Current issue: 53(3)

Under compilation: 53(4)

Impact factor 1.683
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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
1990-1997
1980-1989
1970-1979
1960-1969
Acta Forestalia Fennica
1953-1968
1933-1952
1913-1932

Articles containing the keyword 'hakkuut'.

Category: Article

article id 7182, category Article
Kauko Hahtola. (1967). Hankintahakkuut ja maatilakokonaisuus. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 84 no. 1 article id 7182. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7182
English title: Delivery cuts of timber in farm management.

The study links up with the general development of logging on private farm woodlots, practiced by the Work Efficiency Institute (Työtehoseura). It is based on the idea that the promotion of forest management on farms should be integrated with general agricultural development. The aim of the study was to find out the relation between delivery cuts and management of the farm as a whole, including economic and social environment. The first, methodological part develops a model representing farming, based on factor analysis. The second part tests the applicability of the factor analysis in the light of the empirical data, and studies the relation between delivery cuts and total farming and regional differences in farming.

Despite the descriptive nature of the factors obtained, the solution permitted a multi-dimensional examination. It seems that certain aspects typical to scattered settlement accentuate the importance of the forest for the farm. These include a high ratio of forest to arable land, barren soil and forest holdings that form unbroken tract of land. The importance of forestry is accentuated by the self-sufficiency of farms in labour and tractive power. On the other hand, there were lines of production and forms of livelihood and land utilization that compete with forestry, such as off-farm employment and alternative forms of land-use. One factor indicative for small importance of forestry for the farms was the small size in ratio to arable land. Often money for machinery has come from forest revenues.

The factor analysis indicate that a rational parcelling of forest holdings leads to better cutting methods. Also, cutting method improve and the proportion of renewal cuttings increase on moving from remote areas towards population centers. Productivity of delivery cuts is affected by the total employment of labour and tractive power on the farm. Abundance of labour and the use of farm’s own labour are probably detrimental to the productivity of delivery cuts. When the farms grow, the increase in the quantity felled and the rise in the degree of mechanization favour productivity.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Hahtola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7175, category Article
Leo Heikurainen. (1967). Hakkuun vaikutus ojitettujen soiden vesitalouteen. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 82 no. 2 article id 7175. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7175
English title: Influence of cuttings on the water economy of drained peatlands.

The present investigation revealed that the influence of a forest cover on the water economy of the soil is very great in Finland. Cutting of the forest gave cause to a rise of the ground water table, which, when clear-cutting is in question, reached a magnitude of 20–40 cm. The water supplies of the soil increased 40–60 mm. In the winter, too, the ground water remaind at a lower level in the forest than in opening, however, the difference is rather small. Thinnings had same kind of effect as clear-cuttings, but the influence of even heavy thinnings was still relatively small.

The water supplies of the soil after felling decreased mainly due to the decrease in the interception in the canopy. When the water table is at the same level in the forest and in opening, evapotranspiration might be greater in the forest than in openings. However, when the water level is during the growing season considerably lower in the forest than in an opening, the evapotranspiration is strongly decreased in the forest, which means that more water is evaporated and transpirated from the opening than from the forest. Because the water table is at a higher level in the opening than in the forest, runoff from clear-cut areas has exceeded that from the forest. This means that the influence of felling on the water economy of the soil is actually even greater than indicated in this work.

The results mean that the influence of the forest cover makes up that of drainage. This affects the need for maintenance of ditches. On the other hand, the final cutting will rise the ground water strongly.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heikurainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7140, category Article
Päiviö Riihinen. (1963). Metsänhoidon tason vaihtelu Suomen maatilametsälöillä : tutkimus metsänhoitolautakunnittaisten erojen taloudellisista ja sosiaalisista tekijöistä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 75 no. 6 article id 7140. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7140

The forest management practices in Finland are closely related to the industrial history in the country. The selection cutting method used previously has now been gradually disappearing, and differences in the quality of forest management can still be observed between different owner groups. The national forest inventories indicate that farm woodlots show the poorest silvicultural state among the ownership categories. This study analyses social and economic causes responsible for variation in the silvicultural state of farm woodlots managed jointly with a cultivated land holding. The study is based on the data of third national forest inventory in Finland, and a factor analysis was calculated using the data.

Although the model developed explains more than a half of the total variance of the level of silviculture, only less than third of this is clearly explained by economic and social factors. The remaining two thirds are explained by the ’nature factor’, which includes both economic and site factors. This affects the effect of different kinds of forest policy measures. Of the variables in the model, the strongest influence in the level of silviculture have income, size of woodlot, size of land area under cultivation and distribution of forest types. The differences in the level of silviculture between different woodlots and different districts, may be explained by the theory of cumulative process. Regional differences in economic phenomena cannot be explained without taking into consideration the social value hierarchy in each region, which determines the range of variation of economic variables.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Riihinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7471, category Article
Kalle Putkisto. (1956). Tutkimuksia pyörätraktoreiden käytöstä puutavaran metsäkuljetuksessa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 66 no. 1 article id 7471. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7471
English title: Investigations of the use of wheel tractors for the forest transport of timber.

Forest transport of timber in Finland has been arranged as horse haulage during winter time using horses vacant from farm work. Tractors have now begun to replace horses in agriculture, which will lead to shortage of horses for timber harvesting in future. The aim of this investigation was to find a method of mechanized forest transport suitable for Finnish conditions. The method should be provided by an agricultural wheel tractor that is shared with agriculture. It should also be applicable to timber transport of relatively small forest holdings.

A method for time studies of tractor driven timber harvesting was developed. The competitivity of tractor transport of timber against the traditional method was studied in four pulpwood harvesting sites. The results suggest that if the tractor forest transport method in question is to be applied in practice, conditions should first be chosen which favour it most. A tractor forest transport method evolved on the basis of experiments presupposes certain conditions to be successful. These include snow for the construction of the packed-snow driveway, frost to harden the driveway, the location of strip roads in relatively easy topography, and of the main haulage road that is gently sloping in the haulage-loaded direction. The optimal transport distance for this method are about 3-10 km.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Putkisto, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7469, category Article
Antero Piha. (1957). Metsätulot ja maatilan pääoman muodostus. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 65 no. 6 article id 7469. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7469
English title: Forest income and capital formation of a farm.

This investigation studies the significance of forest income to the economy of a farm in Finland. It concentrates on the relationship between monetary income from forestry and the capital of the farm, especially from the viewpoint of investments made in the agriculture. The material is based on results of the accounting holdings of the National Board of Agriculture between the financial years 1925-1926 and 1936-1937.

