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Articles containing the keyword 'genetic differentiation'.

Category: Research article

article id 1516, category Research article
Hamed Yousefzadeh, Abasalt Hosseinzadeh Colagar, Fatemeh Fallah. (2016). Genetic diversity of geographically isolated Iranian populations of Betula pendula Roth: implications for conservation. Silva Fennica vol. 50 no. 3 article id 1516. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1516
Highlights: The Iranian populations of birches exhibited high levels of genetic diversity, population differentiation, and the presence of unique haplotypes; The high genetic differentiation amongst the populations may contribute to the local geographical structure and poor gene flow amongst individuals; The results can potentially be used to adopt appropriate strategies for the conservation and management of isolated tree populations.

The effects of long-term habitat fragmentations on genetic and population differentiation of Betula pendula Roth were investigated using chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) variations. Leaf samples were collected from four small remnant populations across the north of Iran. Three pairs of universal primers were used to amplify cpDNA, large single copy regions of trnC-trnD, trnK1-trnK2 and trnD-trnT. A total of 18 of the cpDNA haplotypes in the four populations were identified, however, no clear phylogeographic structuring of haplotypes could be detected. The total genetic diversity (HT) for all populations was high (0.932). Average intra-population genetic diversity was estimated as HS = 0.729 and average differentiation of populations GST = 0.218. Mantel tests of isolation by distance revealed a significant relationship between Wright’s inbreeding coefficient (Fst) and geographical distances for the four populations in Iran (r = 0.77, p < 0.05). The results of the hierarchical analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) indicated that a 66% variation was partitioned within populations, whilst the variance amongst the four populations was only 34%. We suggest that significant genetic differentiation amongst populations can likely be attributed to reduced gene flow as a result of habitat fragmentation.

