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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
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Acta Forestalia Fennica
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Articles containing the keyword 'forest holdings'.

Category: Article

article id 7174, category Article
Pentti Alho. (1967). Pohjois-Pohjanmaan rannikkokuntien maanjako-olot metsätalouden kannalta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 82 no. 1 article id 7174. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7174
English title: Influences of partitioning of land in forestry in the municipalities of northern Ostrobothnia in Finland.

Farm forestry in northern Ostrobothnia has met different kinds of obstacles that decrease its profitability, some national, some local. One of the later is partitioning of land. The purpose of this investigation was to survey the division of farm land in the coastal municipalities of northern Ostrobothnia in Finland, where the conditions are among the most unfavourable in the country in this respect. The material used in the investigation was collected in a previous study about the structure of the farms in the area. First part of the paper summarises the history of partitioning of land in Finland.

The results show that division of the woodlots of a farm are in the coastal municipalities of northern Ostrobothnia very disadvantageous for forestry. The average distance of a woodlot to the farmhouse is 8.3 km, but there is a great variation between the municipalities, and the distance varies from 30 to 1.9 km. The form of the lots, as the long ribbon-like woodlots in the municipality of Liminka, complicates often practical forestry. In addition, the number of separate woodlots is high, in average 9.2 per farm.

The great distance of the woodlots from the main farms hinders the use of forests and diminishes the financial result of forestry. Unfavourable form of the woodlots posts similar hindrances to harvesting of timber and forest management as the long distances and high number of separate plots. The problem is heightened by the abundance of peatlands in relation to productive forest lands in the area.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Alho, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7449, category Article
Valter Keltikangas. (1954). Metsäpalstan pinta-alan vaikutuksesta sen kauppahintaan. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 37 article id 7449. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7449
English title: The effect of area upon the value of a forest holding.

Forests have been priced by assessing separately the value of the land, small timber and heavy timber, and adding them together. This method of summing up gives a small woodlot the same price per hectare as a large forest area. In real estate sales the actual prices paid per hectare, however, are higher for small woodlots. The summing-up method thus over-values big forest holdings.

The figures obtained by the summing-up method should be corrected by using a reduction percentage. This value should increase with the growth of the forest area and should be higher for fully-stocked areas than those with small growing stock. A table of reduction percentages is presented, where an effort is made to eliminate the effect upon the statistics of the potential value of the land as building site and field. The results clearly indicate that the effect of area upon the price of a woodlot is fairly marked, even with very small parcels.

On the other hand, determination of the reduction percentages has some theoretical weaknesses. The author recommends a method of price evaluation which takes the factor of area directly into account, excluding arbitrary correction percentages. In this method the marketable part of the growing stock is evaluated at its felling value and its relative role decreases with the growth of the area. The rest of the growing stock together with the ground is priced as rental value. This method of professor Eino Saari does justice both to the area and to the fact that forest land and the growing tied to it form an inseparable whole.

The Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari’s 60th birthday.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Keltikangas, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7449, category Article
Valter Keltikangas. (1954). Metsäpalstan pinta-alan vaikutuksesta sen kauppahintaan. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 37 article id 7449. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7449
English title: The effect of area upon the value of a forest holding.

Forests have been priced by assessing separately the value of the land, small timber and heavy timber, and adding them together. This method of summing up gives a small woodlot the same price per hectare as a large forest area. In real estate sales the actual prices paid per hectare, however, are higher for small woodlots. The summing-up method thus over-values big forest holdings.

The figures obtained by the summing-up method should be corrected by using a reduction percentage. This value should increase with the growth of the forest area and should be higher for fully-stocked areas than those with small growing stock. A table of reduction percentages is presented, where an effort is made to eliminate the effect upon the statistics of the potential value of the land as building site and field. The results clearly indicate that the effect of area upon the price of a woodlot is fairly marked, even with very small parcels.

