Current issue: 53(2)

Under compilation: 53(3)

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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
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Acta Forestalia Fennica
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Articles containing the keyword 'forest regeneration'.

Category: Research article

article id 9946, category Research article
Frauke Fedderwitz, Niklas Björklund, Velemir Ninkovic, Göran Nordlander. (2018). Does the pine weevil (Hylobius abietis) prefer conifer seedlings over other main food sources? Silva Fennica vol. 52 no. 3 article id 9946. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.9946
Highlights: Adult pine weevils feed on seedlings and mature conifers, but cause economic damage only on seedlings; Their feeding preferences for branches and roots over seedlings were tested in a laboratory experiment; The only clear preference was for Norway spruce roots; Results support new approaches of seedling protection attempting to redirect pine weevils from planted seedlings to other food sources.

Adult pine weevils (Hylobius abietis (L.)) feed on the tender bark of branches and roots of mature conifer trees and on the stem bark of conifer seedlings. Their feeding on mature trees does not cause any economic damage, but their feeding on planted seedlings is so devastating that the pine weevil is considered one of the most important forest pest insects in Europe. We asked whether the pine weevil prefers seedlings over other regularly utilized food sources. This question is of particular interest because new approaches to seedling protection are based on decreasing any preference for seedlings by using less palatable plants or by enhancing their defence (by genetic selection or by methyl jasmonate treatment). In a laboratory choice experiment we tested pine weevil feeding preferences for seedlings compared with branches and roots from mature trees (separately for Norway spruce and Scots pine). Pine weevils preferred roots, but not branches, of Norway spruce over seedlings of the same species. With Scots pine there were no clear preferences, but the weevils showed a tendency to prefer roots over seedlings. These results provide support for seedling protection approaches that attempt to redirect pine feeding from planted seedlings to other food sources.

  • Fedderwitz, Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 7044, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: frauke.fedderwitz@slu.se (email)
  • Björklund, Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 7044, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: niklas.bjorklund@slu.se
  • Ninkovic, Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 7044, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: velemir.ninkovic@slu.se
  • Nordlander, Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 7044, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: goran.nordlander@slu.se
article id 9933, category Research article
Timo Saksa, Jari Miina, Hilkka Haatainen, Kauko Kärkkäinen. (2018). Quality of spot mounding performed by continuously advancing mounders. Silva Fennica vol. 52 no. 2 article id 9933. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.9933
Highlights: The number and quality of mounds varied considerably according to the operating conditions;The main factors reducing the quality of spot mounding were steep terrain, a thick humus layer, fresh logging residues, stoniness and soil texture;With careful selection of timing and conditions for mounding, the quality obtained by continuously advancing mounders can be improved.

Operating conditions affecting the quality of spot mounding by Bracke continuously advancing mounders were investigated on 66 regeneration areas (124 ha) in eastern Finland. The quality of mounds was classified as suitable (good or acceptable after additional compression) or unsuitable for planting. Models were constructed for the number of suitable planting spots obtained per hectare (good and acceptable mounds), the probability of successful mounding (≥1600 planting spots ha–1) and the probability of creating a suitable mound as a function of terrain, site and soil characteristics, as well as slash conditions (removed, fresh or dry logging residues). The average number of mounds created was 1892 ± 290 mounds ha–1, of which 1398 ± 325 mounds ha–1 (74%) were classified as suitable for planting. The quality of spot mounding was reduced by steep terrain, a thick humus layer and fresh logging residues. Stoniness and soil texture also affected the number of planting spots created. Mounding after logging residues had dried increased the number of planting spots by 191 spots ha–1 compared with mounding in the presence of fresh residues. Removing residues did not significantly increase the number of planting spots compared with mounding amongst dry residues. A thick humus layer, very stony soil, steep slopes and valley terrain decreased the number of planting spots by 150–450 spots ha–1. The number and quality of mounds varied considerably according to the operating conditions, but with careful selection of timing and sites the quality obtained by a continuously advancing mounder can be improved.

