubbles is smaller than in the lower level. In this method, the effect of air bubbles in the result can be eliminated. Besides this, due to homogenization of the material to be measured only small number of samples are needed for the estimation of the average basic density.

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  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4942, category Article
Esko Jaatinen, Olli Saastamoinen. (1976). Metsien moninaiskäyttötutkimuksen perusongelmat. Silva Fennica vol. 10 no. 2 article id 4942. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14788
English title: Multiple use of forests: basic research tasks.

The article is a summary of a long-term research programme which has been prepared at the Finnish Forest Research Institute. The objective of the programme was to define and subdivide the field of multiple use research to be done at the institute, and so improve both the research planning and the coordination of the work in this field between the different research departments.

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  • Jaatinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Saastamoinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4910, category Article
Erkki Lähde, Katri Pahkala. (1974). Havupuiden siemenen kehitys ja itäminen kirjallisuuden valossa. Silva Fennica vol. 8 no. 4 article id 4910. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14754
English title: Development and germination of the seeds of conifers according to literature.

The aim of the present study was to collect information presented in literature concerning the development and germination of the seeds of coniferous trees with special reference to those species which thrive in the conditions prevailing in Finland. Along with the increase in the importance of direct seeding as a silvicultural means in Northern Finland, there is a growing demand for methods by means of which the germination of seeds could be promoted. According to the results obtained from previous studies, such a method can be found, provided that a practically usable and reliable pre-germination method is developed.

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  • Lähde, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pahkala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4904, category Article
Sirkka Kupila-Ahvenniemi, Sirkka Hankonen, Seppo Sivonen. (1974). Kokeita röntgenmikroanalyysimenetelmän käyttökelpoisuudesta eräiden alkuaineiden määrityksessä männyn silmuissa. Silva Fennica vol. 8 no. 3 article id 4904. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14748
English title: Experiments on the determination of certain elements in the buds of Scots pine by means of the electron probe x-ray microanalysis.

An electron probe X-ray microanalyser was used to study the occurrence of phosphorus, sulphur and calcium in the bud apices of dormant Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). The material was collected during the winter months (November–February), fixed in Carnoy’s fluid, dehydrated, and mounted in paraffin wax. Of the 10 μm longitudinal section, the ones containing the middle portion of the apices were glued to the specimen supports and vacuum coated with aluminium. Three parallel line analysis were run over the corpus and the uppermost portion of the pith. Results obtained so far suggest that no marked changes occur in the position and level of the three elements during the study period.

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  • Kupila-Ahvenniemi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Hankonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Sivonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4896, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1974). Keskusmuotoluvun perusteita tukkien ja kuitupuun mittauksessa. Silva Fennica vol. 8 no. 1 article id 4896. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14740
English title: Foundations of middle form factor in the measurement of logs and pulpwood.

In this literature review some error possibilities in the measurement of solid volume of logs and pulpwood are discussed. Although both underestimation and overestimation can occur for various reasons it seems likely that in the stereometric measurement method the real volume is underestimated, at least when Huber’s formula is applied, and the respective middle form factors are too low. Numerous results of empirical investigations are presented in the paper, too.

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  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4891, category Article
Leo Heikurainen. (1973). Metsäojitustoiminta ja toimenpideraja. Silva Fennica vol. 7 no. 4 article id 4891. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14729
English title: The profitability limit in forest drainage.

The study describes the relationships between a method developed by the author for the calculation of the profitability of forest drainage and the old biological method. The calculations were based on empirical data, and they aimed at finding out the effect of a variation in the profitability limit in the areas in hectares to be drained, and on the profitability of drainage. The study deals also with the profitability of present-day drainage activities. The results showed that the profitability coefficient (the ratio between the discounted increase in returns and the costs of drainage) averages 3.04 for the whole country. The corresponding value was 5.68 for Southern Finland, 3.19 for Central Finland and 1.67 for Northern Finland.

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  • Heikurainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4868, category Article
Mikko Tormilainen. (1972). Havaintoja Oitin siemenviljelyksen mäntykloonien kukinnasta ja käpysadosta. Silva Fennica vol. 6 no. 2 article id 4868. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14671
English title: Studies of flowering and cone crop in a seed orchard of Scots pine.

Male and female flowering, cone crop, and some vegetative characteristics were studied in grafts 10 to 16 years of age in a clonal seed orchard of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). Genetic variation was found between clones in flowering as well as in cone production. Clone evaluation resulted in similar classifications of clones in different years. A regression analysis showed that crown size clearly increased but previous height growth slightly decreased flowering and cone production. The percentage of pollinated female strobili did not differ between clones.

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  • Tormilainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4856, category Article
Pekka Rautiainen. (1971). Ympäristö- ja perintötekijöiden vaikutus männyn ilmiasuun Pohjois-Karjalan piirimetsälautakunnan siemenviljelyksessä Tohmajärvellä. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 4 article id 4856. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14658
English title: The effect of environmental and genetical factors on the phenotype of Scots pine in a seed orchard in North Karelia.

The study material included 600 Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) grafts from the Tohmajärvi seed orchard in Eastern Finland. Their broad sense heritability for the height growth was 0.92, for the number of branches 0.87 and for the angle of branching 0.84. Grafts from Central Finland had cones more often than the southern ones, the frequencies being 26.3% and 11.2%. It seems that dominance plays a significant role in the genetical variation of this seed orchard and that height growth is probably more rewarding breeding characteristic than quality, the difference being small, however.

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  • Rautiainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4852, category Article
Veli-Pekka Järveläinen. (1971). Vähäsen faktorianalyysistä. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 3 article id 4852. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14654
English title: Some aspects concerning the use of factor analysis.

Among the users of factor analysis there seems to be a tendency to extend the use of this method to tasks where it suits poorly. It is therefore important to emphasise at least the following aspects: 1) More critical attention should be paid to problems of interpretation especially at situations where method is aimed at analysing the causal relationships among the variables; 2) The study problem should be stated so clearly as to make it plausible to evaluate the suitability of factor model to the problem.

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  • Järveläinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4851, category Article
Päiviö Riihinen. (1971). Pieni panos keskusteluun faktorianalyysista. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 3 article id 4851. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14653
English title: A contribution to discussion on the application of factor analysis.