The study shows that there is a high correlation between farm’s monetary investments and changes of deposits, and changes in the monetary income of forestry. The changes in depts seem not to be as closely related to forest income as could be expected. The most important role of forestry income in farm economy is financing the investments, i.e. operations that aim at developing and rationalizing farming and making it more profitable. In many parts of the country, the investments would have remained low without income from forestry. Income from cuttings provides usually a relatively large sum on a single occasion, which is easier to use to finance a large investment compared to a smaller regular income. The needs of agriculture may, however, lead to overcutting of the forests.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Piha, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7467, category Article
Matti Nuorteva. (1956). Hakkuiden vaikutuksesta kaarnakuoriaisten esiintymiseen eräällä metsäalueella Etelä-Hämeessä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 65 no. 4 article id 7467. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7467
English title: Effect of fellings on bark beetle population in a forest area in Southern Finland.

Bark beetle populations live usually in a balance in natural forests, and outbreaks occur seldom. The populations have been found to increase in managed forests. Fellings affect the structure of the forests, which influence the living conditions of the insects, and produce material for reproduction. In this study the occurrence of bark beetles was studied in a forest area in Etelä-Häme in Southern Finland using line plot survey.

The forests in the area were Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) dominated. Over third of the 140 sample plots studied were in forests which had never been cut or it was over ten years to the last logging. Bark beetles of 26 different species were found in 66 of the sample plots. The most common species was six-toothed spruce bark beetle (Pityogenes chalcographus L.), which was due to the abundance of growth material suitable for the species in the area. New species in the area were common double-eyed spruce bark beetle (Polygraphus polygraphus L.), Pityophthorus micrographus L., and Dryocetes-beetle (either Dryocetes autographus or D. hectographus). The fellings increased the occurrence of beetles. The amount and quality of logging residue affected the abundance of the insects.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Nuorteva, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7445, category Article
Jaakko Vöry. (1954). Puutavaran valmistuksen keskityötulosten määrittäminen tilastoteitse. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 33 article id 7445. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7445
English title: Statistical determination of the average work performance in the preparation of timber.

Work studies conducted in Finland and Sweden on forest work have shown that the performance of different workers or even of a same worker vary greatly, although external conditions such as the size and other properties of the trees, weather etc. are similar. It has been decided in the Northern Countries that as it is impossible to assess the working speed of a man, it is not possible to find out the average work performances, not even from long term time studies. The only way is to collect performance statistics.

Metsäteho (Forest Work Studies Section of the Central Association of Finnish Woodworking Industries) has collected since 1946 statistics on the working sites of forest industry companies in different parts of Finland on the preparation on timber. To make it comparable the material has been converted to uniform values by using the ratios given by the work time studies of various forest jobs conducted by Metsäteho. The ratios are necessary in trying to determine average performances by statistical means. The actual length of time each man is at work on different days and the actual number of days is needed, because in Finland the workers can themselves decide fairly freely the length of a working day. In forest work, wages are paid for the quantity prepared, not for time. The statistics collected by Metsäteho include information on the length of the working days, and conditions in each forest, such as the size of the trees, form of stem, branchiness, bark thickness, terrain, density of the forest, weather conditions etc.

The Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari’s 60th birthday.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Vöry, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7426, category Article
Olli Makkonen. (1954). Metsätöiden vertailevan aikatutkimuksen periaate. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 14 article id 7426. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7426
English title: The principle of comparative time studies in forest work.

The origins of time study has been in the need to streamline industrial work. One of the differences between industrial and forest work is that in forest work the working conditions are subject to continuous changes. The work is also strenuous, and physical strength may come into its own in addition to skill. For these reasons, the product of a worker per time unit varies in forest work much more than in industrial work.

In industrial time studies, determination of working tempo is, besides measurement of working time, vital when calculating the normal work performance. In the Northern Countries, it has been concluded that it is impossible to determine the working tempo of a forest worker. A so-called comparative time study in which a study is made of the work performances of the same workers at different jobs and in different conditions so that the measured working times are directly comparative. Also, the requirements made for the extension of time study material are considerably greater than in Central European time studies. It is believed that the workers subjected to time studies must be observed for at least a week in each kind of work studied if the results are to be considered reliable.

The Silva Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari‘s 60th birthday.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Makkonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7418, category Article
Paavo Yli-Vakkuri. (1954). Neuvontajärjestöjen ammattimiesten suorittamista leimauksista varsinaisissa yksityismetsissä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 6 article id 7418. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7418
English title: Marking trees for cutting by professionals of advisory organizations in private forest in Finland.

The archives of the advisory organizations for private forest owners in Finland, Regional Forestry Boards and Forest Management Associations, include statistics of fellings in private forests. This investigation assesses felling areas and proportion of different kinds of fellings in 1945-1952 based on the statistics. The statistics does not include fellings where the trees have been marked by a forest owner.

The total area marked annually for cutting was in average 498,300 ha. As there is 1,24 million ha of private forests in Finland, the marking gives opportunity to improve the silvicultural state of private forest relatively quickly. The share of regeneration fellings has increased after the Second World War in many parts of the country. The result indicates that the annual cuttings in private forests have corresponded the amount of fellings that has been estimated necessary according to the National Forest Inventory. There are, however, big differences between different parts of the country.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Yli-Vakkuri, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7411, category Article
Aarne Nyyssönen. (1954). Hakkauksilla käsiteltyjen männiköiden rakenteesta ja kehityksestä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 60 no. 4 article id 7411. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7411
English title: Structure and development of Scots pine stands treated with different cuttings.

Permanent sample plots are considered to be the most reliable basis for investigations into structure and development of stands. Such sample plots, established since 1924 in Finland, have been used to study thinnings of varying intensity. These studies are yet too short to give comprehensive conclusions. It is also possible to base the studies on sample plots measured in managed forests and gain in this way information suitable for practical purposes. In this investigation development of stands treated by two different methods, repeated thinnings and repeated selection cutting were studied in pure, even-aged Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands in Southern Finland, on three forest types.

The results show that volume increment level of naturally normal stands seem to have been reached easily by stands treated with repeated thinnings. With advancing age, the growing stock of thinned stands fall short from the natural stands. As thinnings have removed primarily the poorest trees, the increment is distributed over trees of a larger size more in thinned than in naturally normal stands.

