Current issue: 53(2)

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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
1990-1997
1980-1989
1970-1979
1960-1969
Acta Forestalia Fennica
1953-1968
1933-1952
1913-1932

Articles containing the keyword 'forest improvement'.

Category: Research article

article id 658, category Research article
Muru Juurola, Pekka Ollonqvist, Heikki Pajuoja, Mikko Toropainen. (1999). Outcomes of forest improvement work in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 33 no. 3 article id 658. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.658
This paper discusses public subsidies aimed at intensifying timber production as an initial part of an evaluation of the profitability of forest investment subsidies in Finland. In many countries there are very few proper ex post evaluations of the forest policy instruments in economic terms. The scarcity of timber among users and their attempts to construct new forest policy are discussed first. The increments in annual growth and growing stock as well as its valuation are then evaluated. The final gross utility increments due to forestry investments are measured through their importance in the forest industry products. The direct and indirect changes in GDP are calculated by using the input-output method.
  • Juurola, The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Helsinki Research Centre, Unioninkatu 40 A, FIN-00170 Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Ollonqvist, The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Helsinki Research Centre, Unioninkatu 40 A, FIN-00170 Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pajuoja, The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Helsinki Research Centre, Unioninkatu 40 A, FIN-00170 Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: heikki.pajuoja@metla.fi (email)
  • Toropainen, The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Helsinki Research Centre, Unioninkatu 40 A, FIN-00170 Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:

Category: Article

article id 7333, category Article
Valter Keltikangas. (1938). Puutase metsätalouden tuloksenlaskennassa : tulosbilanssioppiin (dynaamiseen bilanssiteoriaan) perustuva tutkimus. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 45 no. 1 article id 7333. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7333
English title: Timber balance in the financial accounting of forestry.

The financial accounting of the forestry needs redefining in Finland due to the effect of forest improvement, especially peatland drainage, on timber balance and valuation of forest land. The aim of the study was to develop methods to determine the timber balance using a separate forest land account. The problems of timber balance are related to the technical methods to assess timber balance and the cost of the work, quantitative determination of the profit, and qualitative determination of the profit. One main problem is to whether to define the quantitative profit as a sustainability of timber resources or difference in the allowable cut and outturn. The article discusses the strengths and weaknesses of the methods, and concludes that regardless of the method that is used to calculate the timber balance, profit or loss accounts have less exact nature in forestry than in other sectors. Replacing reliably calculated revenue surplus with operating result based on timber account would lead to tentative results.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Keltikangas, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7301, category Article
O. J. Lakari. (1934). Valtionmetsien työtarjonnasta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 24 article id 7301. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7301
English title: Employment in the state forests of Finland.

The article is a report of the ways the state forests could be used to improve employment, requested by the State Unemployment Council. Production of the state forests of Finland has been insufficient, because the fellings have not taken account silvicultural needs, and forest management has not previously received proper funding. For instance, the production and wood resources in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) dominated forests in Southern Finland were 2/3 of what they could be if the forests were in natural state. More efficient forest management is necessary to ensure the sustainable wood production of the state forests, and that could consequently offer work opportunities. The tasks needed to improve productivity of the state forests, and the work opportunities they can give are listed. Silviculture, drainage of peatlands, wood harvesting and transport, marking timber for fellings, floating, building forest roads and administrative and planning work could increase the supply of work to 8.6 million man-days and 1.6 horse-days in the state forests, mainly in wood harvesting and transport.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Lakari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4829, category Article
Juhani Numminen. (1970). Metsäojituksen kannattavuuden alueittainen vaihtelu. Silva Fennica vol. 4 no. 4 article id 4829. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14618
English title: Regional variation of the profitability of forest drainage in Finland.

The study attempts to establish to what extent the present regional allocation of the forest improvement subsidies equalize the profitability of forest drainage in Finland. The benefit/cost ratio has been used to describe the regional variation of the profitability

The study revealed that the forest improvement subsidies granted in 1968, even the highest possible subsidies, did not equalize the profitability of forest drainage. According to the results, the northern regions are at a disadvantage compared to the southern parts of the country. To fully equalize the profitability of forest drainage the average subsidies granted in 1968 should have been raised in the second financing zone from 22 to 32%, in the third zone from 32 to 60%, and in the fourth, northernmost zone from 43 to 86%. The study also suggests that the boundary lines of the financing zones should run, at least in Central and Northern Finland, from southeast to northwest instead from east to west, as it is now.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Numminen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7528, category Article
Einari Vuori. (1913). Die durch Brandkultur entstandenen Nadelholzbestände des Staatsforstes Vesijako. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 2 no. 1 article id 7528. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7528
English title: Coniferous tree stands of the state forest “Vesijako” reforested through controlled burning.

