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Articles containing the keyword 'fertilizers'.

Category: Research article

article id 48, category Research article
Jyrki Hytönen, Lasse Aro. (2012). Biomass and nutrition of naturally regenerated and coppiced birch on cutaway peatland during 37 years. Silva Fennica vol. 46 no. 3 article id 48. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.48
Biomass production and nutrient use of birch thickets with a mixture of willow on a cut away peatland in southern Finland over a period of 37 years was studied. Dense, naturally regenerated 16-year-old birch stands were cut down, fertilized with either wood ash (P 108 and K 339 kg ha–1) or PK fertilizer (P 50 and K 95 kg ha–1) or left unfertilized. The biomass production of the coppiced stands and one uncut stand was monitored for a period of 21 years. Soil nutrient and foliar nutrient concentrations were analyzed several times during the study period. Ash fertilization supplied more nutrients than PK fertilization and increased the soil nutrient amounts more. The foliar phosphorus concentration of birch on control plots indicated a severe phosphorus deficiency which was removed by PK and ash fertilization. Fertilization did not increase nutrient concentrations of the stem (wood + bark) nor the amount of nutrients bound in the biomass. Two energy wood rotations (16+21 years) produced 124–158 Mg ha–1 of leafless, above-ground biomass altogether corresponding to 61–78 Mg ha–1 of carbon. The highest biomass yield was achieved with a rotation of 37 years in the uncut stand (211 Mg ha–1). Corresponding values for mean annual increment (MAI) were 3.4–4.3 Mg ha–1 and 5.7 Mg ha–1. This study shows that the length of the rotation for birch in energy wood production should be longer than 21 years. PK and ash fertilization increased the biomass of coppiced 21-year-old birch by 23 Mg ha–1 and 33 Mg ha–1, respectively.
  • Hytönen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Kannus, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: jyrki.hytonen@metla.fi (email)
  • Aro, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Kannus, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: lasse.aro@metla.fi

Category: Article

article id 5317, category Article
Ilari Lumme, Markku Yli-Halla. (1987). Behaviour of certain phosphorus and potassium compounds in a sedge peat soil. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 3 article id 5317. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15474

The solubilityof various phosphorus and potassium compounds in a sedge peat soil was studied in an incubation experiment aimed at screening potential fertilizers for the cultivation of fast-growing willows. (KPO3)n proved not to be a source of the slow-released K regarded as most desirable for this kind of cultivation as it was hydrolysed completely in the soil during incubation. Phosphorus from easily soluble or hydrolysable compounds (superphosphate, KH2PO4, (KPO3)n) was bound in the soil largely by Al and Fe and elevated the level of readily soluble P considerably, whereas rock phosphates were found to be practically unchanged after incubation and did not contribute to the readily soluble P in the soil. Apatites proved to be quite insoluble and are therefore assumed to be unsuitable as P fertilizers for fast-growing willows, which have a high nutrient demand.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Lumme, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Yli-Halla, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5152, category Article
Tuulikki Pakonen. (1981). Observations on the nutrient status in air polluted urban forest stands. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 4 article id 5152. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15379

Fertilizer factory has been found to be harmful to the surrounding area through its fertilizing effect, mainly due to nitrogen compounds in the form of NOx and ammonium. In this study, pH, K, Ca and Mg contents in the humus layer were monthly monitored around a fertilizer industry in Oulu, Northern Finland, in 1975 and 1976. In addition, nutrient analyses were made in the leaves of Vaccinium vitis-idaea, V. myrtillus and Empetrum Nigrum.

The calcium, magnesium and potassium present in the emission of airborne fertilizer dust brought about an increase of the nutrient content of the surface top soil humus compared with the control samples. The nutrient contents of dwarf shrub leaves increased near the industrial site as compared with the controls. The potassium contents of Vaccinium myrtillus and Empetrum nigrum were exceptionally high. The results of this pilot study show that the overfertilization must have had an increasing effect on the nutrient status changes in the forest environment.

  • Pakonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4960, category Article
Juhani Sarasto, Kustaa Seppälä. (1977). Isojen varpujen hävittämisen vaikutus rämemännikön kehitykseen. Silva Fennica vol. 11 no. 1 article id 4960. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14811
English title: The effect of dwarf-shrub vegetation supression on pine swamp tree stands.

In most pine swamp stands on drained peatlands the dwarf-shrubs are rather important biomass producers. The aim of the experiment was to determine the effect of killing off the dwarf-shrub vegetation on the subsequent development of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand. The dwarf-shrub vegetation was killed by means of herbicides. The results show that by removing competition by the dwarf-shrub vegetation on drained pine swamps, it is possible to pass onto the trees at least some of the freed growth potential.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Sarasto, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Seppälä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4954, category Article
Carl Johan Westman. (1976). Förrådsgödsling av rotande tallplantor med olika kvävegödselmedel. Silva Fennica vol. 10 no. 4 article id 4954. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14800
English title: Fertilization of Scots pine seedlings with different nitrogen fertilizer.