When intensive cuttings have resulted in a relatively small growing stock, the decrease in volume increment leads to considerable decrease in volume. The size of the tree has no essential effect – within certain limits - on the volume increment of the stand, if the volume removed is similar. However, every intermediate thinning removing largest-sized trees may result in the prolonged rotation. Since the volume increment of an older stand is much smaller than earlier, intermediate thinnings removing largest-sized trees should be avoided if the aim is the greatest volume yield. The growing stock of middle-aged or older stands untreated or treated with slight cuttings only can as a rule be considerably reduced without volume increment declining.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Nyyssönen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7391, category Article
V. Lihtonen. (1948). Tutkimuksia hakkuutoiminnan voimaperäisyyden tekijöistä ja tunnuksista pääasiallisesti valtion metsätaloudesta saadun aineiston valossa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 55 no. 3 article id 7391. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7391
English title: Investigations of factors and characteristics influencing the intensity of fellings in Finland.

The investigation studied the conditions on which business economics of large-scale forestry, mainly in the state forests, operates. It gives an overview on the economic geography of the state forestry in Finland, including the location of forest industry units and purchase of raw materials in relation to the state forests. The calculations are based on the of the financial performance of the districts of Forest Service in Finland.

The state forests are situated mainly in Northern Finland. Only 6% of the forests were situated nearer that 10 km from the nearest railroad, floating channel or business center. The size of forest districts decreases from north to south and from east to west, which affects the intensity of felling and the economic result of the districts. On the account of the remote situation of the forests of the state the amount of timber felled has been considerably below the growth of the forests. 

During the period of 1924-1943 annual cut in state forests decreased in Northern Finland, stayed in the same level in the east and increased in the west. Proportion of large-sized timber of the sales decreased, while the sales of piled pine wood, mining timber and sulphate wood increased. The economic result of state forests was in average modest, reflecting the economic result in the northern districts were the most state forests are located. However, the financial results of the state forests were not less good than those of other forests under similar conditions of economic geography. Proximity to floating channels and especially railways increased the effectivity of fellings. Railways made it possible to harvest also small timber that is difficult to transport by floating, thus increasing the felling volume. Finally, means to improve profitability of state forests are discussed.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lihtonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7388, category Article
P. A. Ennevaara. (1946). Yksityismetsälain vastaiset hakkuut ja tämän lain valvonnan tehokkuus. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 54 no. 2 article id 7388. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7388
English title: Fellings not meeting the requirements of the Private Forest Act and of supervision of the law.

The Private Forest Act came into force in 1928 in Finland. According to the act, felling of a mature stand should not endanger natural regeneration of the site, and an intermediate felling should not conflict with justifiable thinnings. 18 District Forestry Boards were appointed to enforce the compliance of the act. The aim of this investigation was to study what kinds of violations against the Private Forest Act were found in the fellings, what were the consequences, and how the fellings were overseen.

The investigation is based on 2,477 felling inspections made by the District Forestry Boards in cases where forest devastation was suspected. The report divides the different kinds of violations by the different District Forestry Boards, years, the size of forest holdings, ownership of the forest holdings and by executor of the felling. Over half of the inspections were held on fellings done by the forest owner, 14% by the forest industry, and 11% by a broker of timber. Neglecting the obligation to give a notification of felling had increased in the period of 1929-1938. Also, the cases of forest devastation increased slightly. The report suggests some improvements in the act that would, for instance, increase activity of the forest owners to give the required notification of fellings before the felling takes place.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Ennevaara, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7386, category Article
V. Lihtonen. (1946). Valtakunnan metsätalouden järjestely metsiemme poistuman ja tuottohakkausmäärän valossa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 53 no. 3 article id 7386. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7386
English title: Regulation of Finnish forestry in the light of removal and rental cut.

This investigation concerns the felling volumes in Finland in 1935-1945 as regards future fellings. The statistics are divided in two time periods: 1935-1939, when there was an upward trend in the trade cycle, and 1940-1945, when the trade was disturbed by the Second World War. Fellings of household timber and for sales are presented separately.

Removal was annually in average 38.1 million cubic meters (cbm) without bark in 1935-1939, and 29.8 million cbm in 1940-1945. According to the statistics, felling volumes decreased by about one quarter after the period of 1935-1945. Reduction was largest in private and company forests, but smaller in the state forests. The increment balance for the 1935-1945 shows an excess of growth that gives an accumulated yield of 24.4 million cbm.

In private forests the cut is about half as large as the growth of the standing stock due to the poor silvicultural condition of the forests. Private forests account for about ¾ of the total forest area in Finland. In the state lands the cut is 130% of the growth. The report introduces also rental cut, a method developed by the writer, which defines the volume to be cut aiming at the same time to optimise the future increase of the yield. The principle is to preserve the young and vigorous stands, while cutting stands that have low growth.

According to the statistics, the felling volume of private forests has followed the variations in demand. It seems likely that in the coming years the fellings will not be kept within the limits calculated by the rental cut. Consequently, the reserve formed during the war will be utilized. To meet the demand of wood, forest management must be improved and preference should be given to regeneration fellings. Improving transportation systems, such as roads, would give access to forest resources that are now difficult to harvest.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lihtonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7386, category Article
V. Lihtonen. (1946). Valtakunnan metsätalouden järjestely metsiemme poistuman ja tuottohakkausmäärän valossa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 53 no. 3 article id 7386. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7386
English title: Regulation of Finnish forestry in the light of removal and rental cut.

This investigation concerns the felling volumes in Finland in 1935-1945 as regards future fellings. The statistics are divided in two time periods: 1935-1939, when there was an upward trend in the trade cycle, and 1940-1945, when the trade was disturbed by the Second World War. Fellings of household timber and for sales are presented separately.

Removal was annually in average 38.1 million cubic meters (cbm) without bark in 1935-1939, and 29.8 million cbm in 1940-1945. According to the statistics, felling volumes decreased by about one quarter after the period of 1935-1945. Reduction was largest in private and company forests, but smaller in the state forests. The increment balance for the 1935-1945 shows an excess of growth that gives an accumulated yield of 24.4 million cbm.

In private forests the cut is about half as large as the growth of the standing stock due to the poor silvicultural condition of the forests. Private forests account for about ¾ of the total forest area in Finland. In the state lands the cut is 130% of the growth. The report introduces also rental cut, a method developed by the writer, which defines the volume to be cut aiming at the same time to optimise the future increase of the yield. The principle is to preserve the young and vigorous stands, while cutting stands that have low growth.

According to the statistics, the felling volume of private forests has followed the variations in demand. It seems likely that in the coming years the fellings will not be kept within the limits calculated by the rental cut. Consequently, the reserve formed during the war will be utilized. To meet the demand of wood, forest management must be improved and preference should be given to regeneration fellings. Improving transportation systems, such as roads, would give access to forest resources that are now difficult to harvest.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lihtonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7378, category Article
V. Lihtonen. (1943). Tutkimuksia metsän puuston muodostumisesta : tuottohakkauslaskelma. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 51 no. 2 article id 7378. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7378
English title: Studies on development of growing stock: calculation of cutting budget.