  • Yousefzadeh, Department of Forestry, Faculty of Natural Resources, Tarbiat Modares University, Nour, Mazandaran, Iran ORCID ID:E-mail: h.yousefzadeh@modares.ac.ir (email)
  • Hosseinzadeh Colagar, Department of Molecular and Cell Biology; Faculty of Basic Sciences, University of Mazandaran, 47416-95447 Babolsar, Iran ORCID ID:E-mail: ahcolagar@umz.ac.ir
  • Fallah, Department of Molecular and Cell Biology; Faculty of Basic Sciences, University of Mazandaran, 47416-95447 Babolsar, Iran ORCID ID:E-mail: fatemehfalah69@yahoo.com
article id 1073, category Research article
Pedro Sánchez-Gómez, Juan F. Jiménez, Juan B. Vera, Francisco J. Sánchez-Saorín, Juan F. Martínez, Joseph Buhagiar. (2013). Genetic structure of Tetraclinis articulata, an endangered conifer of the western Mediterranean basin. Silva Fennica vol. 47 no. 5 article id 1073. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1073
Highlights: The employment of ISSR molecular markers has shown moderate genetic diversity and high genetic differentiation in Tetraclinis articulata; Genetic structure of populations seems to be influenced by the anthropogenic use of this species since historical times, or alternatively, by the complex palaeogeographic history of the Mediterranean basin; Results could be used to propose management policies for conservation of populations.
Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl) Masters is a tree distributed throughout the western Mediterranean basin. It is included in the IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) red list, and protected by law in several of the countries where it grows. In this study we examined the genetic diversity and genetic structure of 14 populations of T. articulata in its whole geographic range using ISSR (inter simple sequence repeat) markers. T. articulata showed moderate genetic diversity at intrapopulation level and high genetic differentiation. The distribution of genetic diversity among populations did not exhibit a linear pattern related to geographic distances, since all analyses (principal coordinate analysis, Unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean dendrogram and Bayesian structure analysis) revealed that spanish population grouped with Malta and Tunisia populations. Although it is possible that T. articulata earlier was natural in Southeast Spain, results suggest that the current population has been reintroduced into the Iberian Peninsula in historical times, due to its utility in mining and building. In addition, results could be used to propose management guidelines for the conservation of T. articulata.
  • Sánchez-Gómez, Departamento de Biología Vegetal (Botánica), Universidad de Murcia, Campus de Espinardo s/n, E-30100 Murcia, Spain ORCID ID:E-mail: psgomez@um.es
  • Jiménez, Departamento de Biología Vegetal (Botánica), Universidad de Murcia, Campus de Espinardo s/n, E-30100 Murcia, Spain ORCID ID:E-mail: fjimenez@um.es (email)
  • Vera, Departamento de Biología Vegetal (Botánica), Universidad de Murcia, Campus de Espinardo s/n, E-30100 Murcia, Spain ORCID ID:E-mail: jbveraperez@gmail.com
  • Sánchez-Saorín, Dirección General de Medio Ambiente, Consejería de Presidencia de la Región de Murcia, C/ Catedrático Eugenio Úbeda nº3, E-30071 Murcia, Spain ORCID ID:E-mail: fjavier.sanchez3@carm.es
  • Martínez, Dirección General de Medio Ambiente, Consejería de Presidencia de la Región de Murcia, C/ Catedrático Eugenio Úbeda nº3, E-30071 Murcia, Spain ORCID ID:E-mail: juanf.martinez@carm.es
  • Buhagiar, Argotti Herbarium and Gardens (UOM), Triq Vincenzo Bugeja Floriana VLT 16, Malta ORCID ID:E-mail: joseph.buhagiar@um.edu.mt
article id 94, category Research article
Youhong Peng, Ke Chen. (2011). Phylogeographic pattern of Populus cathayana in the southeast of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau of China revealed by cpSSR markers. Silva Fennica vol. 45 no. 4 article id 94. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.94
The vegetation in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau is thought to be highly sensitive and more vulnerable to global climate change than that of other areas. The uplift of the plateau as well as the climatic oscillations during glacial periods had a profound impact on plant species distribution and genetic diversity there. In the present study, seven pairs of cpSSR (chloroplast Simple Sequence Repeat) primers were utilized to detect genetic varieties of Populus cathayana Rehd populations from their natural range in the southeastern areas of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. A total of 28 alleles and 12 different haplotypes were detected. The proportion of haplotype variation among populations (GST = 0.794, NST = 0.900) indicated high level of genetic differentiation among populations and a significant phylogeographic structure (NST > GST, P < 0.05). This appears to support the hypothesis that these populations were derived from multiple refugia areas during the Quaternary climatic oscillations. Based on the haplotype network and mismatch distribution analyses, we found no evidence of postglacial range recolonization and expansion by P. cathayana in this region. This might be mainly due to the complex topography of the southeastern part of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. The lofty mountain ranges and deep valleys in this region might have prevented long-distance migrations of this species during the climatic amelioration.
  • Peng, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chengdu, China ORCID ID:E-mail: pengyh@cib.ac.cn (email)
  • Chen, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chengdu, China ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 205, category Research article
Pekka Vakkari, Mari Rusanen, Katri Kärkkäinen. (2009). High genetic differentiation in marginal populations of European white elm (Ulmus laevis). Silva Fennica vol. 43 no. 2 article id 205. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.205
Studies on the amount of genetic variation in marginal populations and differentiation between them are essential for assessment of best gene conservation strategies and sampling schemes. Thirteen marginal populations of Ulmus laevis in southern Finland and one in Estonia were investigated for genetic variation in 20 allozyme loci. Population differentiation among Finnish stands was high, Fst = 0.290, and mean genetic diversity low, He = 0.088. The differentiation follows the isolation-by-distance structure within the core of the distribution area (lake Vanajavesi). Fairly high frequency of recurrent genotypes was observed, but this did not have an influence on the genetic parameters. The observed genetic structure is consistent with the central-marginal hypothesis. In the light of the results, the Finnish gene conservation strategy for U. laevis seems to be on a sound basis.
  • Vakkari, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Unit, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: pekka.vakkari@metla.fi (email)
  • Rusanen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Unit, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kärkkäinen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Unit, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 326, category Research article
Xuejiang Zhang, Helena Korpelainen, Chunyang Li. (2006). Microsatellite variation of Quercus aquifolioides populations at varying altitudes in the Wolong Natural Reserve of China. Silva Fennica vol. 40 no. 3 article id 326. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.326
Genetic variation and differentiation were investigated among five natural populations of Quercus aquifolioides occurring along an altitudinal gradient that varied from 2000 to 3600 m above sea level in the Wolong Natural Reserve of China, by analyzing variation at six microsatellite loci. The results showed that the populations were characterized by relatively high intra-population variation with the average number of alleles equaling 11.33 per locus and the average expected heterozygosity (HE) being 0.779. The amount of genetic variation varied only little among populations, which suggests that the influence of altitude factors on microsatellite variation is limited. However, there is a significantly positive correlation between altitude and the number of low-frequency alleles (R2 = 0.97, P < 0.01), which indicates that Q. aquifolioides from high altitudes has more unique variation, possibly enabling adaptation to severe conditions. F statistics showed the presence of a slight deficiency of heterozygosity (FIS = 0.136) and a low level of differentiation among populations (FST = 0.066). The result of the cluster analysis demonstrated that the grouping of populations does not correspond to the altitude of the populations. Based on the available data, it is likely that the selective forces related to altitude are not strong enough to significantly differentiate the populations of Q. aquifolioides in terms of microsatellite variation.
  • Zhang, Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 416, Chengdu 610041, P. R. China; Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039, P. R. China ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Korpelainen, Department of Applied Biology, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Li, Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 416, Chengdu 610041, P. R. China ORCID ID:E-mail: licy@cib.ac.cn

