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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
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Acta Forestalia Fennica
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Articles containing the keyword 'grass'.

Category: Research article

article id 640, category Research article
Jarkko Koskela. (2000). A process-based growth model for the grass stage pine seedlings. Silva Fennica vol. 34 no. 1 article id 640. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.640
A carbon- and nitrogen-balance model, applying pipe model theory and a modification of functional balance as growth-guiding rules, is presented for the grass stage pine seedlings. Three populations of Pinus merkusii Jungh. et de Vriese, originating from northern and northeastern Thailand, were grown under controlled environment for 47 weeks to obtain parameter information, to evaluate the model performance and to investigate genotypic variation in various characteristics among the populations. Monte Carlo simulations were used to evaluate the sensitivity of the model behaviour to varying parameter values and to calibrate the model for each population. With given sets of parameter values, the simulated biomass development fitted rather well the observed one during the experiment. The two most important parameters determining model performance were within-shoot shading and specific nitrogen uptake rate of fine roots. The fit of simulated versus measured fine roots had a major effect on acceptable model performance in Monte Carlo simulations. Significant variation in biomass growth, nitrogen use efficiency, height, stem diameter, total carbon concentrations of stem and fine roots, and total nitrogen concentrations of needles, transport roots and fine roots was found among the populations. The observed genotypic variation in seedling biomass and stem diameter was consistent with the geographical distribution of the populations while the variation in the rest of the measured characteristics was not. It seems that P. merkusii populations in Thailand are adapted to more site specific conditions rather than climatic conditions alone, and that the variation in biomass growth may result from variation in internal carbon and nitrogen dynamics among the populations.
  • Koskela, Department of Forest Ecology/Tropical Silviculture Unit, P.O. Box 28, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: jarkko.koskela@helsinki.fi (email)

Category: Article

article id 7319, category Article
K. Linkola. (1935). Über die Dauer und Jahresklassenverhältnisse des Jugendstadiums bei einigen Wiesenstauden. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 42 no. 2 article id 7319. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7319
English title: Duration and age class distribution of some meadow grasses in the young age.

The data has been collected from an old natural meadow in Sortavala, Karelia (on that time it was part of Finland). The vegetation on that meadow was very homogenous. All plants of the selected species (Trollius europaeus; Ranunculus auricomus; R. acer; Potentilla erecta; Alchemilla vulgaris; Geum rivale; Prunella vulgaris; Chrysanthemum leucanthemum; Polygonum viviparum) were collected from the sample plots with their roots. The seedlings were then ordered into age classes, and the shortest possible time before inflorescence was determined. To find out the germination time sowing trials were conducted.

The seedlings are very abundant in the youngest age classes and then the amount of plant individuals sinks quickly. The reasons for dying are e.g. insufficient amount of nutrients available and the lack of winter hardiness.   

The PDF contains a summary in Finnish.  

  • Linkola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5194, category Article
Tapio Lindholm, Matti Nummelin. (1983). Changes in the community structure of forest floor vegetation after repeated litter disturbance by raking. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 3 article id 5194. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15177

The tolerance of disturbance of the ground and field layer vegetation in a moderately fertile Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) on Oxalis-Myrtillus type forest in Southern Finland was studied. One of the sites, a summer cottage yard had been raked regularly during the last 25 years. The structure of the vegetation was quite different compared to the other sample site situated in a virgin forest. The phytomass and percentual coverage of the vegetation was remarkable lower in the raked habitat. Tall mosses, Pleuroxium schreberi and Hylocomnium splendens had especially disappeared. Most grass shrubs had also deteriorated. Only Deschampsia flexuosa was quite tolerant to raking. The phytomass of the dwarf shrubs was lower in the raked area but their relative production was higher. Three different kinds strategies of species were described: species of virgin shaded forest, species of meadow-like forest floor and species which tolerate or benefit from disturbance. The raked habitat had a higher species diversity than the virgin area. Nitrogen and carbon contents were lower in the soil of the raked area.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Lindholm, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Nummelin, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5157, category Article
Eino Mälkönen, Vesa Aro-Heinilä, Seppo Kellomäki. (1982). Lannoituksen ja kastelun vaikutus männikön pintakasvillisuuteen. Silva Fennica vol. 16 no. 1 article id 5157. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15072
English title: Effect of fertilization and irrigation on the ground vegetation of a Scots pine stand.