The aim of the study was to develop a method for calculating a cutting budget that is adapted to the present forest management practices. The cutting budget determines the volume of annual cuttings for a forest holding in a certain period of time. Effect of fellings on the cutting budget depends on the cutting methods used. The study aimed at proving that growth of the forest can be estimated based on growing stock and structure of the forests for a certain time period. Accordingly, adequate drain can be defined in advance. The cutting budget is based on age-class distribution of the forest holding, which is most applicable for even-aged forestry. Calculation is based on area of the forest land and estimated volume of the growing stock. Also, the quality of the forest soil can be taken into account when age-class distribution is used. A suitable period for estimating a cutting budget is suggested to be 20 years, which is divided in two 10-year periods. The cutting budget it is included in a forestry plan. An example of a cutting plan based on the method is presented.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Lihtonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7372, category Article
Vilho Seppänen. (1942). Sahatukkien teosta aikatutkimuksen valossa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 19 article id 7372. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7372
English title: Time studies on making of saw logs.

A time study was conducted in saw log harvesting site in state forests of Evo in Southern Finland in 1934. Felling was performed in teams of two loggers. Two teams were observed. The work was divided into several stages of work: felling, branching, cross-cutting, barking and making of top log. On the site grew Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.).

The daily working hours not including breaks was in average 5 hours and 33 minutes. The most time-consuming stage of the work was barking of the stem (55% of working time for Scots pine and 47% for Norway spruce), followed by felling (22.5% for pine and 19.4% for spruce), branching (11.7% and 21.6%) and cross-cutting (11.3% and 11.8%). Temperature affects barking strongly. Scots pine is slower to bark than Norway spruce. Similarly, butt and middle logs are slower to bark than top logs. It took in average 79.02 min to process one solid m3 of timber with bark and 91.45 min without bark.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Seppänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7322, category Article
Ilmari Vuoristo. (1935). Työennätykset tukkien teossa ja ajossa Perä-Pohjolassa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 42 no. 5 article id 7322. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7322
English title: Working efficiency in timber cutting and hauling in Northern Ostrobothnia.

The aim of the study was to determine how different factors in the stand influence working efficiency in felling. In the eight cutting areas in Northern Finland was harvested a total of 745,200 cubic feet of timber. The factors recorded from the cutting areas were the number of stems per hectare, volume of the stems, quality of the logs (proportion of decayed trees and knottiness of the trees), topography of the site and efficiency of the workers in a team.

The bigger the stems were, the better the result of the workers was. When the size of the stem increased by one cubic ft., the efficiency of the work increased by 2 cubic ft. When knottiness and defects in the stem changed the class describing the quality of a tree by one class, the efficiency decreased by 4.5 cubic ft. The density of the forest affected the time used for loading the timber for hauling. The hauling distance affected the efficiency of the team, which was usually either 2 men and one horse, or 3 men and one horse. If the hauling distance was long, hauling impaired the efficiency. If the distance was short, logging impaired the efficiency of the work. The result show that efficiency of forest work is greatly influenced by the quality of the forest, the trees and the workers.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Vuoristo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7306, category Article
Ilmari Vuoristo. (1934). Sahatukkien teko- ja ajopalkat todellista työvaikeutta vastaaviksi. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 29 article id 7306. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7306
English title: Felling and hauling wages that correspond the actual requirements of the work.

Forest work in Finland has generally been paid by the job. The wages in 1930s were based on variable measuring units and principles in different parts of the country. The rates did not often take into account how difficult the individual stands are to harvest. The studies have shown that the productivity of logging depends on size of the stems, density of the stand, branchiness of the trees, terrain and depth of snow cover. The article suggests a wage system which takes into account the differences of the cutting areas.

Wages of felling and hauling logs that are payed per the trunk or cubic meter should be adjusted so that the earnings of an employee depends not on the quality of the stand. The quality of the stand influences the stumpage price of the wood, because of the versatile harvesting costs. If the demands of the job in a challenging stand are not compensated for the workers, the higher harvesting costs are inequitably balanced by lowering the wages of the forest workers.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Vuoristo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7089, category Article
A. Benj. Helander. (1923). Metsätalouden tarjoamasta ansiotyöstä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 26 no. 1 article id 7089. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7089
English title: Employment in the forestry in Finland.

Work in the forestry, for instance, in logging operation during winter, has been important source of employment for the rural population in Finland. The study is based on statistics of forest work, felling, felled timber, workforce and horses used in the forest work in the state forests, published in the annual reports of Metsähallitus (Forest Service) in 1911-1913. The administrative and silvicultural work, for instance, sowing and planting, clearing of the felling area, building forest roads or work in the nurseries, range from 20% to 22% of all work done in the forestry. Major part of the work time is used in felling. To harvest one cubic meter of timber requires 0.3 man-days and 0.2 horse-days. The work is seasonal; felling work is available for about 90-100 days a year. Forest haulage is possible only in the winter, and for instance sowing and planting in the summer. The employees have secondary jobs in agriculture and in other sectors.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Helander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7040, category Article
Yrjö Ilvessalo. (1920). Metsämaitten puuntuotantokyvyn, nykyisen tuoton ja puunkulutuksen välisestä suhteesta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 15 no. 2 article id 7040. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7040
English title: The relation of the productive capacity of forests, their current production and wood utilization.

Annual variations in wood utilization makes it complicated to estimate the balance between wood utilization and wood production of forests. According to the article, the balance is unsustainable especially in the private forests in the southern part of Finland. The annual wood utilization of the country was 37.3 million m3 in 1913, and the annual wood production 35.2 million m3, according to a report of a committee that was appointed to find methods to prevent overcutting. The committee suggested legislation to forbid forest devastation. Also the growth of the forests could be increased, if the forests are well managed, the article argues. To prove this, the potential wood production capacity is estimated for the municipalities of Viipuri, Mikkeli and Kuopio, and compared to the present wood production and wood utilization of the area.

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  • Ilvessalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5119, category Article
Kari Puukko. (1981). Okakaarnakuoriaisen, Ips acuminatus Gyll. (Coleoptera, Scolytidae) levinneisyyden nykyinen eteläraja Suomessa. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 2 article id 5119. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15060
English title: The southern border of the present distribution of Ips acuminatus Gyll. In Finland.