On the other hand, determination of the reduction percentages has some theoretical weaknesses. The author recommends a method of price evaluation which takes the factor of area directly into account, excluding arbitrary correction percentages. In this method the marketable part of the growing stock is evaluated at its felling value and its relative role decreases with the growth of the area. The rest of the growing stock together with the ground is priced as rental value. This method of professor Eino Saari does justice both to the area and to the fact that forest land and the growing tied to it form an inseparable whole.

The Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari’s 60th birthday.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Keltikangas, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7437, category Article
Kustaa Kallio. (1954). Asutustoiminnassa muodostettujen viljelystilojen metsämaa-alojen suuruussuhteista. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 25 article id 7437. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7437
English title: Area of wood lots of the farms established in connection with settlement in Finland.

In Finland a large land reform has been accomplished which has increased the number of small farms and forest holdings by over 100,000. It is estimated that 4-5 million ha of forest land has been transferred to these smallholdings. The aim of this investigation was to study the areas of the wood lots of the farms established in connection to settlement activities during the time Finland has been independent.

The study shows that the farms established on the state-owned lands have been given forest areas big enough to enable them timber sales, provided that the forests were in a moderately good silvicultural condition. Relatively largest forest areas have been given to farms established from tenant farms. The farms established on private lands have got in average forest areas that are smaller than would be required for growing of household timber. In Southern Finland the area has been adequate, but in Northern Finland too small in part of the farms. Also, variation in the size of the farms has been larger. The farms established under the Land Acquisition Act have been given in average more than the principle of according to which half of the forests should be suitable for cultivation of household timber and half for timber sales.

The Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari’s 60th birthday.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Kallio, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7380, category Article
Olavi Linnamies. (1944). Eri suuruisten yksityismetsälöiden metsävaroista ja metsien tilasta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 52 no. 2 article id 7380. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7380
English title: Forest resources and condition of the forests in forest holdings of various sizes.

The aim of the investigation was to study the effect of size of a forest holding to its forest resources or state and quality of the forests. The data was collected in the second national forest inventory in Finland, carried out in 1936-1938. The study focuses on farms in two areas in Southern Finland: provinces of Pohjois-Häme and Satakunta, and provinces of Uusimaa and Kaakkois-Häme.

In 1938 about 53% of forests in Finland were owned by private forest holdings, the sizes of which varied from under 5 ha to over 1,000 ha. About 75 % of the holdings were under 50 ha. After 1918 the number of private forest holdings increased markedly, mainly due to settlement and tenant farmers gaining ownership to their farms.

The smaller the forest holdings were, the poorer was the silvicultural state of the forests and the smaller the standing stock. When the area of the forest holding increases, also the volume of the standing stock per hectare, the number of timber-trees, and average size of the timber trees increases. This is due to larger proportion of older age-classes and somewhat better forest management. Fellings have usually been stronger in the smaller forest holdings. The poor state of the forests originates often from use of the forests before the present ownership, such as slash and burn culture, grazing and cutting wood for household use. To improve the state of the forests, education and forest improvement practices are needed.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Linnamies, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5489, category Article
Markku Penttinen, Matti Kinnunen. (1992). Profitability of forestry in jointly-owned forests of Northeastern Finland and Lapland. Silva Fennica vol. 26 no. 4 article id 5489. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15650

The profitability of jointly owned forest holdings in the two northernmost forest board districts of Finland was studied by means of ratio analysis. A time series of profit and loss statements and balance sheets from 33 holdings covering the fiscal years ending 1981–1990 served as the database. The studied area was 348,038 ha, the allowable cut 304,300 m3 per year and the average turnover, deflated by the wholesale price index, FIM 57.6 million per year. The key result obtained was that the average annual profit was FIM 107 per hectare and FIM 110 per m3. The time series showed that the ratios had increased significantly over the calculation period.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Penttinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kinnunen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5485, category Article
Pekka Ripatti. (1992). Yksityistilojen metsäalan muutokset Kaakkois-Suomessa 1986-1991. Silva Fennica vol. 26 no. 3 article id 5485. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15646
English title: Forest area changes of non-industrial private forest holdings in southeast Finland, 1986–1991.