  • Saksa, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Juntintie 154, FI-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: timo.saksa@luke.fi (email)
  • Miina, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Yliopistokatu 6, FI-80100 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: jari.miina@luke.fi
  • Haatainen, Faculty of Science and Forestry, School of Forest Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: hilkka.haatainen@storaenso.com
  • Kärkkäinen, Tornator Oyj, Muuntamontie 2, FI-80100 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: kauko.karkkainen@tornator.fi
article id 1665, category Research article
Lauri Haataja, Ville Kankaanhuhta, Timo Saksa. (2018). Reliability of self-control method in the management of non-industrial private forests. Silva Fennica vol. 52 no. 1 article id 1665. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1665
Highlights: Self-control method was found reliable at the main stages of the forest regeneration process; Only slight overestimation was found in self-control results of soil preparation and planting and small underestimation in self-control of young stand management; Diverse utilizing of self-control data is possible in support of service providers operations.
This study seeks to determine the extent to which self-control data can be relied upon in the management of private forests. Self-control (SC) requires the forest workers to evaluate their own work quality to ensure the clients’ needs are met in terms of soil preparation, planting and young stand management. Self-control data were compared to an independent evaluation of the same worksites. Each dataset had a hierarchical structure (e.g., sample plot, regeneration area and contractor), and key quality indicators (i.e., number of prepared mounds, planted seedlings or crop trees) were measured for each plot.  Self-control and independent-assessments (IA) were analyzed by fitting a multi-level multivariate model containing explanatory variables. No significant differences were observed in terms of soil preparation (number of mounds) or young stand management (number of crop trees) between self-control and independent-assessments. However, the self-control planting data included a slight but significant overestimation of the number of planted seedlings. Discrepancies are discussed in terms of sampling error and other explanatory factors. According to overall results, self-control methods are reliable at every stage of the forest regeneration process. As such, the diverse utilizing of self-control data is possible in support of service providers operations.
  • Haataja, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Natural resources, Juntintie 154, FI-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: lauritapiohaataja@gmail.com (email)
  • Kankaanhuhta, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Natural resources, Juntintie 154, FI-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: ville.kankaanhuhta@luke.fi
  • Saksa, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Natural resources, Juntintie 154, FI-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: timo.saksa@luke.fi
article id 1562, category Research article
Mats Erik Berlin, Torgny Persson, Gunnar Jansson, Matti Haapanen, Seppo Ruotsalainen, Lars Bärring, Bengt Andersson Gull. (2016). Scots pine transfer effect models for growth and survival in Sweden and Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 50 no. 3 article id 1562. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1562
Highlights: Scots pine transfer effect models for growth and survival, valid in both Sweden and Finland have been developed; The models use high-resolution gridded climate data and can predict performance in future climatic conditions; The models perform well both for unimproved and genetically improved material and can be used to develop deployment recommendations of contemporary forest regeneration material in Sweden and Finland.

In this study, we developed models of transfer effects for growth and survival of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in Sweden and Finland using a general linear mixed-model approach. For model development, we used 378 provenance and progeny trials with a total of 276 unimproved genetic entries (provenances and stand seed check-lots) distributed over a wide variety of climatic conditions in both countries. In addition, we used 119 progeny trials with 3921 selected genetic entries (open- and control pollinated plus-tree families) for testing model performance. As explanatory variables, both climatic indices derived from high-resolution gridded climate datasets and geographical variables were used. For transfer, latitude (photoperiod) and, for describing the site, temperature sum were found to be main drivers for both survival and growth. In addition, interaction terms (between transfer in latitude and site altitude for survival, and transfer in latitude and temperature sum for growth) entail changed reaction patterns of the models depending on climatic conditions of the growing site. The new models behave in a way that corresponds well to previous studies and recommendations for both countries. The model performance was tested using selected plus-trees from open and control pollinated progeny tests. Results imply that the models are valid for both countries and perform well also for genetically improved material. These models are the first step in developing common deployment recommendations for genetically improved forest regeneration material in both Sweden and Finland.

  • Berlin, Uppsala Science Park, SE-75183 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: mats.berlin@skogforsk.se (email)
  • Persson, Skogforsk, Box 3, SE-91821 Sävar, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: torgny.persson@skogforsk.se
  • Jansson, Uppsala Science Park, SE-75183 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: gunnar.jansson@skogforsk.se
  • Haapanen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Green Technology, Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: matti.haapanen@luke.fi
  • Ruotsalainen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Green Technology, Finlandiantie 18, FI-58450 Punkaharju, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: seppo.ruotsalainen@luke.fi
  • Bärring, Rossby Centre, Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Folkborgsvägen 17, SE-60176 Norrköping, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: lars.barring@smhi.se
  • Andersson Gull, Skogforsk, Box 3, SE-91821 Sävar, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: bengt.andersson@skogforsk.se
article id 1408, category Research article
Anna Katharina Franke, Pasi Aatsinki, Ville Hallikainen, Esa Huhta, Mikko Hyppönen, Vesa Juntunen, Kari Mikkola, Seppo Neuvonen, Pasi Rautio. (2015). Quantifying changes of the coniferous forest line in Finnish Lapland during 1983–2009. Silva Fennica vol. 49 no. 4 article id 1408. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1408
Highlights: Volume of the growing stock of spruce and pine has increased in forests and in timber lines during the past 26 years; Spruce stem numbers increased on average, while pine stem numbers remained stable and location-specific variation was observed; Presuming that the ongoing trend of increasing temperature will remain, the enhanced forest regeneration and growth may result in extension of forests in the future.