The study area is state owned forest of Vesijako in southern middle Finland that has earlier been intensively managed with slash-and-burn agriculture. Reforestation of broad-leaved forests into coniferous forest with controlled burning has been studied on 76 sample plots.

The article describes the practice of leasing forest stands to leaseholders who executed the controlled burning and forest regeneration and management according a leasing contract. The results of the reforestation with coniferous trees shows that sowed pine (Pinus silvestris) stands give good results but spruce (Picea abies) must be planted as a seedling.  For the state this method of forest improvement is cost effective  and should be used more widely. 

  • Vuori, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7599, category Article
Veikko Juhana Palosuo. (1979). MERA-ohjelmat Suomen metsätaloudessa. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 165 article id 7599. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7599
English title: MERA programmes in the Finnish forestry.

The Forest Financing Committee played an important role in Finnish Forestry in the 1960's. This voluntary working group prepared three plans for financing basic forest improvement work from 1965 to 1975.

The report describes the origin of the MERA I (1965–70) and the volunteer work of the Forestry Financing (MERA) Committee in preparing the second and third programmes (1966–75). It deals the initiative of the Committee aiming to finance forest improvement works also from international sources, resulted later on to the Forest Improvement Project (1973–76). Its costs were covered for 16% by the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development in form of a State Loan. The report includes comments about the forest policy in Finland during the 60s and 70s as well as the results of the programmes.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish and Swedish.

  • Palosuo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4463, category Article
Erkki K. Cajander. (1932). Tietoja metsänviljelystoiminnasta Suomessa 1923-1930. Silva Fennica no. 22 article id 4463. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9019
English title: Artificial forest regeneration in Finland in 1923-1930.

The article is a review on early forest regeneration and management in Finland. Beginning of the 1900s marks change in attitudes and resources for forest management. The state increased the funding of forest regeneration and improvement in the state forests in 1928. State funding is directed also to forest improvement in the private forests, and organizations established to promote forest management in the private forests are reorganized. For instance, District Forestry Boards were appointed the forest improvement work in private lands, in addition to promotion of private forestry. Sowing increased in the state forests from 772 ha to 1,566 ha, in forests of the forest companies from 3,006 ha to 4,954, and in private forests from 1,417 ha to 1,566 ha in 1923-1926. The figures of private forests are, however, incomplete. The most usual methods are patch sowing and broadcast sowing on snow. Seeds used in sowing increased from 3,357 kg to 14,387 kg, and planting from 413 ha to 1,020 ha in 1923-1930. Almost half of the sown areas were in the state forests, and most of the planted area in the forests of the companies. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) was the main tree species in artificial regeneration, and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) was more popular in planting.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Cajander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4449, category Article
Oskari Jalmari Lukkala. (1928). Metsähallinnon suonkuivatustoiminnassa saavutettuja kokemuksia sekä suuntaviivoja suonkuivausta koskevan tutkimustyön kehittämiseksi. Silva Fennica no. 8 article id 4449. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8397
English title: Experiences on draining of peatlands in the State forests in Finland by Forest Service and lines along which research on the draining of peatlands should proceed.

Systematic draining of peatlands begun in the state forests of Finland in 1908. It was considered necessary, because 41.4% of the state forests, 5.6 million hectares, consist of peatlands. Of the peatlands, 1.9 million hectares was estimated to be suitable for draining. Furthermore, paludification still continues in the forest lands. By the year 1926, a total of 52,275 hectares of peatland had been drained in the state lands.

Certain factors decide whether the peatland is suitable for draining: the growth increment capacity after draining, technical difficulties in draining, and difficulties in regeneration. Peatland type indicates the growth capacity of the drained peatland. The peatland should turn at least to Vaccinum forest site type or better type to be worth of draining. If the peat layer is thin, the quality of peat is an important deciding factor. The peatland may also be too expensive to drain due to, for instance, long ditches, main ditches difficult to dig, small inclination, uneven surface, and deep cavities at the bottom. The younger the trees of the stand, the faster the growth of the stand revives. The peatlands usually regenerate naturally provided there is sufficient seed trees, and there is seldom need for artificial regeneration.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lukkala, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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