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Articles containing the keyword 'fertilisation'.

Category: Research article

article id 1260, category Research article
Jyrki Hytönen, Anna Saarsalmi. (2015). Biomass production of coppiced grey alder and the effect of fertilization. Silva Fennica vol. 49 no. 1 article id 1260. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1260
Highlights: Fertilisation (wood ash, N, PK) did not affect grey alder biomass production; Leafless above-ground biomass of 17–20 year old stands was 52–57 Mg ha–1; MAI increased with increase of rotation length to the end of the follow-up period of 17–20 years; Coppicing increased stand density manifold.
We studied biomass production of two naturally originated grey alder (Alnus incana (L.) Moench) stands having a mixture of birch and willow located in central Finland. One of the stands was growing on a peatland site (Muhos) and the other on a mineral soil site (Juuka). The stands were clear-cut and fertilization experiments were laid out with several treatments. At Muhos, the treatments included nitrogen fertilisation with different amounts of wood ash and an unfertilized control. At Juuka, the treatments included nitrogen fertilisation either with ash or with PK, and ash and PK treatments alone and an unfertilized control. The sprouts at Muhos were grown for 17 years and at Juuka for 20 years. At Juuka the stand was clear-cut second time at the age of 20 years and grown for 8 years. The stands were measured several times and foliar samples were taken twice during the study period. Clear-cutting increased stem number manifold. The stand density of new coppiced forests after the clear-cutting decreased from 67 000–89 000 stems ha–1 at the age of 3–6 years to 10 000–12 000 stems ha–1 at the age of 17–20 years. On neither site fertilization affected biomass production of alders during the study period. Leafless above-ground biomass was 52–57 Mg ha–1 after 17–20 years. Mean annual leafless above-ground biomass production (MAI) increased with increase of rotation time. At the age of 17–20 years the MAI was 2.8–3.0 Mg ha a–1. At Muhos, ash increased foliar P and Ca concentrations, but decreased those of Mn.
  • Hytönen, Natural Resources Institute Finland, Silmäjärventie 2, FI-69100 Kannus, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: jyrki.hytonen@luke.fi (email)
  • Saarsalmi, Natural Resources Institute Finland, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: anna.saarsalmi@luke.fi
article id 933, category Research article
Per-Ola Hedwall, Harald Grip, Sune Linder, Lars Lövdahl, Urban Nilsson, Johan Bergh. (2013). Effects of clear-cutting and slash removal on soil water chemistry and forest-floor vegetation in a nutrient optimised Norway spruce stand. Silva Fennica vol. 47 no. 2 article id 933. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.933
Fertilisation with nutrient optimisation has in Sweden resulted in large increases in volume growth in young stands of Norway spruce. There are, however, environmental concerns about repeated fertilisation and one is the risk of nutrient leakage to ground water resources and aquatic ecosystems after clear-cutting of such forests. The present study followed soil-water chemistry in optimised fertilised stands after clear-cutting, as well as effects of harvest of slash on nutrient leakage. Parts of a 30-year-old stand of Norway spruce, which had been subject to a nutrient optimisation experiment for 17 years, were clear-cut. A split-plot design with whole-tree harvesting as the sub-plot treatment was applied. Lysimeters were installed and soil-water sampled at nine occasions during the following four years. No significant effects of fertilisation on nitrate leaching were found, while harvest of slash reduced the concentration of Ca, DOC, DON, K, Mg, ammonium and nitrate, as well as pH in the soil solution. While no effects of fertilisation could be seen on the soil water concentration of N, the results indicate an interaction between fertilisation and harvest of slash on the concentration of nitrate in the soil solution. The results indicate that forest-floor vegetation plays an important role in the retention of N after clear-cutting of fertilised forests.
  • Hedwall, Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), P.O. Box 49, SE-230 53 Alnarp, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: per-ola.hedwall@slu.se (email)
  • Grip, Department of Forest Ecology and Management, SLU, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: harald@grip2.se
  • Linder, Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), P.O. Box 49, SE-230 53 Alnarp, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: sune.linder@slu.se
  • Lövdahl, Department of Forest Ecology and Management, SLU, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Nilsson, Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), P.O. Box 49, SE-230 53 Alnarp, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: urban.nilsson@slu.se
  • Bergh, Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), P.O. Box 49, SE-230 53 Alnarp, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: johan.bergh@slu.se
article id 540, category Research article
Finn H. Brække, Nagwa Salih. (2002). Reliability of foliar analyses of Norway spruce stands in a Nordic gradient. Silva Fennica vol. 36 no. 2 article id 540. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.540
