Current issue: 53(4)

Impact factor 1.683
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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
Acta Forestalia Fennica

Articles containing the keyword 'evaluation'.

Category: Commentary

article id 528, category Commentary
Annikki Mäkelä, Thomas J. Givnish, Frank Berninger, Thomas N. Buckley, Graham D. Farquhar, Pertti Hari. (2002). Challenges and opportunities of the optimality approach in plant ecology. Silva Fennica vol. 36 no. 3 article id 528.
A meeting was held in Hyytiälä, Finland 10–12 April 2000 to assess critically the current challenges and limitations of the optimality approach in plant ecophysiology and botany. This article summarises the general discussions and views of the participants on the use of optimisation models as tools in plant ecophysiological research. A general framework of the evolutionary optimisation problem is sketched with a review of applications, typically involved with balanced regulation between parallel processes. The usefulness and limitations of the approach are discussed in terms of published examples, with special reference to model testing. We conclude that, regardless of inevitable problems of model formulation, wider application of the optimality approach could provide a step forward in plant ecophysiology. A major role of evolutionary theory in this process is simply the formulation of testable hypotheses, the evaluation of which can lead to important advances in our ecophysiological understanding and predictive ability.
  • Mäkelä, University of Helsinki, Dept. of Forest Ecology, P.O. Box 27, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: (email)
  • Givnish, University of Wisconsin, Department of Botany, Madison, WI 53706 USA ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Berninger, University of Helsinki, Dept. of Forest Ecology, P.O. Box 27, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Buckley, Cooperative Research Centre for Greenhouse Accounting and Environmental Biology Group, and Research School of Biological Sciences, Australian National University, ACT 2601, Australia ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Farquhar, Cooperative Research Centre for Greenhouse Accounting and Environmental Biology Group, and Research School of Biological Sciences, Australian National University, ACT 2601, Australia ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Hari, University of Helsinki, Dept. of Forest Ecology, P.O. Box 27, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:

Category: Research article

article id 35, category Research article
Tapio Rantala. (2011). Democratic legitimacy of the forest sector and nature conservation decision-making in Finnish print media discussion. Silva Fennica vol. 45 no. 1 article id 35.
The study explores perceived democratic legitimacy of forest-related decision-making processes in the Finnish print media discourse. The data consists of the readers’ letters in four journals (n = 530), and the comments given during the preparation of the Finnish National Forest Program (n = 140). The objective is to identify the patterns of democratic legitimacy and respective performance evaluations of actual decision-making processes. The patterns can be classified as support for: (A) democracy and other forms of government, (B) different forms of participation, and (C) principles of democracy. The principles can be further classified into 1) core regime, 2) input, 3) throughput, and 4) output principles. Democratic legitimacy was found to be an important source of legitimacy in the public discussion since democratic patterns were found in more than half of the texts. The most common core legitimacy principles included freedom of speech, good national and international standing, forerunnership, and legality at national and international level. The central principles related to input legitimacy included popular sovereignty, a voice for the people, popular participation, openness, presenting alternatives, and urgency. The consensus and majority rules were found to be the most prominent throughput principles. Democratic output legitimacy included accountability, responsibility, cooperation, commitment, responsiveness, the possibility to appeal, credibility, comprehensiveness, and understandability. The findings suggest that among the writers of readers’ letters there is less contestation regarding the principles of democratic legitimacy but there are significant disagreements concerning the performance of decision-making processes. The negative performance evaluations were two times more frequent than the positive evaluations.
  • Rantala, Department of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: (email)
article id 157, category Research article
Ville Kankaanhuhta, Timo Saksa, Heikki Smolander. (2010). The effect of quality management on forest regeneration activities in privately-owned forests in southern Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 44 no. 2 article id 157.
This study describes the effect of quality management on forest regeneration activities in privately-owned forests in southern Finland. The study material consists of two mail surveys conducted in 2006 and 2007. The questionnaires were sent to forestry professionals in Forest Owners’ Associations (FOAs), who had either participated (participants) or not (non-participants) in the forest regeneration quality management interventions in years 2000–2006. Quality management interventions of the FOAs included field inventories, feedback meetings, and education sessions about quality techniques. The activities of participant and non-participant FOAs were compared in terms of the available resources, the actions taken, and the aspirations for improvement. In the FOAs, which had participated in quality management, the number of excavator contractors had increased by 16% more than in the non-participant FOAs. The contractors had acquired 23% more soil preparation equipment under the supervision of the participant forestry professionals. The soil preparation method used in conjunction with Norway spruce that had most increased in use was patch mounding. Seedlings that were 1.5 years and older were used by participant forestry professionals in the planting of Norway spruce 11% more than by non-participants. The planting workers had attended 14% more educational sessions, while the use of self-control measurements in soil preparation and planting density had been adopted 10% more frequently under the supervision of the forestry professionals participating in the quality management. A greater interest in obtaining feedback by using quality control inventories was also found among forestry professionals who participated in quality management.
  • Kankaanhuhta, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Juntintie 154, FI-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: (email)
  • Saksa, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Juntintie 154, FI-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Smolander, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Juntintie 154, FI-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 643, category Research article
Pekka Eskelinen, Harri Eskelinen. (2000). A K-band microwave measuring system for the analysis of tree stems. Silva Fennica vol. 34 no. 1 article id 643.
The internal structure of growing trees and freshly cut logs can be characterized in real time by analysing the transmission and reflection of Ku- or K-band microwave energy injected with a horizontal polarization towards the material. Information about the moisture content, material bends, number and location of knots and sections of spoiled wood e.g. due to insects can be gathered in real time. Most sensitive test parameters are attenuation, group delay and the rotation of a linearly polarized wavefront. A simultaneous recording of reflection reduces errors caused by non-significant surface deformations. The spatial resolution, humidity equalization and noise immunity can be improved by applying a wideband frequency modulation. Commercial building blocks supplemented with a special antenna arrangement give possibilities also for the rough harvester environment.
  • Eskelinen, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering, P.O. Box 20, FIN-53851 Lappeenranta, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: (email)
  • Eskelinen, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering, P.O. Box 20, FIN-53851 Lappeenranta, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 701, category Research article
Antrei Lausti, Markku Penttinen. (1998). The analysis of return and its components of non-industrial private forest ownership by forestry board districts in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 32 no. 1 article id 701.
Non-industrial private forest ownership returns and risks in Finland are both estimated and disaggregated to local Forestry Board Districts (FBD) level. Additionally, the FBD level return is divided into price change, felling and change in the growing stock components, which are compared with the inflation rate. The results are based on a complete count of the stumpage prices, silvicultural costs and state subsidies as well as the National Forest Inventory (NFI) data. The influence of taxation is discussed as well. Although this database is excellent for economic studies as well, the estimation methodology is vitiated by a host of problems, the resolution of which is the major contribution of this study. The study period is 1972–1996. The results show that there have been fairly large differences in forest ownership returns and prices depending on the Forestry Board District. Results show that the price change component has been larger in Northern Forestry Board Districts, as much as 0.9% above the inflation rate in Lapland FBD, than in Southern Forestry Board Districts, 1.5% less than the inflation rate in southern Helsinki FBD. The net increase, however, has been larger in Southern Forestry Board Districts than in Northern Forestry Board Districts. Using the average net increment in Finland as a comparison base, the net increment in South Karelia exceeded it by 0.6%, but fell below it by 1.8% in Northeastern Finland. Finally, the return over the whole period is compared to the return on private housing and inflation in the case of North Savo. In all, the estimation methodology developed also serves as spin-off product development for the Forest Statistics Information Service (FSIS).
  • Lausti, Helsinki School of Economics and Business Administration, Centre for Doctoral Programme, Runeberginkatu 15 A, FIN-00100 Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Penttinen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Helsinki Research Centre, Unioninkatu 40 A, FIN-00170 Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: (email)

Category: Article

article id 5569, category Article
Esa-Jussi Viitala. (1996). Assessing the effectiveness of non-profit forestry organisations: An ultimate goal approach. Silva Fennica vol. 30 no. 4 article id 5569.