The boreal timber- and tree-line forests grow in harsh environmental conditions in their outermost distribution limit. Here even small environmental changes may cause dramatic changes in the distribution of tree species. We examined changes of the forest lines of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in Finnish Lapland five times during 1983–2009. We monitored the number of stems and the volume of the growing stock in thirteen different locations in forest-line areas. The linear temporal trends and the variations of these response variables were used as indicators of a possible change during the study period. Spruce showed a significant increase both in the volume of the growing stock (up to 40% increase) and in the total stem number (up to 100% increase). A significant increase in the volume of the growing stock was observed in the pine data as well (up to 70% increase), whereas the stem number stagnated or even decreased. The results suggest that spruce needs favourable conditions to have an abundant regeneration, but after the establishment the seedlings seem to be more resistant against biotic and abiotic disturbances than pine seedlings. The increasing stand volume might result in a climate-related northward and upward extension of forests in the future. However, our results show that responses in the boreal forest line are species and location specific and a more favourable climate does not necessarily lead to an advance of the coniferous forest line.

  • Franke, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Management and Production of Renewable Resources, Eteläranta 55, FI-96301 Rovaniemi, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: anna.franke@fau.de (email)
  • Aatsinki, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Management and Production of Renewable Resources, Eteläranta 55, FI-96301 Rovaniemi, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: pasi.aatsinki@luke.fi
  • Hallikainen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Management and Production of Renewable Resources, Eteläranta 55, FI-96301 Rovaniemi, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: ville.hallikainen@luke.fi
  • Huhta, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Management and Production of Renewable Resources, Eteläranta 55, FI-96301 Rovaniemi, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: esa.huhta@luke.fi
  • Hyppönen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Management and Production of Renewable Resources, Eteläranta 55, FI-96301 Rovaniemi, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: mikko.hypponen@luke.fi
  • Juntunen, The Sámi Education Institute, Menesjärventie 4, P.O. Box 50, FI-99871 Inari, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: vesa.juntunen@sogsakk.fi
  • Mikkola, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Economics and society, Eteläranta 55, FI-96301 Rovaniemi, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: kari.mikkola@luke.fi
  • Neuvonen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Management and Production of Renewable Resources, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101, Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: seppo.neuvonen@luke.fi
  • Rautio, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Bio-based business and industry, Eteläranta 55, FI-96301 Rovaniemi, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: pasi.rautio@luke.fi
article id 1188, category Research article
Kristina Wallertz, Henrik Nordenhem, Göran Nordlander. (2014). Damage by the pine weevil Hylobius abietis to seedlings of two native and five introduced tree species in Sweden. Silva Fennica vol. 48 no. 4 article id 1188. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1188
Highlights: Both native and introduced confer species in Sweden can be highly susceptible to damage by the pine weevil; Douglas fir and Sitka spruce were generally the most damaged among six studied conifer species; The results highlight some of the risks in establishing exotic tree species for forest production.
There is increasing interest in using introduced species in Swedish forestry in response to climate change, but it is important to assess their resistance to native pests. Thus, we compared the extent of pine weevil feeding on two dominant native conifers, Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.), the non-host deciduous broadleaf hybrid aspen (Populus × wettsteinii Hämet-Ahti) and four introduced conifers: Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco), hybrid larch (Larix × marschlinsii Coaz), Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carriére) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Douglas ex Loudon). The extent of feeding damage on seedlings and its effect on their vitality were examined in a field study in south-central Sweden and a laboratory experiment, which gave largely consistent results. Generally, the species most heavily attacked by the pine weevil, in both experiments, were Douglas fir and Sitka spruce. In the field experiment pine weevils killed or severely damaged significantly higher proportions of Douglas fir and Sitka spruce seedlings (60%) than any other species except Norway spruce (49%). Among conifer seedlings the proportions of killed or severely damaged seedlings were lowest for Scots pine and hybrid larch (27%) and Lodgepole pine (36%). The results indicate that most conifer species planted on young clear-cuttings in Sweden need some kind of pine weevil protection, and the possibility that introducing new tree species might increase damage caused by pests must be considered. For instance, widespread use of hybrid aspen could reduce damage by pine weevils, but increase damage by other, untested pests or pathogens.
  • Wallertz, Unit for Field-based Forest Research, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Asa Research Station, SE-36030 Lammhult, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: kristina.wallertz@slu.se (email)
  • Nordenhem, Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), P.O. Box 7044, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: henrik.nordenhem@slu.se
  • Nordlander, Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), P.O. Box 7044, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: goran.nordlander@slu.se