A hypothetic problem is outlined as an example of the type of problem to which factor analysis should not be applied. Apart from this, attention is paid to industrialisation, a concept characterised by several variables, none of which can be held constant while analysing its influence on attitudes by multi-variable cross-tabulation techniques.

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  • Riihinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4850, category Article
Kauko Hahtola. (1971). Faktorianalyysi metsänomistajien käyttäytymistutkimuksissa. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 3 article id 4850. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14652
English title: Use of factor analysis in the studies of forest owners’ behaviour.

Some alternative ways of using factor analysis in the field of forest owners’ behaviour are explored in the article, in the light of two new Finnish publications. The philosophical and mathematical propertied of factor analysis are often considered too restrictive, and thus its applicability to different fields too limited. A good knowledge of the method and the subject matter theories seems to be an important prerequisite for a successful application of factor analysis. Otherwise the researcher is too dependent on the general recommendations concerning the use of factor analysis and cannot fit its use in his special situation and the whole methodological setting of the study.

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  • Hahtola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4825, category Article
Ruutujärjestelmätoimikunta. (1970). Suositus ruutujärjestelmän käyttämisestä biologian eri aloilla havaintopaikkojen ilmoittamisessa. Silva Fennica vol. 4 no. 3 article id 4825. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14614
English title: Recommendation for use of a coordinate system to report observations in all biological disciplines.

The paper describes a recommendation of a coordinate system to be used in all biological disciplines to report observations, agreed on by the natural history museums and the scientific societies in Finland. In the recommended coordinate system, the p-axis of the Cartesian coordinate system joins the E 27° longitude. The recommendation describes in detail how the observations are reported using this system.

  • Ruutujärjestelmätoimikunta, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4825, category Article
Ruutujärjestelmätoimikunta. (1970). Suositus ruutujärjestelmän käyttämisestä biologian eri aloilla havaintopaikkojen ilmoittamisessa. Silva Fennica vol. 4 no. 3 article id 4825. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14614
English title: Recommendation for use of a coordinate system to report observations in all biological disciplines.

The paper describes a recommendation of a coordinate system to be used in all biological disciplines to report observations, agreed on by the natural history museums and the scientific societies in Finland. In the recommended coordinate system, the p-axis of the Cartesian coordinate system joins the E 27° longitude. The recommendation describes in detail how the observations are reported using this system.

  • Ruutujärjestelmätoimikunta, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4816, category Article
P. M. A. Tigerstedt, Eero Malmivaara. (1970). Metsänjalostuksen mahdollisuudet I.Pluspuiden valintaero ja siemenviljelysten valintahyöty. Silva Fennica vol. 4 no. 2 article id 4816. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14605
English title: The possibilities in forest tree breeding. I Selection differential of plus trees and genetic gain in seed orchards in Finland.

An attempt was made to estimate critically the genetic gain in clonal seed orchards of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in Finland. The selection differential of Scots pine and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) is calculated on the basis of filed information on selected plus trees which has been kept by the genetic register at the Finnish Forest Research Institute. The differentials were computed as realized differences in height between plus-trees and normal stand characteristics on respectively site class and as a function of age.

The genetic gain in height growth of Pinus sylvestris was computed on the basis of information on selection differential and heritability. This genetic gain is between 2.6–4.4% provided there is no pollen contamination from unknown sources outside the seed orchard. The genetic gain of volume growth in Scots pine is about 7–15%, provided there is no pollen contamination in the seed orchard. However, according to investigations, there is invariably some pollen contamination in this kind of seed orchards. The contamination decreases to about 30–50% as the orchard matures and starts to produce endemic pollen. If the pollination would be entirely due to foreign pollen sources, the mathematically calculated genetic gain would be 3.5–7.5%.

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  • Tigerstedt, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Malmivaara, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4808, category Article
Erkki Lähde, Antti Oksanen. (1969). Morfologiset, gravimetriset ja fotometriset tunnukset männyn taimien juuristojen kuvaajina. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 4 article id 4808. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14596
English title: Morphological, gravimetric, and photometric characteristics in describing of the root systems of pine transplants.

This project studied the value of various shoot and root-system characteristics as indicators of plantability of transplants. Correlation and regression analysis was used to compare these characteristics. The study material consisted of two-year Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) transplants that had grown in a plastic greenhouse for the first year and then been transplanted in the open. The seedlings had been transplanted in the field without treatment or with the roots cut to a length of 8 cm. A part was transplanted without treatment into plastic pails. A gravimetric and photometric method was used to obtain a description of the surface area of the root systems.

The results show that the photometric value gives a good picture of the surface area of the root system. The greatest advantage offered by the method is the simplicity and rapidity of measurement. The gravimetric, and especially the titrimetric, measurement takes much more time per plant. Photometric measurement affects plantability little, and measured and planted transplants can be followed up in the field. In gravimetric measurements, it was found that fresh and dry weight of the plants were closely correlated.

Mycorrhizal frequency in the root systems gave a good picture of the surface area of the root system. The number of living roots-tips was also rather closely correlated with the surface area of the root system. The other morphological characteristics failed to serve as a satisfactory index for the surface area of root systems. The one closest correlated was the annual leader growth. The second best was stem diameter; the height of the plant, on the contrary, was rather poorly correlated with the other characteristics.

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  • Lähde, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Oksanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4801, category Article
Rihko Haarlaa. (1969). Puunkorjuun suunnittelu ja metsätaloussuunnitelmat. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 3 article id 4801. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14589
English title: The role of logging in forest management plans.

The purpose of this study was to answer questions concerning the basic information in planning of timber harvesting, how this information has to be handled, and how the planning of logging has to be combined with other forest management planning.

A deductive research method was used. By analysing a logging plan, prepared for a certain forest area, general conclusions were reached. To prepare the logging plan in connection with the forest management plan, the following information was found to be necessary: boundaries of the area, extent and ownership of the planned area, maps including information of the location of the timber and the conditions for transportation, road network and a reliable picture of the difficulty of the forest terrain.