The paper describes an attempt to determine whether ammonium, nitrate and urea nitrogen are bound in peat used as a filling material in containerized seedling production, what is the effect of the nutrients on certain chemical properties in the peat, and what is the effect of the nitrogen fertilizers on the primary growth of containerized (paper-pot VH 608) Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings in connection with planting out. The seedlings were fertilized with ammonium sulphate, potassium nitrate and urea.

The results show that none of the fertilizers used were bound in the peat. The nitrogen content in the above ground part of the seedlings increased clearly. Fertilization with ammonium sulphate resulted in the greatest increment and this increase appears to be permanent. The wintering process was somewhat delayed by the fertilization. The seedling mortality rate for all the treatments has been quite appreciable. However, fertilization particularly with ammonium sulphate on the poorer of the two sites studied has had a positive effect on seedling survival. Furthermore, it appears that fertilizer treatments have decreased growth after planting, but in the case of ammonium sulphate this decrease has changed into a clear growth increment.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Westman, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4860, category Article
Pentti Erjala, Jussi Saramäki. (1972). Astiakoemenetelmä suotyyppien lannoitustarpeen määrityksessä. Silva Fennica vol. 6 no. 1 article id 4860. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14663
English title: Determination of the need for fertilizer application of drained peat soils with the pot method.

The possibilities of using a pot method to determine the need for fertilizer application were studied. Seedlings of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) were grown in peat samples that had cylindrical shape with a diameter of 25 cm and height of 35 cm. The samples represented three different peatland types, and were fertilized with two levels of phosphorus, potash and nitrogen. Two transplants were planted per pot. The development of the seedlings was followed for three years.

Phosphorus seemed to be of greatest importance for the growth of the seedlings, but nitrogen was also required in the poorest peatland type. Potash did not give statistically significant results. NPK application gave the best response. The usability of the method was studied by following the development of the roots. It seemed that the diameter of the pots was too small and restricted the growth of the root systems.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Erjala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Saramäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7641, category Article
Veikko Huhta, Riitta Hyvönen, Antti Koskenniemi, Pekka Vilkamaa, Paula Kaasalainen, Minna Sulander. (1986). Response of soil fauna to fertilization and manipulation of pH in coniferous forests. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 195 article id 7641. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7641

The effect of different fertilizer treatments on the invertebrate fauna on coniferous forest soil were investigated during the years 1979-83 both in field and in laboratory experiments. Fertilizers tested were urea (both alone and with P and K), ammonium nitrate and ashes. Ash-treatment was also controlled by raising the pH at the same level with Ca(OH)2.

Both ashes and urea resulted in considerable changes in the soil fauna. Nematodes, especially bacterial feeders, increased temporarily. Some families of Coleoptera invaded the urea-treated plots. Enchytraceid worms and several microarthropod species decreased, as well as the total animal biomass. Ash-treatment influenced more slowly than did urea-fertilizing, but it caused more permanent changes. Ammonium nitrate with lime had little influence in the field. All fertilizers affected more strongly when mixed with soil in laboratory. pH alone proved to explain most of the changes observed, but nitrogen as a nutrient also plays role independently of acidity.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Huhta, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Hyvönen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Koskenniemi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Vilkamaa, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kaasalainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Sulander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7641, category Article
Veikko Huhta, Riitta Hyvönen, Antti Koskenniemi, Pekka Vilkamaa, Paula Kaasalainen, Minna Sulander. (1986). Response of soil fauna to fertilization and manipulation of pH in coniferous forests. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 195 article id 7641. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7641

The effect of different fertilizer treatments on the invertebrate fauna on coniferous forest soil were investigated during the years 1979-83 both in field and in laboratory experiments. Fertilizers tested were urea (both alone and with P and K), ammonium nitrate and ashes. Ash-treatment was also controlled by raising the pH at the same level with Ca(OH)2.

Both ashes and urea resulted in considerable changes in the soil fauna. Nematodes, especially bacterial feeders, increased temporarily. Some families of Coleoptera invaded the urea-treated plots. Enchytraceid worms and several microarthropod species decreased, as well as the total animal biomass. Ash-treatment influenced more slowly than did urea-fertilizing, but it caused more permanent changes. Ammonium nitrate with lime had little influence in the field. All fertilizers affected more strongly when mixed with soil in laboratory. pH alone proved to explain most of the changes observed, but nitrogen as a nutrient also plays role independently of acidity.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Huhta, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Hyvönen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Koskenniemi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Vilkamaa, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kaasalainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Sulander, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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