article id 98, category Research article
Meeri Pearson, Markku Saarinen, Kari Minkkinen, Niko Silvan, Jukka Laine. (2011). Mounding and scalping prior to reforestation of hydrologically sensitive deep-peated sites: factors behind Scots pine regeneration success. Silva Fennica vol. 45 no. 4 article id 98. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.98
Watering up typically ensues after clearcutting forestry-drained peatland forests. Thus, the effectiveness of maintenance drainage and soil preparation procedures becomes paramount for establishing a new generation of commercial forest. Mounding is the primary method of soil preparation applied in regeneration sites lying on deep peat. As raised planting spots, mounds are resistant to waterlogging and assumed to be beneficial for organic matter (OM) decomposition via, e.g., increased soil aeration and temperature, which would also enhance seedling growth. In recent years, however, less intensive and cheaper alternatives like scalping have been sought with some reported cases of success. Our case study investigated the survival and growth of Scots pine outplants in mounds, scalps, and unprepared microsites along a moisture gradient. After three growing seasons, mounding accelerated neither seedling growth nor OM decomposition relative to the unprepared treatment. Survival in mounds was nonetheless superior overall. Scalps behaved as water collecting depressions leading to a catastrophic regeneration result. Based on our findings, water table level (WTL) overrides other growth-controlling factors in excess moisture conditions. To combat watering up coupled with greater than normal rainfall, we recommend reforestation strategies which provide elevated, prepared planting spots (i.e., mounds) or utilize unprepared, higher microforms.
  • Pearson, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Western Finland Regional Unit, Kaironiementie 15, FI-39700 Parkano, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: meeri.pearson@metla.fi (email)
  • Saarinen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Western Finland Regional Unit, Kaironiementie 15, FI-39700 Parkano, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Minkkinen, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Sciences, Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Silvan, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Western Finland Regional Unit, Kaironiementie 15, FI-39700 Parkano, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Laine, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Western Finland Regional Unit, Kaironiementie 15, FI-39700 Parkano, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 217, category Research article
Ville Kankaanhuhta, Timo Saksa, Heikki Smolander. (2009). Variation in the results of Norway spruce planting and Scots pine direct seeding in privately-owned forests in southern Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 43 no. 1 article id 217. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.217
This study describes the variation in the planting results for 3-year-old Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) and 4-year-old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) using direct seeding in privately-owned regeneration areas in southern Finland. The study material consists of operative forest regeneration quality management inventory areas from the years 2000–2006. The effect of both the regional and the administrative levels as well as ecological factors was modelled on the basis of the hierarchy structure forestry centre, Forest Owners’ Association (= FOA), forestry professional, regeneration area and sample plot. The major part of the variation occurred at the sample plot and regeneration area level. Particular attention was paid to observation of the clustered spatial distribution of Scots pine seedlings. The FOA and forestry professional levels explained 5% of the variation in Norway spruce planting and 11% of the variation in Scots pine direct seeding. Applied forest regeneration operations, site and soil characteristics were included in the fixed effects. In the planting of Norway spruce the most important factor explaining the regeneration result was soil preparation. Mounding produced better results than patching and disc trenching. The site and soil characteristics were other important factors in the operations. The selection of direct seeding of Scots pine on too fertile, fine textured or moist sites yielded poor results.
  • Kankaanhuhta, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki Research Unit, Juntintie 154, FI-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: ville.kankaanhuhta@metla.fi (email)
  • Saksa, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki Research Unit, Juntintie 154, FI-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Smolander, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki Research Unit, Juntintie 154, FI-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 217, category Research article
Ville Kankaanhuhta, Timo Saksa, Heikki Smolander. (2009). Variation in the results of Norway spruce planting and Scots pine direct seeding in privately-owned forests in southern Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 43 no. 1 article id 217. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.217
This study describes the variation in the planting results for 3-year-old Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) and 4-year-old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) using direct seeding in privately-owned regeneration areas in southern Finland. The study material consists of operative forest regeneration quality management inventory areas from the years 2000–2006. The effect of both the regional and the administrative levels as well as ecological factors was modelled on the basis of the hierarchy structure forestry centre, Forest Owners’ Association (= FOA), forestry professional, regeneration area and sample plot. The major part of the variation occurred at the sample plot and regeneration area level. Particular attention was paid to observation of the clustered spatial distribution of Scots pine seedlings. The FOA and forestry professional levels explained 5% of the variation in Norway spruce planting and 11% of the variation in Scots pine direct seeding. Applied forest regeneration operations, site and soil characteristics were included in the fixed effects. In the planting of Norway spruce the most important factor explaining the regeneration result was soil preparation. Mounding produced better results than patching and disc trenching. The site and soil characteristics were other important factors in the operations. The selection of direct seeding of Scots pine on too fertile, fine textured or moist sites yielded poor results.