Based on the material of the present timber harvesting methods it will be possible to predict the logging methods which will be applicable in the near future. The object to be planned has to be divided to operation areas. The amount of manpower and equipment needed can be estimated for each phase of the timber harvesting chain on the basis of the information calculated in this manner. Investments to machines and basic improvement works have to be planned before the effect of planning can be calculated in the logging costs, which are to be minimized. Due to the rapid development of the field, the handling of the material in connection with a forest management plan has to be left partly unfinished since the development of future logging methods cannot be reliably predicted.

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  • Haarlaa, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4801, category Article
Rihko Haarlaa. (1969). Puunkorjuun suunnittelu ja metsätaloussuunnitelmat. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 3 article id 4801. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14589
English title: The role of logging in forest management plans.

The purpose of this study was to answer questions concerning the basic information in planning of timber harvesting, how this information has to be handled, and how the planning of logging has to be combined with other forest management planning.

A deductive research method was used. By analysing a logging plan, prepared for a certain forest area, general conclusions were reached. To prepare the logging plan in connection with the forest management plan, the following information was found to be necessary: boundaries of the area, extent and ownership of the planned area, maps including information of the location of the timber and the conditions for transportation, road network and a reliable picture of the difficulty of the forest terrain.

Based on the material of the present timber harvesting methods it will be possible to predict the logging methods which will be applicable in the near future. The object to be planned has to be divided to operation areas. The amount of manpower and equipment needed can be estimated for each phase of the timber harvesting chain on the basis of the information calculated in this manner. Investments to machines and basic improvement works have to be planned before the effect of planning can be calculated in the logging costs, which are to be minimized. Due to the rapid development of the field, the handling of the material in connection with a forest management plan has to be left partly unfinished since the development of future logging methods cannot be reliably predicted.

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  • Haarlaa, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7532, category Article
August Renvall. (1914). Ein Beitrag zur Kenntnis der sog. partiellen Variabilität der Kiefer. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 3 no. 2 article id 7532. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7532
English title: Paper on knowledge about so-called partial variability of pine.

The article deals with outer characters of a pine from Patsjoki-river, in Finnish Lapland (Pinus silvestris L. var. lapponica (Fr.) Hn.). The tables describe the length of the needles, length of the shoots, branching and inflorescence. The statistical calculations of the data are based on W. Johannsen’s  (Elemente der exakten Erblichkeitslehre, Jena 1909)  (Elements of exact genetics) methods. The results cannot be generalized because of the insufficient amount of data. 

  • Renvall, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7532, category Article
August Renvall. (1914). Ein Beitrag zur Kenntnis der sog. partiellen Variabilität der Kiefer. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 3 no. 2 article id 7532. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7532
English title: Paper on knowledge about so-called partial variability of pine.

The article deals with outer characters of a pine from Patsjoki-river, in Finnish Lapland (Pinus silvestris L. var. lapponica (Fr.) Hn.). The tables describe the length of the needles, length of the shoots, branching and inflorescence. The statistical calculations of the data are based on W. Johannsen’s  (Elemente der exakten Erblichkeitslehre, Jena 1909)  (Elements of exact genetics) methods. The results cannot be generalized because of the insufficient amount of data. 

  • Renvall, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4777, category Article
Jouko Mäkelä. (1968). Näkökohtia monimuuttujamenetelmistä metsäekonomisessa tutkimuksessa. Silva Fennica vol. 2 no. 4 article id 4777. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14562
English title: Aspects of multivariate methods in the research of forest economy.

The article is a lectio praecursoria held on May 18, 1968 at the University of Helsinki. It deals with some aspects connected with the adaptation of mathematic-statistical methods and in particular with multivariate methods. Among these regression, factor, and principal-component analysis are mostly used by the Finnish forest economists.

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  • Mäkelä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4777, category Article
Jouko Mäkelä. (1968). Näkökohtia monimuuttujamenetelmistä metsäekonomisessa tutkimuksessa. Silva Fennica vol. 2 no. 4 article id 4777. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14562
English title: Aspects of multivariate methods in the research of forest economy.

The article is a lectio praecursoria held on May 18, 1968 at the University of Helsinki. It deals with some aspects connected with the adaptation of mathematic-statistical methods and in particular with multivariate methods. Among these regression, factor, and principal-component analysis are mostly used by the Finnish forest economists.

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  • Mäkelä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4776, category Article
K. Stern. (1968). Überlegungen zur optimalen Teilstückgrösse in Feldversuchen mit Waldbäumen. Silva Fennica vol. 2 no. 4 article id 4776. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14561
English title: Some considerations on optimal plot size in field experiments with forest trees.

18 permanent sample subplots of the Swedish and the Hassian Forestry Institute, each measured in equal intervals for several decades, were divided into subplots of different size. An analysis of variance was calculated for every set of subplot size. The development of intraclass-correlations over years and over different sizes of subplots could be explained if three different correlations were assumed: soil-correlation, correlations from irregular distribution of the trees, and correlation resulting from competition. Intraclass-correlations were positive or negative depending on dominance of one or two of these correlations.

An explanatory simultation study of competitional variance showed the effect of the degree of competitional correlations on the variance of means of subplots of different sizes. If this coefficient was small, all variances of subplots means within the range investigated became larger than expected in experiments without competition, with larger coefficients the variances of means of the smaller subplots became smaller, those of larger subplots larger than expected.

Plots of medium or large size are probably optimal for long term experiments with forest trees, if all sources of costs in such experiments are taken into account.

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  • Stern, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4772, category Article
Eino Saari. (1968). Vajaatuottoisen metsikön ja metsämaan käsite. Silva Fennica vol. 2 no. 3 article id 4772. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14557
English title: The notion of reduced yield stands and forest soils.

The technical term reduced yield stands – sometimes reduced yield soils – is widely used in the Finnish forest literature. However, there is no clear definition of the notion reduced yield and no explanation of how this notion is measured in the classifications. Some committee reports and bill proposals and some laws and statutes use the reduced yield forest soil. No definition can be found. In my opinion the term reduced yield forest soils ought to be completely abolished until forest soil experts can perhaps define what it means, if they consider such a concept useful.

Explanations for the term reduced yield stands can be found in the descriptions of classification systems of stands. According to them, the criterion is partly silvicultural (site, species of tree), partly mensurational (volume, sometimes growth), partly economic. No explanation is found as to how the economic aspect is measured, nor about the limit of a full yield and reduced yield.