Norway spruce stands at eleven sites in Finland, Norway and Sweden have been studied under various climates, atmospheric deposition of N and S and fertilisation regimes. Nitrogen was growth restricting at eight inland sites, while P was growth restricting at three coastal sites. Liming and N fertilisation caused serious B deficiency on some of the inland sites. It is likely that liming affects uptake of B, whereas N fertilisation causes a dilution due to increased growth. Application of S combined with N probably caused K deficiency at one of the sites. The reliability of foliar analyses as a method to diagnose nutrient status and the likely changes after nutrient input to spruce forests in the Nordic countries, are discussed. The CR- and the DOP-method are evaluated for diagnostic purposes. Both methods seem to give reliable conclusions even if the CR-method often produces more specific results. Interpretation based on both current and one year old foliage improved the diagnostic prognoses. The accuracy of diagnosis also relies on knowledge and ability of the interpreter. Based on the results it is reason to be cautious about recommendations of single element fertilisations, e.g. with N alone, because the demand of other elements beyond available pools frequently occurs. Forest trees in the boreal region are probably well adapted to N deficiency, which means that they can handle the physiological consequences rather well, while deficiencies of other elements usually are more detrimental to growth vigour and stress related diseases.
  • Brække, Department of Forest Sciences, Agricultural University of Norway (AUN), P.O. Box 5044, N-1432 Ås, Norway ORCID ID:E-mail: finn.braekke@isf.nlh.no (email)
  • Salih, Department of Ecology and Environmental Research, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), P.O. Box 7072, S-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 656, category Research article
Klaus Silfverberg, Markus Hartman. (1999). Effects of different phosphorus fertilisers on the nutrient status and growth of Scots pine stands on drained peatlands. Silva Fennica vol. 33 no. 3 article id 656. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.656
The aim of the study was to compare the effects of phosphorus fertilisers of different solubility and different phosphorus doses. The material was collected from 8 field experiments situated on drained peatlands in southern and central Finland (60°–65°N). The sites were drained, oligotrophic pine fens and pine bogs, which had been fertilised between 1961 and 1977 with different combinations of N, K and P. In 1991–94 stand measurements and foliar and peat sampling were carried out on 162 sample plots. Apatite, rock phosphate and superphosphate affected basal area growth to a rather similar extent. However, apatite slightly surpassed superphosphate and rock phosphate at the end of the study period in two hollow-rich S. fuscum bogs. Higher doses of phosphorus did not significantly increase the basal area growth. The foliar phosphorus concentrations clearly reflected the effect of the P fertilisation. Especially on the pine bogs basic fertilisation with 66 kg P/ha maintained the needle phosphorus concentrations at a satisfactory level for more than 25 years after fertilisation. The amount of phosphorus in the 0–20 cm peat layer was not significantly increased either by basic fertilisation or refertilisation. The phosphorus reserves in the peat in the individual experiments were between 88 and 327 kg/ha. There was a strong correlation between the amounts of phosphorus and iron in the peat. Large amounts of iron in peat may reduce the solubility and availability of phosphorus. According to the foliar phosphorus concentrations in the basic-fertilised plots, the need for refertilisation seems to be unnecessary during the 25-year postfertilisation period at least. None of the basic fertilisation treatments seriously retarded the basal area growth compared to the refertilised treatments. There seems to be a greater shortage of potassium than of phosphorus, because the foliar potassium concentrations and the amounts of potassium in the 0–20 cm peat layer were very low in several of the experiments.
  • Silfverberg, The Finnish Forest Research Institute, P.O. Box 18, FIN-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: klaus.silfverberg@metla.fi (email)
  • Hartman, The Finnish Forest Research Institute, P.O. Box 18, FIN-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:

Category: Article

article id 7360, category Article
Viljo Kujala. (1942). Über die morphologische Deutung des Fichtenzapfens auf Grund eines Fertilisationsfalles. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 7 article id 7360. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7360
English title: Morphologic interpretation of a spruce cone based on fertilization.
Original keywords: Fichte; Zapf; Fertilisation; Morfologie
English keywords: spruce; cone; fertilization; morphology

Article presents some rare cone formations found from a small spruce in region of Punkaharju, Finland. In this case all the scales have developed into perfect, green needle leaves. Instead of a normal scale of a cone there are formations of buds that on the basal part of a cone resemble a normal bud, and hence develop into a branch. On the upper part of the cone formation the bud develops into scale of a cone.

The morphological form of the cones has been interpreted many ways. These anomalies resemble earlier observations and hence support the former theory of inflorescence. According the theory, the scales and scales of a cone are separate leaves, the scale corresponding to one leaf, the scale of a cone corresponding to two leaves. A cone is hence rather to be compared with a branching inflorescence than only one flower.

The PDF contains a summary in Finnish. 

  • Kujala, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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