  • Kankaanhuhta, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki Research Unit, Juntintie 154, FI-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: ville.kankaanhuhta@metla.fi (email)
  • Saksa, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki Research Unit, Juntintie 154, FI-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Smolander, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki Research Unit, Juntintie 154, FI-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 466, category Research article
Ilkka Korpela, Tuukka Tuomola, Timo Tokola, Bo Dahlin. (2008). Appraisal of seedling stand vegetation with airborne imagery and discrete-return LiDAR – an exploratory analysis. Silva Fennica vol. 42 no. 5 article id 466. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.466
The potential for combined use of airborne discrete-return LiDAR and digital imagery in the classification and measurement of common seedling stand vegetation was examined in southern Finland (61°50’N, 24°20’E). Classification was based on spectral and textural image features in addition to geometric and radiometric features of the LiDAR. The accuracy of leaf-on, LiDAR-based terrain elevation models was tested as well as the accuracy of LiDAR in the measurement of vegetation heights. LiDAR-based canopy height and the range-normalized intensity of the LiDAR were strong explanatory variables in vegetation classification. Interspecies variation was observed in the height measurement accuracy of LiDAR for different tree, shrub and low vegetation canopies. Elevation models derived with 1–15 pulses per m2 showed an inherent noise of app. 15–25 cm, which restricts the use of LiDAR in regeneration assessment of very young stands. The spatial pattern of the competing vegetation was reproduced in classification-based raster surfaces, which could be useful in deriving meaningful treatment proposals.
  • Korpela, University of Helsinki, Dept of Forest Management, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: ilkka.korpela@helsinki.fi (email)
  • Tuomola, University of Helsinki, Dept of Forest Management, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Tokola, University of Helsinki, Dept of Forest Management, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Dahlin, University of Helsinki, Dept of Forest Management, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 397, category Research article
Nuutti Kiljunen. (2005). Pricing the risk of the quality-guarantee in a stand establishment service. Silva Fennica vol. 39 no. 1 article id 397. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.397
A stand-establishment service concept with quality guarantee was analysed. Here, the quality of stand establishment was assessed as the density of good quality seedlings evenly distributed on the plantation three years after planting. The amount of adequate premiums for the guarantee service and the risks accumulating to the service provider were studied. Monte Carlo simulation was used as a tool for analyzing the risks accumulating to the service provider of the stand-establishment in operational environments of different sizes. The premiums calculated to cover the expected amount of claims caused by the plantations not meeting the pre-set criteria were about 4–8% in addition to the approximated costs of stand establishment. The criteria used for determining the success or failure in a stand have a marked effect on the amount of premiums with a reasonable risk of ruin.
  • Kiljunen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki Research Station, Juntintie 154, FI-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: nuutti.kiljunen@metla.fi (email)
article id 422, category Research article
Mika Nieminen. (2004). Export of dissolved organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus following clear-cutting of three Norway spruce forests growing on drained peatlands in southern Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 38 no. 2 article id 422. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.422
The effect of clear-cutting on the concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), organic nitrogen (DON), NH4+, NO3–, and P in outflow water from three productive, Norway spruce dominated drained peatlands (RCC, VCC-1, VCC-2) were studied. Changes in runoff and transport loads (concentration x runoff) at two of the catchments during the frost-free period are also presented. Approximately 40% of the area was cut at RCC and VCC-2, and 72% at VCC-1. The volume removed was 250 m3 ha–1 at RCC, 259 m3 ha–1 at VCC-1, and for VCC-2, 317 m3 ha–1. The mean annual increase in outflow concentrations of DOC during the first four years after clear-cutting was 9.0 mg l–1 at RCC, 22.8 mg l–1 at VCC-1 and 8.4 mg l–1 at VCC-2. Corresponding increases in the forms of nitrogen were: 0.23, 0.51 and 0.16 mg DON l–1; 0.06, 0.31 and 0.04 mg NH4+-N l–1; and 0.05, 0.12 and 0.22 mg NO3–-N l–1. Clear-cutting did not significantly (p > 0.05) increase P concentrations. The increase in non-frost season runoff over the first three years after clear-cutting was 107 mm at RCC and 207 mm at VCC-1. The export loads of DOC during the non-frost season increased by 80 kg ha–1 at RCC and by 184 kg ha–1 at VCC-1 over the first three years. Corresponding increases for the other studied solutes were: 1.78 and 3.98 kg DON ha–1; 0.39 and 1.49 kg NH4+-N ha–1; 0.45 and 0.48 kg NO3–-N ha–1, and 0.09 and 0.06 kg P ha–1. The study demonstrated that clear-cutting may significantly increase the export of DOC and different forms of nitrogen from drained productive peatlands while only small increases in phosphorus export may occur.
  • Nieminen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Centre, P.O. Box 18, FIN-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: mika.nieminen@metla.fi (email)

