Current issue: 53(2)

Under compilation: 53(3)

Impact factor 1.683
5-year impact factor 1.950
Silva Fennica 1926-1997
1990-1997
1980-1989
1970-1979
1960-1969
Acta Forestalia Fennica
1953-1968
1933-1952
1913-1932

Articles containing the keyword 'forest economics'.

Category: Article

article id 7500, category Article
L. Heikinheimo, S. Ervasti, L. Ahonen. (1959). Development of forest economic research in Finland. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 70 no. 10 article id 7500. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7500

This article is a review of Finnish forest research in the field of forest economics in the previous 50 years. Forest economics in Finland is comparatively young as an independent field of forest research. Not until 1922 was the office of Professor of Forest Economics established in the University of Helsinki. The Department of Forest Economics was established within the Forest Research Institute in 1928. The article presents the main fields of investigation, namely Finland’s forest resources and forest balance, forest ownership policy, forest legislation and forest taxation, forest labour, forest geography, forest industries and wood transport, marketing of forest products, and business economics of forestry.

The article is published in Finnish in separate PDF Acta Forestalia Fennica vol 70 no 9.

  • Heikinheimo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Ervasti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Ahonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7499, category Article
L. Heikinheimo, S. Ervasti, L. Ahonen. (1959). Suomen metsätaloustieteellisen tutkimuksen kehitys. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 70 no. 9 article id 7499. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7499
English title: Development of forest economic research in Finland.

This article is a review of Finnish forest research in the field of forest economics in the previous 50 years. Forest economics in Finland is comparatively young as an independent field of forest research. Not until 1922 was the office of Professor of Forest Economics established in the University of Helsinki. The Department of Forest Economics was established within the Forest Research Institute in 1928. The article presents the main fields of investigation, namely Finland’s forest resources and forest balance, forest ownership policy, forest legislation and forest taxation, forest labour, forest geography, forest industries and wood transport, marketing of forest products, and business economics of forestry.

The article is published in English in separate PDF Acta Forestalia Fennica vol 70 no 10.

  • Heikinheimo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Ervasti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Ahonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7412, category Article
Finnish Society of Forest Science. (1954). Professori Eino Saari 60-vuotias. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. I article id 7412. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7412
English title: Commemorative publication to celebrate the 60th anniversary of professor Eino Saari.

The article summarises the career of Eino Saari, professor of forest economics at the University of Helsinki on his 60th anniversary. He is the founder of forest economics research in Finland, and has developed the theory of forest balance. He abandoned the traditional static view of the forest balance and developed a new dynamic conception.

The Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari’s 60th birthday. 

The PDF includes a summary in English and Swedish.

  • Finnish Society of Forest Science, ORCID ID:E-mail: info@metsatiede.org (email)
article id 7342, category Article
E. A. Martin Hagfors. (1939). Kritische Untersuchungen über die ökonomische Theorie der Waldwirtschaft : mit besonderer Berüksichtigung der Verhältnisse Nordeuropas. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 47 no. 2 article id 7342. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7342
English title: Critical views on the economic theory on forestry: with special consideration on Nord-European circumstances.

The article contains three parts and a summary. The first part presents the common foundations of forest economics and forest management.  The second part critically discusses the concept of sustainability and the third part takes critical view on the theories on profitability.

The author concludes by stating that the literature shows there are some old principles of forest management that always arise when the forest science progresses. The economics of forest management has been neglected in the sense that it should be acknowledged as self and not as mathematical problem as it has been handled in many theories of national economy, e.g. land rent theory. The science seems the turn back to previous findings as they are proved right again.  

The PDF contains a summary in German.

 

  • Hagfors, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7324, category Article
E. A. Martin Hagfors. (1936). Monographische Studien zur Ökonomik der Waldwirtschaft. 1, G. König. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 42 no. 7 article id 7324. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7324
English title: Monographic studies on theory of forestry, part 1: G. König.
Original keywords: Portrait; G. König; Forstökonomie
English keywords: profile; G. König; forest economics;

Studies by G. König are the main source for the profitability theories of forestry. He was one of the first economists developing the forestry practices more towards profitability aspects. His doctrine presented the first steps of current forest related trend of ideas and hence so significant in the later development of the discipline.

The article presents the life of G. König and two of his most important works: “Anleitung” (introduction) from the year 1813 and “Forstmathematik” (Mathematics of forest) from years 1835 and 1854

The PDF contains a summary in Finnish.  

  • Hagfors, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7258, category Article
E. A. Martin Hagfors. (1929). Über die ökonomischen Ziele bei der Bewirtschaftung der Wälder. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 35 no. 3 article id 7258. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7258
English title: On the economic objectives of the commercial use of forest.

The article has two parts: the first are the common principles of forestry and forest economics and the second part presents different theories of forest economics. The aim of the study is to find out how the best possible economic result can be achieved from forest management and use of forest resources.

The first part presents the economic foundations of forestry; the division between following the concept of economic profitability in forestry and forest management; concepts of capital and operating result in forestry; and productivity and profitability. It discusses the idea of economy as a dynamic entity instead of static.

In the second part the different economic theories related to forestry and forest economics are presented. Theory on the highest interest on forest capital, theory of sustained yield management system, land rent theory, theory on forest profitability and dynamic economic theory are discussed.      