Category: Research note

article id 1415, category Research note
Zorica Šarac, Tanja Dodoš, Nemanja Rajčević, Srdjan Bojović, Petar Marin, Jelena Aleksić. (2015). Genetic patterns in Pinus nigra from the central Balkans inferred from plastid and mitochondrial data. Silva Fennica vol. 49 no. 5 article id 1415. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1415
Highlights: Seven populations of Pinus nigra from the central Balkans, representing four infraspecific taxa, were analyzed with chloroplast microsatellites and a mitochondrial locus; Molecular data failed to support infraspecific circumscriptions; Levels of genetic diversities/differentiation at both genomes were in the range of those reported in western Mediterranean populations of P. nigra; Iberian/African and Balkans’ populations share one mtDNA polymorphism and differ in three mutations.

Pinus nigra J.F. Arnold, European black pine, is a typical component of Mediterranean and sub-Mediterranean coniferous forests with highly fragmentary distribution. Western Mediterranean populations of this species have been studied genetically to date, while eastern populations from the central Balkans, which are larger and more abundant, are still genetically understudied. We analyzed seven populations of P. nigra representing all infraspecific taxa recognized within the central Balkans (subspecies nigra with varieties nigra and gocensis Đorđević; and subspecies pallasiana (Lamb.) Holmboe with varieties pallasiana and banatica (Endl.) Georgescu et Ionescu), with three chloroplast microsatellites (cpDNA SSRs) and one mitochondrial (mtDNA) locus. Although our molecular data failed to support circumscription of studied infraspecific taxa, we found that genetic patterns at both genomes are in accordance with those found previously in westward populations of this species, that is – exceptionally high levels of genetic diversity (HT = 0.949) and low genetic differentiation (GST = 0.024) at the cpDNA level, and moderate levels of genetic diversity (HT = 0.357) and genetic differentiation (GST = 0.358) at the mtDNA level. Based on genealogical relations of mtDNA types currently present in Balkans’ and Iberian/African populations, we inferred that the ancestral gene pool of P. nigra already harbored polymorphism at position 328 prior to the divergence to two lineages currently present in westward and eastward parts of the species range distribution. Subsequent occurrence of three mutations, which distinguish these two lineages, suggests their long-term isolation.

  • Šarac, University of Niš, Faculty of Sciences and Mathematics, Department of Biology and Ecology, Višegradska 33, 18000 Niš, Serbia ORCID ID:E-mail: saraczorica@gmail.com (email)
  • Dodoš, University of Belgrade, Faculty of Biology, Institute of Botany and Botanical Garden “Jevremovac”, Studentski trg 16, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia ORCID ID:E-mail: tanjadodos@bio.bg.ac.rs
  • Rajčević, University of Belgrade, Faculty of Biology, Institute of Botany and Botanical Garden “Jevremovac”, Studentski trg 16, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia ORCID ID:E-mail: nemanja@bio.bg.ac.rs
  • Bojović, University of Belgrade, Institute for Biological Research “Siniša Stanković”, Boulevard Despota Stefana 142, 11060 Belgrade, Serbia ORCID ID:E-mail: bojovic@ibiss.bg.ac.rs
  • Marin, University of Belgrade, Faculty of Biology, Institute of Botany and Botanical Garden “Jevremovac”, Studentski trg 16, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia ORCID ID:E-mail: pdmarin@bio.bg.ac.rs
  • Aleksić, University of Belgrade, Institute of Molecular Genetics and Genetic Engineering, Vojvode Stepe 444a, P.O. Box 23, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia ORCID ID:E-mail: aleksic_jelena@yahoo.com.au

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