In my opinion such a term is confusing. I therefore suggest that the term reduced yield stand ought to be abolished. If something is needed instead, I suggest the term understocked stand, defined as a growing stock under certain percentage of a fully stocked stand. The notion of economic reduced yield cannot be generally tied to certain silvicultural and mensurational characteristics of stands. The economic aspect of certain kinds of stands may differ, depending on the owner of the forest and his economic situation, the location of the forest, the composition of the whole forest ownership unit, etc.

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  • Saari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4761, category Article
Pentti Nisula. (1968). Ehdotus metsikön kuution ja käyttöpuuosuuden määrittämiseksi. Silva Fennica vol. 2 no. 1 article id 4761. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14545
English title: A proposal for the determination of total volume and utilization per cent of standing timber .

The present study gives an account of the dependence prevailing between the actual volume of timber crops, and, on one hand, the sum of cylindrical volume of individual trees, and on the other hand, the utilization per cent. This dependence is rectlinear if the volumes in question are calculated on a running-foot basis. The cylindrical volume of individual trees was calculated on the basis of cross-section area at breast height and the height of the trees. On the basis of the results, it seems that it is possible to simplify timber measurement.

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  • Nisula, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7656, category Article
Kari Leinonen, Matti Leikola, Antti Peltonen, Pentti Räsä­nen. (1989). Kuusen luontainen uudistaminen Pirkka-­Hämeen metsälautakunnassa. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 209 article id 7656. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7656
English title: Natural regeneration of Norway spruce in Pirkka-Häme Forestry Board District, Southern Finland.

The aim of the present study was to evaluate and develop the use of natural regeneration of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) in private forestry. The study was carried out using a line-plot survey with permanent circular sample plots. In total 40 regeneration sites were measured. The study includes results from three successive inventories: prior to the shelterwood cutting, in the summer after the cutting, and one year after the cutting. Regression and logistic regression analyses were used to construct models describing the effect of various factors on the restocking of the stands.

The standing volume prior to the shelterwood cutting was on average 236 m3/ha (ranging from 80 to 428 m3/ha) and after the cutting 120 m3/ha (39–220 m3/ha). The average number of stems per hectare decreased from 435 to 186. Prior to the shelterwood cutting 22% of the stands were satisfactorily restocked. After the cutting and one year later these percentages were 6 and 29%, respectively. Prior to the shelterwood cutting the number of acceptable seedlings was 1,440/ha, in the summer and year later 1,308/ha and 1,546/ha, respectively. Prior to the shelterwood cutting the characteristics of the mother stands did not correlate well with the number of seedlings. The change in the number of seedlings during the initial stage of shelterwood method depended on height of the seedling stand, amount of logging waste and number of germlings prior to the cutting. The risk to fail in regeneration was highest in the poorly restocked, sparse shelterwood stands, where a fast expansion of grass vegetation took place.

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  • Leinonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Leikola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Peltonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Räsä­nen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7630, category Article
Esko Mikkonen. (1983). Eräiden matemaattisen ohjelmoinnin menetelmien käyttö puun korjuun ja kuljetuksen sekä tehdaskäsittelyn menetelmävalinnan apuvälineenä. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 183 article id 7630. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7630
English title: The usefulness of some techniques of the mathematical programming as a tool for the choice of timber harvesting system.

The applicability of five mathematical programming methods, namely standard linear programming, parametric programming, goal programming, mixed integer programming and integer programming is discussed as a planning tool for the choice of wood procurement method.

Theoretically, the goal programming approach seems to be the best routine for mathematical handling of problems related to wood procurement. The parametric approach must include enough large post-optimality analysis routine. If the effect of the variables expressed with different measures is to be studied, interpretation of the economic information given by the approach becomes a problem. The other drawback is that the approach does not allow determination of the hierarchy of the goals objectively as they depend on the subjective preferences of the decision maker.

From the practical point of view, standard linear programming is the best method if the objective function can be formulated in economic terms, for instance. If there are several goals to be attained or satisfied the best method is goal programming.

According to the sub-studies, every method under consideration can be used as a solution routine for the minimization of wood procurement costs. In cost minimization the best methods are goal programming and standard linear programming. The best method for harvesting system evaluation purposes is parametric because it allows varied cost calculations within a certain cost range. The best method for harvesting equipment investment planning is mixed integer programming with binary decision variables.

The more complicated and restricted the problem environment is, the better the mathematical programming approach will be, also in harvesting related problems.

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  • Mikkonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7626, category Article
Aarne Nyyssönen, Risto Ojansuu. (1982). Metsikön puutavaralajirakenteen, arvon ja arvokasvun arviointi. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 179 article id 7626. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7626
English title: Assessment of timber assortments, value and value increment of stands in Finland.

The paper is the final report of a study on the estimation of value increment and inherent variables of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) stands. The main aim was to obtain improved criteria for decision-making concerning the priority of stands for regeneration.

The construction of various estimation models and their reliability are discussed in detail. The study, together with some previous papers, has resulted in a system which on the basis of a number of easily assessed stand variables gives for the stands concerned the volume of stems, percentages of timber assortments, stumpage value, volume increment and value increment.

The following examples are given with regard to the practical application of the results, in addition to the determination of the relative maturity of stands: 1) The study of various trends in stand development; the comparison between the volume and value variables. 2) The estimation of timber assortments needed for a cutting budget, trees marked for felling etc. 3) The calculation of the value of forests.

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  • Nyyssönen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Ojansuu, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7623, category Article
Martti Saarilahti. (1982). Tutkimuksia radioaaltomenetelmien soveltuvuudesta turvemaiden kulkukelpoisuuden arvioimiseen. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 176 article id 7623. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7623
English title: Studies on the possibilities of using radar techniques in detecting the trafficability of peatlands.