Ips acuminatus Gyll. (Coleoptera, Scolytidae) is a bark beetle that causes deep bluing in thin-barked Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) pulpwood. It has been shown that this decreases pulp yield. The purpose of this study was to map the southern border of the distribution of Ips acuminatus in Finland. It was found that there have been changes in the distribution of this species during the last three decades. Ips acuminatus has now disappeared from southern Finland. On the basis of the sample plots (134 cutting areas) the southern border of this pest lies on the line running through the towns Vaasa–Seinäjoki–Äänekoski–Jyväskylä–Pieksämäki–Savonlinna–Punkaharju. A certain degree of localisation was observed in the occurrence of I. acuminatus in its distribution area, for instance, differences in its occurrence frequency in cutting areas and even in log and cutting residue piles in the sample cutting area.

It is considered that the most important reasons for these changes in distribution are the increase in logging and changes in the location of cutting sites, and resulting competition for breeding material for the increased population of bark beetles. Furthermore, the long-distance transport of unpeeled logs from the north across the present southern borders may, in the future, contribute to local changes in the southern distribution of Ips acuminatus.

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  • Puukko, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4999, category Article
Tapio Klen, Veikko Louhevaara. (1978). Metsurin suojavarusteiden aiheuttama lisäkuormitus. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 3 article id 4999. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14853
English title: The additional physical strain caused by safety equipment in logging work.

The safety clothing, rubber safety boots, belt with lifting hooks and personal protectors can weight about 3 kg more than the normal work clothing including rubber boots. In order to evaluate the increase off the physical strain in logging work due to them, laboratory tests performed on tread mill were made. The physical strain increased 3–11% as estimated from heart rate and 4–8% as estimated from oxygen consumption measurements.

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  • Klen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Louhevaara, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4974, category Article
Markku Mäkelä. (1977). Teknisesti korjattavissa oleva hakkuutähde sekä kanto- ja juuripuu Kaakkois-Suomessa. Silva Fennica vol. 11 no. 3 article id 4974. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14825
English title: The amounts of logging residues and stump and root wood technically harvestable in southeast Finland.

The amounts of harvestable logging residues and stump and root wood were examined in the area where 100,000 solid m3 of stemwood was cut in 1975. The cutting amounts of stemwood from work sites suitable for harvesting of logging residues was 35,000 m3, and suitable for harvesting of stump and root wood 38,000 m3. The increase in the yield of wood (without bark) from logging residues compared with the unbarked stemwood was 2.4%. The same percentage of wood from stump and root wood was 5.0–5.8% depending on the harvesting loss.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Mäkelä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4883, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1973). Näkökohta kuitupuupölkkyjen siirtelymatkasta. Silva Fennica vol. 7 no. 3 article id 4883. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14720
English title: A note on the moving distance of pulpwood bolts.

The aim of the paper was to analyse, using a computer simulation technique, the moving distance of pulpwood bolts when direct felling of trees is used and the bolts are gathered alongside the strip road. According to the results, the average moving distance of bolts depends in a complicated way on the usable part of the stem and the spacing of strip road. As a rule, the differences between moving distances of two-meter bolts weighted and unweighted by bolt volume of various trees is 0–16% when the strip road spacing is 30 m the reason being the fact that the heaviest butt bolts are often more far away from the strip road than the top bolts.

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  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4848, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1971). Lahon leviäminen puunkorjuun aiheuttamista kuusen runko- ja juurivaurioista. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 3 article id 4848. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14650
English title: Decay following logging injury in stems and roots of Norway spruce.

The material of 78 damaged Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) trees was gathered in Southern Finland in order to clarify the advance of decay. The harvesting which had caused the scars had been carried out 12 years earlier and at the moment of the investigation the growing stand was 110 years old. It was noticed that the variables used could explain only a few per cent of the variation of the advance of decay. It was concluded that the only important thing in practice is whether the injuries are in roots or in stems.

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  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4819, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1970). Hakkuutähteiden merkityksestä puuston vaurioitumisen ja raiteenmuodostuksen kannalta harvennusmetsissä. Silva Fennica vol. 4 no. 2 article id 4819. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14608
English title: Significance of logging waste in thinnings as to scars and tracks in the terrain.

The purpose of this study was to explain whether it is possible to affect, in practical working site conditions, by means of logging waste on the strip road, the depth of the track which is formed in terrain transportation and the injuries of the growing stand. Five 20 m long investigation areas with logging waste and five similar areas without logging waste were arranged on one strip road at Teisko logging site in Southern Finland. The logging waste layer was mainly Norway spruce and 10–15 cm thick. A KL–836 B forwarder was used. The type of soil was loam.

The logging waste affected the depth of the track only by decreasing the wear of humus layer. Even decreasing effect of logging waste on the injuries in the growing stand was minor. At Kitee working site in Eastern Finland strip roads were studied. The type of soil was thick, rather mouldered peat. The thickness of logging waste was 3–4 times greater than in Teisko, mainly spruce. A Volvo Nalle SM 460 forwarder was used. The effect of the logging waste on the depth of the tracks was clearly to be noticed. On basis of the appearance of the tracks one could assume that the difference was due to different wear of the humus, and not so much due to the quantity of logging waste that improves the carrying capacity of terrain.

In some extent logging waste was also found to affect the amount and quality of tree injuries. In practical working conditions, the importance might be small, since in the experiments an unrealistically great amount of logging waste was used.

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  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4746, category Article
Kari Löyttyniemi. (1967). Tikaskuoriaisesta (Trypodendron lineatum Oliv., Col., Scolytidae) kuorellisen havupuutavaran pilaajana. Silva Fennica vol. 1 no. 2 article id 4746. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14456
English title: Damages caused to timber with bark by spruce ambrosia beetle (Trypodendron lineatum) in Finland.

The paper studied the effect of felling time and conditions in the forest depot of timber to damages caused by spruce ambrosia beetle (Trypodendron lineatum Oliv.) to coniferous timber with bark, both experimentally and observing forest depots in Finland. Effects of fellings was studied by studying the abundance of the beetles in logging residue.

The results show that the spruce ambrosia beetles favour timber felled during the late autumn and winter, stored in a shaded place in the forest. In addition, new spruce stumps maintain and increase the beetle population. Fellings in the forest will increase population during the next year and cause damages in forest depot of timber nearby, because the insect breeds in the stumps. The experiments showed that it is possible to diminish the damages caused by the beetle to timber with bark by spraying with insecticides, and timing the fellings and transport of timber so that there is no timber in the forest in the spring during the time when the insect swarms.

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  • Löyttyniemi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4736, category Article
Matti Nuorteva. (1967). Hakkuutähteissä elävien hyönteisten käyttömahdollisuuksista hakkuun ajankohdan määrittämisessä. Silva Fennica vol. 1 no. 1 article id 4736. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14446
English title: Potential in using determination of insect species breeding in the logging residue to estimate the time of the logging.