The aim of the study was to describe the total change of forest area in non-industrial private forest holdings in southeast Finland, 1986–1991. The average gross decrease of forest area was 1.7 hectares, whereas the average gross increase was 1.2 hectares. Consequently, the average size of holdings decreased from 32.5 to 32.0 hectares. The most important factors affecting the changes of forest area were the inheritance system, resulting in a decrease of 0.7 ha, and reclassification of forestry land, producing an increase of 0.4 ha per holding. The increase of small, under 10 ha holdings accounted for much of the structural change.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Ripatti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5448, category Article
Markku Penttinen. (1991). Metsäkirjanpidon ja kustannuslaskennan toteuttaminen - 20 vuotta metsätalouden kannattavuuden kenttätutkimusta Itävallassa. Silva Fennica vol. 25 no. 2 article id 5448. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15602
English title: Implementing forestry bookkeeping and cost accounting – 20 years of field research on the profitability of forestry in Austria.

The profitability of forestry in the context of recent economic developments in Finland suggest a more systematic analysis of the profit and the cost structure of small-scale forestry than is normally made today. The domestic and international pressure on farming emphasizes the development of rural areas by means of other business than agriculture, in practice this may mean forestry. Financing in terms of the new law concerning agriculture requires projects to be profitable. Thus, the profitability of different lines of production, including forestry, needs to be reported more carefully than is the practice today.

A network of forestry bookkeeping farms covering the whole Austria has existed for 20 years. The organization and the operation of the forestry bookkeeping and the cost accounting system is based on the scientific cooperation and exchange of information between the organizations in charge. The practical experience and recommendations based thereon might be useful for Finland, when implementing a country-wide network of forestry bookkeeping and cost accounting.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Penttinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7665, category Article
Seppo Vehkamäki. (1990). Woodlot price formation in the early 1980s. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 218 article id 7665. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7665

The aim of this study was to explain both theoretically and empirically the formation of the unit price of a woodlot in the early 1980’s in Finland. The structure of the market in which woodlot transactions take place is described by analysing the volume of markets, the heterogeneity of the woodlots, institutional regulation of woodlot ownership and information concerning the market. The decision-making processes of both woodlot seller and buyer are examined using a theoretical model. Using a woodlot transaction sample for 1983 and 1984 woodlot unit price is explained empirically.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Vehkamäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7539, category Article
Leo Ahonen. (1970). Diskonttausarvo metsän hinnoitusinformaationa. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 105 article id 7539. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7539
English title: Discount value as a basis for valuation of woodlots.

This methodical study aims at assessing discount value and its nature and function in setting a price for a forest holding. The aim is to study how the subject interested in buying or selling a woodlot could in the most meaningful way use discount value to prepare the sale and aid the decision making, taking account his personal interests. The paper includes a literature review on the determination of value.

It is concluded that woodlots have no «correct and real» values and, therefore, they cannot be calculated. Value is formed for the woodlots only in connection to the subject running the household, and his environment and actions. A discount value can be defined as a discount value of future net incomes. In the study different ways to calculate discount value are analysed.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Ahonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7600, category Article
Pekka Kilkki. (1968). Income-oriented cutting budget. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 91 article id 7600. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7600

The aim of this study was to develop cutting budget methods for a forest undertaking. Cutting budget provides information on the future income from the forest undertaking, and on the development of the forest.

Two cutting budget models have been developed, by the application of simulation and linear programming. Both of the models are deterministic in nature, i.e. there is only one possible outcome once the stated input information has been given. To make the models simpler, it has been assumed that thinning and clear cutting with reforestation are the only activities that can occur in the forest. The models are directly applicable only to forests consisting of even-aged Scots pine stands at three different forest types. However, they can easily be extended to cover forests comprising several tree species and more sites.

In the light of this study, simulation seems today to be more appropriate than linear programming in the preparation of cutting budgets. However, the increasing capacity of computers may even in the near future make linear programming quite competitive, especially as if it is borne in mind that the theoretical basis of linear programming is much firmer than that of simulation. The most advisable cutting budget method might consist of a combination of simulation and linear programming. Simulation could be employed to find a rough cutting schedule, and linear programming to test and improve the solution.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Kilkki, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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