The possibilities of using microwave techniques in detecting the trafficability of peatlands is discussed. Three microwave methods were tested. 1) A FM-CW radar using 1.01.8 GHz frequency was used to measure the frost thickness of peat layer. It was possible to follow the variations in snow and frost layer thickness. Total reflected power might indicate the wetness class of the peatland, which is also a trafficability factor. 2) A short-pulse radar with 100 MHz frequency was tested in summer condition. Good profiling of peat layers was obtained, giving basic information for trafficability analysis. 3) A mapping of brightness of temperature of peatlands in summer conditions using a 790 MHz radiometer. The measured brightness temperature was correlated with vegetation cover, thus giving some information of trafficability.

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  • Saarilahti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7579, category Article
Pekka Kilkki, Markku Siitonen. (1975). Metsikön puuston simulointimenetelmä ja simuloituun aineistoon perustuvien puustotunnusmallien laskenta. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 145 article id 7579. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7579
English title: Simulation of artificial stands and derivation of growing stock models from this material.

The purpose of this study was that of providing a long-term timber production model (Kilkki and Pökkälä 1975) with growing stock models. The paper is divided into two parts; the first is concerned with generation of the stand data through Monte-Carlo simulation. The growing stock of each stand was described by a DBH-height distribution. The necessary information on the relationships between the stand characteristics was derived from sample plots measured in the national forest inventory of Finland. A total of 1,500 Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst), and birch (Betula sp.) stands, each comprising 100 trees were provided by simulation.

In the second part, models predicting the form factor, timber assortment distribution, and value of the growing stock were derived through regression analysis for each species of tree. The predicting variables included the form factor of the basal area median tree, basal area median diameter, and height in the form factor models. In the timber assortment and value models, the only predicting variable was the volume of the basal area median tree. The Matchcurve-technique (Jensen 1973) was employed in derivation of the regression models.

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  • Kilkki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Siitonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7544, category Article
Yrjö Vuokila. (1970). Harsintaperiaate kasvatushakkuissa. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 110 article id 7544. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7544
English title: Selection from above in Intermediate cuttings.

This study is concerned with silvicultural selection from above. The material consists of 18 Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) sample plots in the southern half of Finland in experimental forests. The method is motivated by the great difference between the stumpage prices of saw timber and pulpwood. The method suggested includes the removal of individuals belonging to the predominating canopy, to achieve high levels of income from the stand at an early stage. The method is applied at when the growing stock is attaining saw-timber size. Before that the stand is treated with thinnings from below. It is supposed that the volume of growing stock is maintained at a level as high as that in below-thinned stands, and that rotation is of normal length.

On the average, the increment in basal area, as well as volume increment, is greater in stands selectively cut from above than in those treated with low thinnings of the same degree. Initially, selection from above seems to exert a negative effect upon the development of dominant height; later, the dominant height reassumes the same rate of increment as in the below-thinned stands. Selection from above also means an increase in saw-timber production, although it involves a reduction in the mean size of saw timber. The investigation includes growth and yield tables for pine stands treated with silvicultural selection from above.

The results of the investigation prove that silvicultural selection from above is at least as profitable as low thinning. This provides freedom for stand treatment, and contributes to the application of a method most suitable for the owner in each individual case. It is further stressed that the maintenance of a high wood capital in the stand is far more important than the method of thinning applied.

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  • Vuokila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4702, category Article
Matti Halmekoski. (1960). Kääpiöviljelmäväestön ansiomahdollisuudet tilojen alueittaisen sijainnin valossa. Silva Fennica no. 108 article id 4702. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9137
English title: The earning opportunities of the population of small farms as reflected in their regional location.

Finnish legislation concerning settlement states that a farm should be able to provide, according to the various local conditions, their owners together with their families possibilities for a) living based on agriculture and forestry, b) part of their living the bulk of it acquired outside the farm, or c) part of their living from the garden, and possibly part of it by livestock, in addition to from work outside the farm. The present analysis discusses the earning opportunities of the inhabitants of small farms, characterized by the fact that generally they are not able to ford their owners living obtained principally from agriculture and forestry.

According to the results of the 1950 General Agricultural Census of Finland, there exists in the country 74,134 holdings the size of 0.5–1.99 ha (dwelling farms), and 99,400 holdings the size of 2–4.99 ha (dwelling-and-cultivation farms). These small farms accounted for 37.2% of all farms in Finland. As a rule, it is possible to run a small farm only in such region, where favourable conditions give possibilities both for farming and for sufficient amount of wage-earning work outside the farm. Thus, location has a big influence on the financial status.

Dwelling farms were common in urban municipalities and near the coastal areas. Those situated in countryside were located in Eastern and Northern Finland. Dwelling-and-cultivation farms were few in the coastal regions, but they predominated the municipalities of the watershed districts near Jyväskylä, and eastern and northern parts of the country. The forests of the small farms were too small to provide additional income to the farms. Farms owning relatively larger forest areas were situated in the counties of Lapland, Oulu, Mikkeli and Kuopio, and farms with little forests in Turku and Pori County. Net out-migration has been substantial in the districts with a relatively large number of small farms.

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  • Halmekoski, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7185, category Article
Jouko Mäkelä. (1968). Puunkorjuun tuottavuuteen vaikuttavat tekijät maatilametsätaloudessa. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 85 article id 7185. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7185
English title: Factors affecting logging productivity in farm forestry.

This is a fourth paper in a series of studies concerning logging in farm forests. The objective was to construct a model representing the productivity per farm of logging for delivery cuts. The first objective was to find out how the productivity of logging should be measured. In the study, combined labour and capital are regarded as the input.

Second object was to consider what variables to use in theory to determine the productivity of logging for delivery cuts. The factors affecting productivity depend on the concept of productivity employed. The productivity per farm of logging in delivery cuts can be determined both by regional and by farm variables. Still considering solely the effect of the quality of labour and capital input, the variables representing the person in charge of the delivery cuts are important explanatory farm variables. Others represent the farm totality (size, lines of production etc.).

Third aim was to develop a statistical-mathematical method suitable for constructing the model. Possible methods include regression analysis, which is, however, not the best method when there is large number of different levels to explain, or factor analysis. The suitable method to use in constructing a model depicting the productivity of a farm, was considered to be to condense the explanatory variables into rotated orthogonal factors. After preliminary correlation analysis, estimates of the factors interpreted as rational were employed as the explanatory variables for selective regression analysis.

Last, the model was tried out against actual material collected per farm, and the hypotheses were tested.