Degree of decomposition of logging residue, and decay in stumps have been used in forest inventories to estimate the time of the felling. In this paper, a method was developed to use insects breeding in the logging residue to determine how long ago the felling took place. The method is based on the arrival and rate of development of the different species of bark beetles that breed in the logging residue.

The most suitable insect species to be used in the purpose of timing the age of logging residue were defined, and their occurrence in different tree species and fellings performed at different times of the year were described. The species can be easily identified by gallery systems characteristic to the species.

It is concluded that the method does not suit for broadleaved species, because there is no common insects suitable for this purpose. Also, the time of swarming of the insects depends on the weather conditions in the spring, which makes it difficult to give definite dateshe progress of the spring has to be taken into account when the occurrence of the insects is used in the determination of the time of the felling. In addition, local conditions, such as shading, affect drying of the branches, and can influence the occurrence of the insects. For Scots pine and Norway spruce the age of the logging residue can be determined precisely only at most two years back.

  • Nuorteva, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7544, category Article
Yrjö Vuokila. (1970). Harsintaperiaate kasvatushakkuissa. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 110 article id 7544. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7544
English title: Selection from above in Intermediate cuttings.

This study is concerned with silvicultural selection from above. The material consists of 18 Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) sample plots in the southern half of Finland in experimental forests. The method is motivated by the great difference between the stumpage prices of saw timber and pulpwood. The method suggested includes the removal of individuals belonging to the predominating canopy, to achieve high levels of income from the stand at an early stage. The method is applied at when the growing stock is attaining saw-timber size. Before that the stand is treated with thinnings from below. It is supposed that the volume of growing stock is maintained at a level as high as that in below-thinned stands, and that rotation is of normal length.

On the average, the increment in basal area, as well as volume increment, is greater in stands selectively cut from above than in those treated with low thinnings of the same degree. Initially, selection from above seems to exert a negative effect upon the development of dominant height; later, the dominant height reassumes the same rate of increment as in the below-thinned stands. Selection from above also means an increase in saw-timber production, although it involves a reduction in the mean size of saw timber. The investigation includes growth and yield tables for pine stands treated with silvicultural selection from above.

The results of the investigation prove that silvicultural selection from above is at least as profitable as low thinning. This provides freedom for stand treatment, and contributes to the application of a method most suitable for the owner in each individual case. It is further stressed that the maintenance of a high wood capital in the stand is far more important than the method of thinning applied.

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  • Vuokila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7189, category Article
Pentti Alho. (1968). Pohjois-Pohjanmaan metsien käytön kehitys ja sen vaikutus metsien tilaan. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 89 article id 7189. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7189
English title: Utilization of forests in north Ostrobothnia and its effect on their condition.

The purpose of the present investigation was to study the extent of human interference with the forests of different epochs in the district of north Ostrobothnia in Northern Finland, and its effect on the condition of the forests.

The study revealed that the quantities of wood removed were not most detrimental to the condition of the forest; the regionally irregular loggings and the logging methods employed were the most harmful. The old forms of wood utilization, tar industry, shipbuilding, sawmill industry and timber exports, were characterized by timber selection. Public opinion considered it the only recognized cutting method long after the conditions had changed and silvicultural methods should have been used.

The spread and abandonment of selection cuttings are illustrated in the results of first National Forest Surveys in Finland. According to the first survey (1921–1924), nearly half of the loggings in the province of Oulu were based on selection, which spoiled and devastated 41% of the forests. In the 1930s one-fifth of the North Ostrobothnian forests were weakened by selection cuttings, in 1960s the figure was 6%. The article also summarises the extent of tar and pitch production, sawmill industry, shipbuilding and household wood consumption of wood in the area.

The PDF includes a summary in English

  • Alho, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7189, category Article
Pentti Alho. (1968). Pohjois-Pohjanmaan metsien käytön kehitys ja sen vaikutus metsien tilaan. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 89 article id 7189. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7189
English title: Utilization of forests in north Ostrobothnia and its effect on their condition.

The purpose of the present investigation was to study the extent of human interference with the forests of different epochs in the district of north Ostrobothnia in Northern Finland, and its effect on the condition of the forests.

The study revealed that the quantities of wood removed were not most detrimental to the condition of the forest; the regionally irregular loggings and the logging methods employed were the most harmful. The old forms of wood utilization, tar industry, shipbuilding, sawmill industry and timber exports, were characterized by timber selection. Public opinion considered it the only recognized cutting method long after the conditions had changed and silvicultural methods should have been used.

The spread and abandonment of selection cuttings are illustrated in the results of first National Forest Surveys in Finland. According to the first survey (1921–1924), nearly half of the loggings in the province of Oulu were based on selection, which spoiled and devastated 41% of the forests. In the 1930s one-fifth of the North Ostrobothnian forests were weakened by selection cuttings, in 1960s the figure was 6%. The article also summarises the extent of tar and pitch production, sawmill industry, shipbuilding and household wood consumption of wood in the area.

The PDF includes a summary in English

  • Alho, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7189, category Article
Pentti Alho. (1968). Pohjois-Pohjanmaan metsien käytön kehitys ja sen vaikutus metsien tilaan. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 89 article id 7189. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7189
English title: Utilization of forests in north Ostrobothnia and its effect on their condition.

The purpose of the present investigation was to study the extent of human interference with the forests of different epochs in the district of north Ostrobothnia in Northern Finland, and its effect on the condition of the forests.

The study revealed that the quantities of wood removed were not most detrimental to the condition of the forest; the regionally irregular loggings and the logging methods employed were the most harmful. The old forms of wood utilization, tar industry, shipbuilding, sawmill industry and timber exports, were characterized by timber selection. Public opinion considered it the only recognized cutting method long after the conditions had changed and silvicultural methods should have been used.

The spread and abandonment of selection cuttings are illustrated in the results of first National Forest Surveys in Finland. According to the first survey (1921–1924), nearly half of the loggings in the province of Oulu were based on selection, which spoiled and devastated 41% of the forests. In the 1930s one-fifth of the North Ostrobothnian forests were weakened by selection cuttings, in 1960s the figure was 6%. The article also summarises the extent of tar and pitch production, sawmill industry, shipbuilding and household wood consumption of wood in the area.

The PDF includes a summary in English

  • Alho, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7185, category Article
Jouko Mäkelä. (1968). Puunkorjuun tuottavuuteen vaikuttavat tekijät maatilametsätaloudessa. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 85 article id 7185. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7185
English title: Factors affecting logging productivity in farm forestry.