Category: Research note

article id 1136, category Research note
Håkan Lideskog, Back Tomas Ersson, Urban Bergsten, Magnus Karlberg. (2014). Determining boreal clearcut object properties and characteristics for identification purposes. Silva Fennica vol. 48 no. 3 article id 1136. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1136
Highlights: We define the quantitative properties and qualitative characteristics of stumps, stones, slash, and roots, the most important objects interacting with machine activities after clearcutting; We develop a flowchart showing how a computer-aided system using clearcut object identification should be executed.
After clearcutting, machines traffic the clearcut conducting different silvicultural activities. Many objects on a forest clearcut (slash residues, stones, stumps and roots) may disturb e.g. site preparation and planting. This paper describes properties and characteristics of these objects. A flowchart was developed that describes a possible computer-aided system that identifies the objects, and ultimately, makes a machine avoid or target them. A system for obstacle identification creates conditions for further technical development and (semi)automation of e.g., site preparation, mechanized planting, and stump removal.
  • Lideskog, Division of Product and Production Development, Luleå University of Technology, SE-97187 Luleå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: hakan.lideskog@ltu.se (email)
  • Ersson, Department of Forest Biomaterials and Technology, SLU, SE-90183 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: back.tomas.ersson@slu.se
  • Bergsten, Department of Forest Biomaterials and Technology, SLU, SE-90183 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: urban.bergsten@slu.se
  • Karlberg, Division of Product and Production Development, Luleå University of Technology, SE-97187 Luleå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: magnus.karlberg@ltu.se

Category: Article

article id 5365, category Article
Pasi Puttonen. (1988). Metsänuudistamistutkimuksen arvioinnin seminaari 28.4.1988. Silva Fennica vol. 22 no. 4 article id 5365. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15522
English title: Presentation report of evaluation group on forest regeneration research in Finland.

The Academy of Finland commissioned a review of forest regeneration research. This paper summarises the evaluation. The report deals with the individual research projects and, in addition, the international evaluation group gives several recommendations to develop the forest regeneration research further. The recommendations concern education and training, publications, peer review, experimental design, routine work and extension service, and technology transfer. The paper also includes comments of the Finnish Forest Institute, the Finnish Society of Forest Science and a research scientist on the results of the evaluation.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Puttonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5191, category Article
Juha Lappi. (1983). Metsänuudistamisen vaatiman ajan merkitys uudistamispäätöksissä. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 3 article id 5191. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15174
English title: Elevation of the time factor in reforestation decisions.