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  • Mäkelä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4723, category Article
Toivo Matilainen. (1965). Kasvutappiosta ja sen määrittämisestä Etelä-Suomen talousmetsissä. Silva Fennica no. 117 article id 4723. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14281
English title: The increment loss and its determination in economically exploited forests in Southern Finland.

The present study is an attempt to clarify the decrease in growth, or the increment loss, caused by sudden reduction of growth of the growing stock below a certain level, and to find a method for its determination. Increment loss is defined as a decrease in growth during the rotation due to a deficient stock volume. The material consists of Koivisto’s yield tables for repeatedly thinned stands in Southern Finland, and the results of the Third National Forest Inventory concerning the mean volume and increment in the productive sites.

For the calculation of increment loss three formulae were constructed where the increment loss is calculated 1) as the difference between the removal by thinnings in normally developed stands during a time equal with the period of deficient stock and the suddenly removed stock, 2) according to the compound interest calculation principle as the sum of the differences which are obtained by subtracting from the removal in each thinning during the period of deficient stock its initial value, and 3) as the straight interest of the stock deficiency during the period of deficient stock.

According to the calculations, the increment loss is greatest in stands to be grown, viz. 50 m3 solid measure excluding bark per hectare tended Norway spruce stands on Oxalis-Myrtillus type sites at 40% deficiency below minimum stock. In stands to be regenerated the losses are, too, greatest in the similar stands. It exceeds 200 m3/ha when stands younger than 50 years have to been regenerated and the removal amounts to 50% of the stock. In stands to be regenerated the increment loss for spruce, due to the slow initial development by the species, is greater than for Scots pine and birch. The loss is the same at different period of age if the relative deficiency of the stock is of equal size.

According to the study, each stand has a characteristic variation in the increment loss which depends mainly on the relative degree of deficiency from the minimum stock. The formulae and methods can be used to determine the increment loss in average and better stands in Southern Finland when the stock suddenly decreases.

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  • Matilainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4716, category Article
Leo Heikurainen, Matti Keltikangas, Kustaa Seppälä. (1963). Kustannusten jakaminen yhteisissä metsäojitushankkeissa. Silva Fennica no. 115 article id 4716. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14274
English title: Allocation of costs in joint forest drainage undertakings.

One forest drainage undertaking in Finland often consists of woodlots belonging to several owners, and over hundred owners may be involved. In the present paper a method for allocation the costs to different owners in a joint drainage undertaking is worked out. The problem has been emphasised by the new Waterways Law, which enables also such drainage projects to be undertaken to which some of the land owners oppose. In those cased the costs must be allocated according to the benefit driven by each owner from the project.

The method attempts to assess the benefits to be driven from the forest drainage, those costs of the drainage that are joint and thus subjected to allocation, and what is the area affected by drainage as used as a basis for cost allocation.

The joined costs are apportioned in the following manner. The area of peatland adjusted to differences in the benefit obtained by drainage is ascertained by the land holder by multiplying the index number by the corresponding areas. In the case of cultivated agricultural land, also an index showing the need for drainage is used in computing the adjusted area. Each topographic unit in the map is provided with a notation of its apportionment area. Joined costs are allocated to different land owners in relation to their adjusted land areas.

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  • Heikurainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Keltikangas, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Seppälä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4706, category Article
Pentti Nisula. (1961). Aikakello- ja pistokoemenetelmän vertailu. Silva Fennica no. 112 article id 4706. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14233
English title: A comparison between the stop-watch method and the random-sample method.

The aim of this study was to find out to what extent it is possible to time phases of work by making instant observations at regular intervals according to the principles of the method of random samples, and arrive at similar results as obtained by timing continuously with a decimal-minute stop watch. In the first mentioned method the observer of the time study is given a sound signal at even intervals, in this case each 1/10-minute period, during the signal he records the phase of work (element) the object is performing.

The material of the study consists of studies in skidding and loading in connection with transportation by tractor during a period of 8 days. The duration of each element in using tractor hand in skidding and hauling was measured with an ordinary stop watch using repetitive timing. This material was then converted into random sample material.

The analysis of the material showed that the method of random samples yielded observations from all phases of work present in the material obtained by measuring with the stop watch. The duration of elements as determined by the random-sample method were of the same order as determined with stop watch. The results did not cause any observable systematic deviation or rhythmic repetition of elements.

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  • Nisula, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4705, category Article
Aarne Nyyssönen, Simo Poso. (1961). Koe metsikköluokitusten suorittamiseksi ilmakuvien avulla. Silva Fennica no. 112 article id 4705. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14232
English title: Tree stand classifications from aerial photographs: an experiment.

In connection to the Third National Forest Inventory of Finland, two survey strips in the northernmost Finland were photographed on scale 1:15,000. Infrared films and a yellow filter were used. For the present experiment a total length of 66 km of the strips was photographed. The strips were surveyed visually from the ground by stands. Sample plots were measured at kilometre intervals. The aerial photographs were surveyed the distances covered in the ground. The work was aided by stereograms which showed 16 large-size sample plots localised on aerial photographs.

The main groups of land identified along the survey line were productive and poorly productive forest land, wasteland and another land, in addition, peatland and firm land were distinguished. Although some differences were noted, the two survey methods provided fairly similar results. For an estimation of the tree species composition the material is one-sided since the district is mainly Scots pine. The principal tree species was successfully distinguished on aerial photographs in 78 out of 82 comparable pairs.

The mean of ground observations of dominant height of the stands was 10.9 m, that of observations on aerial photographs 11.2 m. The result of stand volume estimates reveals a distinct correlation between the various methods of estimation.

In an earlier study it was shown that it is possible, using a stand volume table based on characteristics revealed in aerial photography, to create a general idea of stand volume on the southern half of the country. A few additional factors, of interest for the stratification necessary in forest inventories, were also studied. A distinct correlation was observed between the results of aerial and ground survey for all the characteristics discussed. The present experiment showed that the prerequisites for stratification through aerial photographs do exist. Further investigation is needed into the most appropriate methods for stratification in each situation.