This paper is an assessment of what in Finland are referred to as local forest management associations (LFMAs); the local units of a non-profit, forestry-promotion institution. First, the concept of organisational effectiveness is explored and an attempt is made to define it with respect to the LFMAs. The study then seeks to identify the environmental constraints, organisational characteristics and managerial practices differentiating the most effective and least effective associations. Discriminant analysis revealed four determinants of effectiveness: agrarian prosperity in the given area, activeness in marketing services to forest owners, the board of governors' role, and goal setting practices. The results thus indicate that the comparison of managerial policies and practices among LFMAs can provide useful information for improving their effectiveness.

  • Viitala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5365, category Article
Pasi Puttonen. (1988). Metsänuudistamistutkimuksen arvioinnin seminaari 28.4.1988. Silva Fennica vol. 22 no. 4 article id 5365.
English title: Presentation report of evaluation group on forest regeneration research in Finland.

The Academy of Finland commissioned a review of forest regeneration research. This paper summarises the evaluation. The report deals with the individual research projects and, in addition, the international evaluation group gives several recommendations to develop the forest regeneration research further. The recommendations concern education and training, publications, peer review, experimental design, routine work and extension service, and technology transfer. The paper also includes comments of the Finnish Forest Institute, the Finnish Society of Forest Science and a research scientist on the results of the evaluation.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Puttonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5304, category Article
Jimin Tan. (1987). A method to evaluate productivity of logging machines. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 1 article id 5304.

This study deals with the evaluation of logging machines. The analyses were based on the results of a productivity study with special reference to a PIKA 35 processor, a delimber-bucker, working in Kyröskoski forest area in Finland. Factors affecting the productivity of the machine were surveyed. Mathematical models for determining the productivity were developed and their practical applications to the particular problem under study was demonstrated.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Tan, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5297, category Article
P. A. Harou. (1986). The EC context for private forestry incentive evaluation. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 4 article id 5297.

A brief overview of forestry in European Community (EC) of the 9 is presented. Forestry incentives seem necessary for increasing timber production on private ownership in order to avoid possible price inflation.

In the economic analysis of the program evaluation method proposed here to assess the efficiency of such incentives, a broad EC perspective is recommended to avoid erroneous conclusion. The evaluation made from the prospect of a member country only is artificial and is influenced by EC policies anyway. The evaluation changes depending on whether these EC policies are considered given and immutable or not.

  • Harou, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5288, category Article
Christopher D. Risbrudt. (1986). Policy evaluations for U.S. federal timber sale accounting system development. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 4 article id 5288.

Development of timber sale accounting system for the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service ordered by the U.S. Congress, has entailed numerous evaluations and research projects. Critics of the current process claims administrative costs are not recovered by the prices paid for Federal timber. However, management of multiple resources for multiple uses makes traditional accounting difficult; i.e., keeping track of cash flows. A further complication involves allocating costs to the various resources (joint cost allocation), for which no nonarbitrary method currently exists. A concurrent issue involves the building of roads for timber harvest into areas released from wilderness consideration. Environmentalists see the road building program of the Federal land management agencies as an additional reason Federal management costs are not recovered from timber-generated revenues. The heart of the issue is which lands are economically suited for timber management, and what nonmarket benefits and costs accrue from the timber management.

  • Risbrudt, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5287, category Article
Seppo Vehkamäki. (1986). Economic evaluation of forest policy programs. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 4 article id 5287.

The purpose of this paper is to present an approach to evaluate the profitableness of a forest policy program and to discover from among the feasible programs the one that best complies with the desired performance of the economy. At first the procedures of forest policy-making in a country like Finland is considered. After that a method to evaluate forest policy programs is derived.

  • Vehkamäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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