This is a fourth paper in a series of studies concerning logging in farm forests. The objective was to construct a model representing the productivity per farm of logging for delivery cuts. The first objective was to find out how the productivity of logging should be measured. In the study, combined labour and capital are regarded as the input.

Second object was to consider what variables to use in theory to determine the productivity of logging for delivery cuts. The factors affecting productivity depend on the concept of productivity employed. The productivity per farm of logging in delivery cuts can be determined both by regional and by farm variables. Still considering solely the effect of the quality of labour and capital input, the variables representing the person in charge of the delivery cuts are important explanatory farm variables. Others represent the farm totality (size, lines of production etc.).

Third aim was to develop a statistical-mathematical method suitable for constructing the model. Possible methods include regression analysis, which is, however, not the best method when there is large number of different levels to explain, or factor analysis. The suitable method to use in constructing a model depicting the productivity of a farm, was considered to be to condense the explanatory variables into rotated orthogonal factors. After preliminary correlation analysis, estimates of the factors interpreted as rational were employed as the explanatory variables for selective regression analysis.

Last, the model was tried out against actual material collected per farm, and the hypotheses were tested.

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  • Mäkelä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4734, category Article
Yrjö Kangas. (1966). Valtion metsien hakkuupoistuma ja sen rakenne : Vuosiin 1954-1958 kohdistuva selvittely. Silva Fennica no. 120 article id 4734. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14292
English title: Felling volume and its structure in the Finnish State Forests in 1954-1958 .

The purpose of this investigation was to study the felling volume and its structure in the State forests of Finland. Special attention was paid on the proportion of waste wood within the felling volume. This information was in demand for the general plan of the State forests that was being prepared at the same time. The survey was performed using a sampling method, and it represented the districts in the northernmost Finland, Ostrobothnia, Eastern Finland and Western Finland of the Forest Services.

The proportion of merchantable timber of the total felling volume was lowest in the northernmost Finland, less than 2/3 of the total cut. In Ostrobothnia the share was ¾, Eastern Finland 4/5 and in Western Finland 5/6. When the tree species were compared, the proportion of waste wood was largest in broadleaved trees, especially in the Northern Finland, while for Scots pine it was lowest. For Norway spruce the share of merchantable timber is markedly lower in the northernmost part of the country, where, for instance, decay increases the proportion of waste wood. For birch, demand of wood influences most the proportion of waste wood.

In general, the proportion of waste wood and merchantable timber in the felling volume was influenced by changes in the demand of timber, structure of the stands, and the felling method. The demand of the timber assortment affects most in the amount of waste wood. The more valuable the timber assortment is, the less waste wood is left in the cutting area.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Kangas, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4724, category Article
Seppo Ervasti, Lauri Heikinheimo, Viljo Holopainen, Kullervo Kuusela, Gustaf Sirén. (1965). The development of Finland's forests in 1964-2000. Silva Fennica no. 117 article id 4724. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14282

The Economic Council asked Heikinheimo, Holopainen and Kuusela to prepare a report on the development of Finland’s forest resources up to the beginning of the next century. The expansion of forest industry beyond the level foreseen in earlier forecasts, the large-scale removal and neglect of the basic improvements required have weakened the condition of the wood production to such an extent that extensive measures are needed to ensure the continuity of the supply of wood. The results of the calculations are formed in three separately analysed alternatives.

Alternative I: Realisation of the Teho programme and the removal corresponding to it. The development of the growing stock according to the programme would only permit a cut amounting to an annual drain of ca. 51 million m3 up to the year 2000. After that it would be possible gradually to increase the removal. This drain would not itself to utilise fully the already existing production capacity of the industry.

Alternative II: Consequences of the predicted removal if the Teho programme is realised as such. The wood utilization forecast based on the premises given to the team show that the annual drain will grow in 1964–1975 from 52 to 58 million m3, and thereafter by 0.5% annually. This would lead to over-cutting, and exhaust the present growing stock by the turn of the century. If annual total drain of ca. 58 million m3 would after 1975 be sufficient, exhaustion of the growing stock would be postponed for 4–5 years.

Alternative III. Teho programme expanded in conformity with the removal forecast. A new programme is proposed, which includes, among others, large scale fertilization of fully grown firm forest land at about the rate of 100,000 ha/year, intensified artificial regeneration, assurance of the supply of planting stock and seed, increase of forest drainage from the present 155,000 to 250,000 ha/year by 1970, site preparation of the cutting areas for artificial regeneration, increase of tending or seeding stands to 300,000 ha/year, replacement of fuelwood by other fuels, increase of wood import and new forest roads.

  • Ervasti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Heikinheimo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Holopainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kuusela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Sirén, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4659, category Article
P. Piepponen. (1957). Arvo- ja rakennuspuiden merkitseminen asutustilojen metsissä. Silva Fennica no. 92 article id 4659. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14060
English title: Marking of construction and other valuable timber in the forests of settlement farms.

Silva Fennica Issue 92 includes presentations held in 1956 in the 8th professional development courses, arranged for forest officers working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

Fellings of valuable timber in the forests to be surrendered for settlement farms have been discussed widely in Finland. This presentation describes the effects of the new section in the Land Settlement Decree and new directions given by Central Forestry Association Tapio based on the decree. According to the directions, the fellings have to follow legislation concerning other fellings in private forests. The felling of all large, valuable timber, as has previously been the custom in settlement farm forests, does not follow this principle.

  • Piepponen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4658, category Article
Olavi Hyttinen. (1957). Asutustilojen arvopuukysymyksestä. Silva Fennica no. 92 article id 4658. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14059
English title: Valuable timber trees on settlement farms.

Silva Fennica Issue 92 includes presentations held in 1956 in the 8th professional development courses, arranged for forest officers working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

When resettlement plots have been established in Finland, a so-called household wood principle used to be used: in addition to fields, the new farm has been given forest land enough to supply it household timber. Trees larger than needed for construction of the farm were considered unnecessary, and the valuable timber trees over certain diameter could be harvested by the surrenderer of the land. This has led to fellings at minimum diameter in contrary to rational forest management. The presentation describes new legislation and directions that aim at correcting the situation.

  • Hyttinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4655, category Article
A. Lifländer. (1957). Keskitetty hakkuutoiminta Perä-Pohjolassa ja asutuskysymys. Silva Fennica no. 92 article id 4655. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14056
English title: Centralized fellings in Northern Finland and the settlement question.

Silva Fennica Issue 92 includes presentations held in 1956 in the 8th professional development courses, arranged for forest officers working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

In 1950s in the administrative region of Northern Finland 2,951 million ha of state forests awere under economic management while 3,285 million ha were not managed. Settlement activities mostly took place in the area that was managed, and where fellings were arranged in a centralized way. In these areas logging costs were minimized by, for instance, constructing roads, improving floating channels and constructing camps. This presentation describes ways to coordinate and rationalize both the settlement activities and fellings in these areas.