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  • Nyyssönen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Poso, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4684, category Article
Kullervo Kuusela, Kalervo Setälä. (1959). Koe metsikköarviointien suorittamiseksi helikopterista. Silva Fennica no. 97 article id 4684. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14142
  • Kuusela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Setälä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4627, category Article
Paavo Jaakko Ollinmaa. (1952). Jalot lehtipuumme luontaisina ja viljeltyinä. Silva Fennica no. 77 article id 4627. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9099
English title: Native and cultivated southern broadleaved tree species in Finland.

The aim of the study was to update knowledge of natural range of English oak (Quercus robur L.), European ash (Fraxinus exelsior L.), Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.), small-leaved lime (Tilia cordata Miller), wych elm (Ulmus glabra Mill.) and European white elm (Ulmus laevis Pall.) in Finland, and estimate how far north they could be grown as forest trees or as park trees. The study is based on literature and questionnaires sent to cities and towns, District Forestry Boards, districts of Forest Service, Forestry Management Associations and railway stations.

The northern borders in the natural range of the species succeed one another from south to north as follows: English oak, European ash, Norway maple, wych elm, and small-leaved lime. Occurrence of European white elm is sporadic. The English oak forms forests in the southernmost Finland, while the other species grow only as small stands, groups or solitary trees. According to experiences of planted stands or trees, the northern limits of the species succeed one another from south to north as follows: European ash, English oak, Norway maple, European white elm, wych elm and small-leaved lime. All the species are grown in parks fairly generally up to the district of Kuopio-Vaasa (63 °). The northern limits where the species can be grown as park trees reach considerably further north in the western part of the country than in the east.

The article includes a summary in English.

  • Ollinmaa, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4627, category Article
Paavo Jaakko Ollinmaa. (1952). Jalot lehtipuumme luontaisina ja viljeltyinä. Silva Fennica no. 77 article id 4627. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9099
English title: Native and cultivated southern broadleaved tree species in Finland.

The aim of the study was to update knowledge of natural range of English oak (Quercus robur L.), European ash (Fraxinus exelsior L.), Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.), small-leaved lime (Tilia cordata Miller), wych elm (Ulmus glabra Mill.) and European white elm (Ulmus laevis Pall.) in Finland, and estimate how far north they could be grown as forest trees or as park trees. The study is based on literature and questionnaires sent to cities and towns, District Forestry Boards, districts of Forest Service, Forestry Management Associations and railway stations.

The northern borders in the natural range of the species succeed one another from south to north as follows: English oak, European ash, Norway maple, wych elm, and small-leaved lime. Occurrence of European white elm is sporadic. The English oak forms forests in the southernmost Finland, while the other species grow only as small stands, groups or solitary trees. According to experiences of planted stands or trees, the northern limits of the species succeed one another from south to north as follows: European ash, English oak, Norway maple, European white elm, wych elm and small-leaved lime. All the species are grown in parks fairly generally up to the district of Kuopio-Vaasa (63 °). The northern limits where the species can be grown as park trees reach considerably further north in the western part of the country than in the east.

The article includes a summary in English.

  • Ollinmaa, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4627, category Article
Paavo Jaakko Ollinmaa. (1952). Jalot lehtipuumme luontaisina ja viljeltyinä. Silva Fennica no. 77 article id 4627. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9099
English title: Native and cultivated southern broadleaved tree species in Finland.

The aim of the study was to update knowledge of natural range of English oak (Quercus robur L.), European ash (Fraxinus exelsior L.), Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.), small-leaved lime (Tilia cordata Miller), wych elm (Ulmus glabra Mill.) and European white elm (Ulmus laevis Pall.) in Finland, and estimate how far north they could be grown as forest trees or as park trees. The study is based on literature and questionnaires sent to cities and towns, District Forestry Boards, districts of Forest Service, Forestry Management Associations and railway stations.

The northern borders in the natural range of the species succeed one another from south to north as follows: English oak, European ash, Norway maple, wych elm, and small-leaved lime. Occurrence of European white elm is sporadic. The English oak forms forests in the southernmost Finland, while the other species grow only as small stands, groups or solitary trees. According to experiences of planted stands or trees, the northern limits of the species succeed one another from south to north as follows: European ash, English oak, Norway maple, European white elm, wych elm and small-leaved lime. All the species are grown in parks fairly generally up to the district of Kuopio-Vaasa (63 °). The northern limits where the species can be grown as park trees reach considerably further north in the western part of the country than in the east.

The article includes a summary in English.

  • Ollinmaa, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4620, category Article
Leo Heikurainen. (1951). Eräs suokasvillisuuden analysoimismenetelmä. Silva Fennica no. 70 article id 4620. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9092
English title: Determination method for peatland vegetation.

The aim of the study was to develop an determination method to define vegetation type of fen-like pine swamps, which are combinations of two peatland types, quagmire and pine swamp. Typical for this peatland type is that the vegetation is very heterogenous. Patches of different types of plant communities are found within a small area, but in a large scale, there are only few main types of plant communities. The commonly used way to use sample plots to study tree stands suit poorly to determine the type of this kind of heterogenous ground vegetation. The article compares strip survey and circular plot survey, of which circular plot survey is determined to be less time consuming. The article describes a way to choose the locations of sample points to achieve most correct areas for different plant communities.

The article includes an abstract in German.

  • Heikurainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4578, category Article
Sakari Saarnijoki. (1942). Jalavan esiintymisestä Pyhäjärven, Kokemäenjoen vesistön keskusjärven tulvarannoilla. Silva Fennica no. 58 article id 4578. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9082
English title: Distribution of European white elm in flooded shores of the central lake of Pyhäjärvi and Kokemäenjoki water system.

Distribution of European white elm (Ulmus laevis Pallas) is on its northernmost border in Pyhäjärvi and Kokemäenjoki area. This survey describes distribution of European white elm in the flooded shores of the central lake of Pyhäjärvi and Kokemäenjoki river water system.

Both Ulmus laevis and U. montana (now U. Glabra Hudson) can be found in the area, but most of the elms qrowing in thea area are U. laevis. U. laevis occurs around the lake in two separate areas, almost entirely in flooded shores of the lake. Regeneration of elm from seeds was limited on a narrow belt on the higher part of the flooded shore. Consequently, U. laevis can be found as zones around the lake, created by the changes in water level of the lake. The trees are judged to be native for the area.