Length of the regeneration period is a criterion commonly used for comparing different reforestation methods. The time factor should be evaluated using a realistic system for long-term planning. In this paper the preliminary evaluation is made by simplified calculations based on the development series. The slow regeneration method is assumed to be otherwise equal to the rapid one but it has a 5- or 10-years delay at the beginning, and the rotation is thus the final cutting age plus 5- or 10-years delay. Cost of the time delay is taken to be the difference in reforestation costs that makes the rapid and the slow methods equivalent. Calculations are made using zero costs for the slow method; but if the cost of the slow method increases, the critical cost difference decreases very slowly. The final cutting age and the regeneration method must be decided simultaneously. Therefore, the cost of the time delay is presented as a function of final cutting age. By maximizing the average annual revenue, rotation can be even increased if more rapid but more expensive regeneration method is used.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lappi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7506, category Article
Eero Kubin, Lauri Kemppainen. (1994). Effect of soil preparation of boreal spruce forest on air and soil temperature conditions in forest regeneration areas. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 244 article id 7506. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7506

The effect of scarification, ploughing and cross-directional ploughing on temperature conditions in the soil and adjacent air layer have been studied during 11 growth periods by using an unprepared clear-cut area as a control site. The development of seedling stand was followed to determine its shading effect on the soil surface.

Soil preparation decreased the daily temperature amplitude of the air at the height of 10 cm. The maximum temperatures on sunny days were lower in the tilts of the ploughed and in the humps of the cross-directional ploughed sites compared with the unprepared area. Correspondingly, the night temperatures were higher and so the soil preparation reduced the risk of night frost. In the soil at the depth of 5 cm, soil preparation increased daytime temperatures and reduced night temperatures compared with unprepared area. The maximum increase in monthly mean temperatures was almost 5°C, and the daily variation in the surface parts of the tilts and humps increased so that excessively high temperatures for the optimal growth of the root systems were measured from time to time. The temperature also rose at the depths of 50 and 100 cm.

Soil preparation also increased the cumulative temperature sum. The highest sums accumulated during the summer months were recorded at the depth of 5 cm in the humps of cross-directional ploughed area (1,127 dd.) and in the tilts of the ploughed area (1,106 dd.), while the corresponding figure in the unprepared soil was 718 dd. At the height of 10 cm the highest temperature sum was 1,020 dd. in the hump, and 925 dd. in the unprepared area.

The incidence of high temperature amplitudes and frequency of high temperatures at the depth of 5 cm decreased most rapidly in the humps of cross-sectional ploughed area and the ploughing tilts towards the end of the study period. The decrease was attributed principally to the compressing of tilts, the ground vegetation succession and the growth of seedlings. The difference between the prepared and unprepared area did not diminish. The increase in temperature due to soil preparation, thus, lasted at least over 10 years.

  • Kubin, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kemppainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4637, category Article
Eero Paavola. (1953). Selostus kenttäkokeista, jotka koskivat eräiden kemiallisten aineiden käyttömahdollisuuksia metsänkylvössä. Silva Fennica no. 80 article id 4637. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14053
English title: Review of field experiments on the fitness of certain chemicals for use at seeding.

Silva Fennica Issue 80 includes presentations held in 1952 in the 7th professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation describes a field experiment on the use of herbicides to prevent growth of ground vegetation in cutting areas before sowing. The study suggests that the chemicals used in the experiment were not effective enough to prevent growth of ground vegetation in the more fertile lands, but were effective in poorer lands. However, the treatment affected also growth of tree seedlings.

  • Paavola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4543, category Article
Erkki Laitakari. (1938). Metsän uudistamisesta laihoilla kangasmailla. Silva Fennica no. 46 article id 4543. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13952
English title: Forest regeneration on poor forest sites.

Silva Fennica issue 46 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1937. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service. 

This presentation describes forest regeneration on poor forest sites.

  • Laitakari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4530, category Article
O. J. Lukkala. (1938). Ojitettujen soiden metsittämisestä. Silva Fennica no. 46 article id 4530. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13939
English title: Afforestation of drained peatlands.

Silva Fennica issue 46 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1937. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service. 

This presentation describes afforestation of drained peatlands. 

  • Lukkala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4492, category Article
V. K. Ahola. (1937). Metsän keinollisesta uudistamisesta. Silva Fennica no. 39 article id 4492. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13902
English title: Artificial regeneration of forests.

Silva Fennica Issue 39 includes presentations held in professional development courses in 1935 that were arranged for foresters working in public administration. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level.

 This presentation describes the methods of artificial regeneration of forests.

  • Ahola, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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