The PDF contains a summary in Finnish.
  • Hagfors, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5638, category Article
Markku Tykkyläinen, Pentti Hyttinen, Ari Mononen. (1997). Theories of regional development and their relevance to the forest sector. Silva Fennica vol. 31 no. 4 article id 5638. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8540

The paper elaborates upon various theories to explain economic development and restructuring in the forested regions of advanced countries. The concepts of communities based on the forest sector and the concept of restructuring are discussed before presenting the diversity of relevant theories. Different theoretical approaches in geography and regional and socio-economic sciences are analysed, and the paper concludes that each theory gives only a partial explanation of restructuring under certain conditions. This paper recommends that an explanatory framework should take into account – in addition to general explanatory factors – sectoral, local-specific and policy-related factors and the role of human agency in attempts to explain restructuring and development.

  • Tykkyläinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Hyttinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Mononen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5448, category Article
Markku Penttinen. (1991). Metsäkirjanpidon ja kustannuslaskennan toteuttaminen - 20 vuotta metsätalouden kannattavuuden kenttätutkimusta Itävallassa. Silva Fennica vol. 25 no. 2 article id 5448. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15602
English title: Implementing forestry bookkeeping and cost accounting – 20 years of field research on the profitability of forestry in Austria.

The profitability of forestry in the context of recent economic developments in Finland suggest a more systematic analysis of the profit and the cost structure of small-scale forestry than is normally made today. The domestic and international pressure on farming emphasizes the development of rural areas by means of other business than agriculture, in practice this may mean forestry. Financing in terms of the new law concerning agriculture requires projects to be profitable. Thus, the profitability of different lines of production, including forestry, needs to be reported more carefully than is the practice today.

A network of forestry bookkeeping farms covering the whole Austria has existed for 20 years. The organization and the operation of the forestry bookkeeping and the cost accounting system is based on the scientific cooperation and exchange of information between the organizations in charge. The practical experience and recommendations based thereon might be useful for Finland, when implementing a country-wide network of forestry bookkeeping and cost accounting.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Penttinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5394, category Article
Pekka Kilkki. (1989). Kestävä metsätalous. Silva Fennica vol. 23 no. 4 article id 5394. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15552
English title: Sustainable forest management.

This paper is a review on the development of sustainable forest management and what has been meant with the term in different times. The article summarises the birth of sustainable use of forests in the world and in Finland, and discusses sustainability in forest management, for instance from the point of view of one forest holding, large clearcuttings performed in Lapland, biological sustainability, business economics and overall planning.

  • Kilkki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5366, category Article
Pekka Ollonqvist. (1988). Resurssien jakautumisen tehokkuuden ja päätöksentekijöiden tavoitteiden mittauksessa tapahtuneista muutoksista metsäekonomiassa. Silva Fennica vol. 22 no. 4 article id 5366. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15523
English title: The quarter century development in the paradigms of forestry economics.

The two introductory books written by emeritus professor William Duerr provide an opportunity to scope the research progress in the forest economic discipline during almost a quarter century. This paper gives a presentation of the books (Fundamentals of Forest economics, 1960, and Forestry Economics as Problem Solving, 1984), and the development of forest economics during the period.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ollonqvist, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5244, category Article
Juha Lappi, Markku Siitonen. (1985). A utility model for timber production based on different interest rates for loans and savings. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 3 article id 5244. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15423

The paper discusses the evaluation of timber production policies with different income (timber drain) schedules. Special attention is given to the temporal smoothness of the income flow. A utility model is formulated in which the objective is to maximize a fixed consumption pattern, and money can be saved and borrowed at different interest rates. We thus have smoothness requirements only for consumption, the capital market then determines the smoothness of the optimal income flow. Present discounted value and maximization of even income flow criteria are special cases of the utility model. Consumption can be maximized by linear programming. A sample problem is presented.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Lappi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Siitonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5170, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1982). Näkökohta sisäisen korkokannan laskemisesta. Silva Fennica vol. 16 no. 4 article id 5170. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15085
English title: Note on the calculation of the internal rate of return.

In forestry, a classical method of evaluating the profitability of an outlay is to calculate the internal rate of return. If there are many outlays and returns over a period, analytical determination of the internal rate is difficult and requires simulation methods. However, if there is only one outlay and one return, the computation is easy. In this paper, some formulae were developed for practical purposes. The equations also show how the return changes as the ratio between the return and the outlay changes.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5085, category Article
Kari Keipi. (1980). Business economics in forestry research in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 3 article id 5085. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15026

The paper reviews the past research in the five major subfields of business economics of forestry. Although the twelve doctoral dissertations in the discipline distribute evenly among the subfields, timber production economics has gained the major weight during the past 10–20 years. The new forest products market development requires the focus be shifted from pulpwood to high quality sawn timber production. Maintaining the current market share requires effective measures to control the wood costs. The article proposes nine research projects relating to these market demands.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Keipi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4973, category Article
Olli Saastamoinen. (1977). Economics of forest uses in Finnish Lapland. Silva Fennica vol. 11 no. 3 article id 4973. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14824

The object of the study was to give a tentative indication of the realized economic significance of the principal forest (forestry land) uses in Finnish Lapland. Data concerns the years of the 1970s. Nowadays timber harvesting generates a major part of the total value of production. Recreation (tourism) is in second place. Reindeer husbandry, collection of berries and mushrooms and hunting together produce, in the best years, an output value which is about one fifth of that of timber harvesting. Non-timber uses together produce a rather significant portion on the total value of the integrated forestry output.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Saastamoinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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