A mature Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand growing on a site of the Vaccinium type in Southern Finland was fertilized with nitrogen-rich NPK fertilizer at a level of 150 kg pure nitrogen per hectare. The sample plots were also irrigated during four growing seasons. The total amount of irrigation during this period was 1,200 mm. Fertilization alone increased the coverage of grasses and dwarf shrubs. The culmination of the increase occurred during the second growing season after the start of the treatment. The rapid effect of irrigation on the coverage of ground vegetation was not so strong as that of fertilization. It was concluded on the basis of the developed growth model that the coverage of dwarf shrubs, especially Calluna vulgaris, was, however, increased with the fertilization treatment for a prolonged period. Fertilization and irrigation had no visible effect on the coverage of lichens and mosses.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Mälkönen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Aro-Heinilä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kellomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5052, category Article
Markku Nylund, Antti Haapanen, Seppo Kellomäki, Liisa Nylund. (1979). Deterioration of forest ground vegetation and decrease of radial growth of trees on camping sites. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 4 article id 5052. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14909

The ground cover vegetation and tree growth at several camping sites in Southern Finland were investigated. The deterioration of ground vegetation appeared to be unavoidable in these areas, and only a few grass species were tolerant to heavy trampling. Only moderate deterioration was, however, detected when the trampling level was lower than 10,00015,000 user days. On the other hand, the ground cover was completely destroyed when the trampling level exceeded 100,000 user days. A considerable decrease in radial growth appeared to be associated with destruction of the ground vegetation. The decrease was abrupt and was found to continue throughout the whole period of use. After ten years’ use the growth in the trampled areas was 35% lower than that that of the untrampled areas. A further decrease in radial growth is expected in the future. 

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish. 

  • Nylund, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Haapanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kellomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Nylund, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4972, category Article
Seppo Kellomäki. (1977). Deterioration of forest ground cover during trampling. Silva Fennica vol. 11 no. 3 article id 4972. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14823

The aim of the present study was to investigate the trampling tolerance of forest ground cover of the Calluna, Vaccinium and Myrtillus type sites. Positive correlation was found between the site fertility and trampling tolerance of plant communities. Annual trampling at level of about 16,000 visits per hectare decreased the biomass of the ground cover to almost half of the original amount, and annual trampling of about 160,000 visits per hectare completely destroyed the forest ground cover irrespective of site fertility. Comparisons made between herb and grass dominated forest ground cover showed that herb and grass cover is in the long run the best alternative for the management of ground cover in intensively used recreation areas.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Kellomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4880, category Article
Seppo Kellomäki. (1973). Tallaamisen vaikutus mustikkatyypin kuusikon pintakasvillisuuteen. Silva Fennica vol. 7 no. 2 article id 4880. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14716
English title: Ground cover response to trampling in a spruce stand of Myrtillus type.

The study deals with the trampling tolerance of forest vegetation in a Myrtillus type closed forest of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.), based on the effects of simulated trampling on the coverage and biomass on the field and between layers of the vegetation. The reliability of the results from the simulated trampling was tested by comparing them with those obtained from real trampling.

According to the results, the trampling tolerance of the bottom layers is greater than that of the field layer. The trampling tolerance of different species varies, so that grasses and dwarf shrubs have a higher tolerance capacity than herbs. Even light trampling of short duration caused noticeable changes in the coverage and biomass of the ground vegetation. Despite certain deficiencies, the simulated trampling gave parallel results of those obtained for real trampling.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kellomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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