The article includes an abstract in German.

  • Saarnijoki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4578, category Article
Sakari Saarnijoki. (1942). Jalavan esiintymisestä Pyhäjärven, Kokemäenjoen vesistön keskusjärven tulvarannoilla. Silva Fennica no. 58 article id 4578. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9082
English title: Distribution of European white elm in flooded shores of the central lake of Pyhäjärvi and Kokemäenjoki water system.

Distribution of European white elm (Ulmus laevis Pallas) is on its northernmost border in Pyhäjärvi and Kokemäenjoki area. This survey describes distribution of European white elm in the flooded shores of the central lake of Pyhäjärvi and Kokemäenjoki river water system.

Both Ulmus laevis and U. montana (now U. Glabra Hudson) can be found in the area, but most of the elms qrowing in thea area are U. laevis. U. laevis occurs around the lake in two separate areas, almost entirely in flooded shores of the lake. Regeneration of elm from seeds was limited on a narrow belt on the higher part of the flooded shore. Consequently, U. laevis can be found as zones around the lake, created by the changes in water level of the lake. The trees are judged to be native for the area.

The article includes an abstract in German.

  • Saarnijoki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4523, category Article
Finnish Society of Forest Science. (1937). Suomen metsätieteellisen seuran 25-vuotisjuhla 18.4.1934. Silva Fennica no. 43 article id 4523. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9068
English title: 25th anniversary of Finnish Society of Forest Sciences on April 18th, 1934.
The article includes description of the 25th anniversary festivities of Finnish Society of Forest Sciences, held on April 18th, 1934. The volume contains the speeches and addresses held in the jubilee, dealing with Finnish forestry, and its development.
  • Finnish Society of Forest Science, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4491, category Article
A. J. Cautón. (1937). Kuivaustöitten suorittamisesta metsänkasvattamista varten. Silva Fennica no. 39 article id 4491. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13901
English title: Practices of forest drainage work.

Silva Fennica Issue 39 includes presentations held in professional development courses in 1935 that were arranged for foresters working in public administration. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level.

This presentation gives guidelines for draining of peatlands.

  • Cautón, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4484, category Article
O. J. Lakari. (1937). Metsätaloussuunnitelmat. Silva Fennica no. 39 article id 4484. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13894
English title: Forest management planning.

Silva Fennica Issue 39 includes presentations held in professional development courses in 1935 that were arranged for foresters working in public administration. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation describes forest management planning in the state forests.

  • Lakari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4479, category Article
L. E. T. Borg. (1936). Hankikylvöt Tuomarniemen hoitoalueessa vv. 1913-1930. Silva Fennica no. 38 article id 4479. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9065
English title: Areas broadcast sown on snow in Tuomarniemi district in Finland in 1913-1930.

Broadcast sowing on snow was relatively new method in the beginning of the 20th century in Finland, and the experiences of regeneration were diverse. The aim of the survey was to study the success rate of regeneration in the oldest and largest areas regenerated with this sowing method in Tuomarniemi district. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) was the most common tree species, but also Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) and European larch (Larix decidua Mill.) were used in broadcast sowing on snow.

According to the study, the success of broadcast sowing on snow was as good as patch sowing and sowing in furrows in the sites typical for Tuomarniemi. The regeneration areas were often drained peatlands or paludified lands. When sowing is done using Norway spruce seeds, site preparation either by broadcast burning or scalping with hoe is recommended. Mixed sowing with pine and spruce seldom succeeded due to the differences in site requirements of the species and growth of seedlings. Sowing of Scots pine succeeded well on the drained peatlands. Sowing should be done some years after draining to let the peat dry and sink. Site preparation is needed in sites growing Polytrichum-moss. Broadcast burned areas larger than 10 hectares seemed to regenerate poorer than sites in average, possibly due to dryness of the sites. Trials with European larch were successful, and the growth of the seedlings acceptable despite the sites being relatively poor for the species.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Borg, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4477, category Article
Finnish Society of Forest Science. (1935). Metsänhoitolaitoksen 75-vuotisjuhla 19. IV. 1934. Silva Fennica no. 36 article id 4477. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9063
English title: 75 years’ jubilee of the Finnish Forest Service on April 19th, 1934.

The article is a description of the 75th anniversary of Finnish Forest Service (now Metsähallitus, Forest Service), held on April 19th 1934. The greetings of the quests, presented in the Commemoration festival and Banquet, are included in the article.

  • Finnish Society of Forest Science, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4467, category Article
Finnish Society of Forest Science. (1932). Lauri Ilvessalon muisto. Silva Fennica no. 26 article id 4467. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9039
English title: In memoriam of Dr. Lauri Ilvessalo.
English keywords: obituary; Lauri Ilvessalo

The article is an obituary of Dr. Lauri Ilvessalo, who died in 1928. He worked as a professor of silviculture in 1918-24, and published numerous scientific articles on silviculture. The article includes his presentations on the state of forestry in Finland, and on the establishment of Forest Service in Finland and the public attitude towards the organization.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Finnish Society of Forest Science, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4450, category Article
Seth Nordberg. (1928). Vertaileva katsaus pajun viljelykseen ja sen edellytyksiin ulkomailla ja Suomessa. Silva Fennica no. 9 article id 4450. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8398
English title: Review on willow plantations and their requirements in foreign countries and in Finland.
Original keywords: paju; Salix; viljely; viljelymenetelmät
English keywords: willow; willow plantations

There is demand for cultivated willow in toy and barrel making, and handcrafts in Finland. In Europe, Salix sp. have been cultivated on several kinds of sites. In Finland, suitable sites for willow plantations could be found, for instance, by the rivers and brooks, on other alluvial lands, wet meadows and other humid lands unsuitable for agriculture. The article suggests that the cultivation of willow should begin on the agricultural lands, because the choice of origin of the willow cuttings is less important when it is grown on fields, and the areas are more accessible. The desired qualities for cultivated willow are good growth rate and robust stems, frost resistance and resistance to annual cuttings. Of the different species, especially suitable is Salix sect. Amygdalinae. In field tests, all the tested Salix species have been frost resistant, which makes it possible to cut the stems annually.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Nordberg, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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