  • Lifländer, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4652, category Article
Kullervo Kuusela. (1956). Hakkuilla käsiteltyjen koivikoiden rakenteesta ja kasvusta. Silva Fennica no. 90 article id 4652. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9115
English title: On the structure and growth of birch stands treated with cutting.

The study is continuation of the earlier structure and growth studies of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) in Forest Research Institute. The material represents birch stands (Betula verrucosa, now B. pendula, and B. Pubescens L.) in Southern Finland. The stands were treated with different fellings, and in regard to their silvicultural condition classified as good, satisfactory and unsatisfactory. Height of the trees, height of living crown, volume, increment and volume increment and development of stem diameter series was measured.

The most characteristic difference between the silviculturally good and poor stands was that the the annual increment of the good stands concentrated into large size trees, and the increment of unsatisfactory stands into small and inferior trees.

It is concluded that if the aim of stand treatment is to produce large and high quality volume increment, the most favourable stand volume of  birch stands, compared with naturally normal stand volume, seems to be 90-85% at the age of 41-55 years, and 80-70% at the age of 56-65 years. If growth of large size trees is aimed at, the maximum number of the dominant trees per hectares cannot be more than 400 at the age of 50-60 years.

The article includes a summary in English.

  • Kuusela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4634, category Article
V. K. Ahola. (1953). Valtion metsien nykyiset metsänhoitotyöt. Silva Fennica no. 80 article id 4634. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14049
English title: Forest management in state forests of Finland.

Silva Fennica Issue 80 includes presentations held in 1952 in the 7th professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation describes history of wood harvesting and logging methods used in the state forests in Finland. The article discusses  the problems caused by, for instance, of light sellection fellings to the silvicultural state of the forests. The silvicultural state of the forest could be improved by introducing silvicultural logging methods, and selection of seed trees to improve the genetic quality of seeds used in regeneration.

  • Ahola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4603, category Article
V. Lihtonen. (1951). Suurten mittasuhteiden työmaita. Silva Fennica no. 69 article id 4603. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13999
English title: Large scale worksites.

Silva Fennica Issue 69 includes presentations held in 1948-1950 in the fourth professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation discusses forest resources and felling potential of the state forests in different parts of the country, and how centralized fellings could be arranged. Most potential for increasing fellings is in Northern Finland.

  • Lihtonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4600, category Article
Aarne Nyyssönen. (1950). Vertailevia havaintoja hoidettujen ja luonnontilaisten männiköiden rakenteesta ja kehityksestä. Silva Fennica no. 68 article id 4600. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9091
English title: Comparative study on structure and development of managed and natural Scots pine stands.

The Forest Research Institute of Finland has established permanent sample plots to survey the effect of thinnings on the stands. This study compares the development of tended and natural Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands growing on three different forest types: Oxalis-Myrtillus, Vaccinium and Calluna site type. The effect of heavy thinning from below (Oxalis-Myrtillus and Vaccinium site types) and increment felling (Calluna site type) was assessed by dividing the trees of the stands in tree classification classes according to their crown storey and defects.

The results show that thinning from below and increment thinning increase the proportion of trees in the 1st crown storey, which is already large in the natural stands. Also the diameter distribution is more even and the mean diameter higher after the thinnings.

In Scots pine stands in natural state, volume increment per stem is highest in the 1st crown storey and diminishes strongly towards the lower crown storeys. Thinnings increased the increment. The study indicates that many of the objectives of the intermediate cuttings, including promoting the growth of the best trees and improving the quality of the stand, have in general been achieved. Consequently, the thinnings give means to achieve the most valuable yield in the stand.

The article includes a summary in English.

  • Nyyssönen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4599, category Article
Polttoainekomitea. (1950). Polttoainekysymys vuonna 1949 : polttoainekomitean mietintö. Silva Fennica no. 67 article id 4599. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9090
English title: The fuel question in 1949.

Fuel shortage during and after the Second World War compelled the Government of Finland to improve the fuel supply. In 1948 the Government appointed a Committee to draft a proposal on use of domestic and imported fuels. Special attention was placed on how to develop use of peat as fuel.

In rural districts, firewood billets and waste wood accounted for 45% of fuel consumption. For other users than the rural population, coal and coke consisted 25%, industrial waste wood 11% and billets 18% of the total consumption in 1938. After the war the use of coal and coke increased and the use of billets decreased.

Due to the decreased demand of billets, their price in the towns fell lower than the production and transport costs from the most remote areas where the wood was harvested. The demand for small sized timber is important for silvicultural reasons, and wood harvesting creates jobs for the rural population, therefore, the Committee proposes that the state supports the production of billets. This could be done by improving the effectiveness of firewood loggings, and by building truck roads and railways.

Small-sized birch is used predominantly as fuel. The Committee considers the growing stock of birch to be the largest unutilized wood reserve. Supported by technological research, it may become a new raw material for sulphate cellulose industry. Use of industrial waste wood as fuel and improvement of heating equipment would improve the competitiveness of fuelwood and peat against other fuels. For the possible interruptions in imports, stocks of foreign fuels should be maintained.

The article includes a summary in English.

  • Polttoainekomitea, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4591, category Article
Aarne Anttila. (1948). Kustannusten arvioiminen hankintahakkuissa. Silva Fennica no. 64 article id 4591. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13993
English title: Estimation of costs of delivery loggings.

Silva Fennica Issue 64 includes presentations held in 1947 in the third professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the public administration. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service. Two of the presentations were published in other publications than Silva Fennica. 

This presentation describes budgeting of costs of delivery loggings, which have been at times underestimated in the practical forestry in the state forests.

  • Anttila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4590, category Article
E. A. Sopanen. (1948). Hankintatöiden paikallinen organisointi. Silva Fennica no. 64 article id 4590. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13992
English title: Organizing delivery loggings locally.

Silva Fennica Issue 64 includes presentations held in 1947 in the third professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the public administration. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service. Two of the presentations were published in other publications than Silva Fennica.

This presentation outlines the history of timber sales at delivered price made in state forests, and describes good practices to arrange timber harvesting locally.

  • Sopanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4584, category Article
Olli Heikinheimo. (1948). Metsätaloudelliset näkökohdat ja keskitetyt hakkuut. Silva Fennica no. 64 article id 4584. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13986
English title: Forest management and centralized loggings.

Silva Fennica Issue 64 includes presentations held in 1947 in the third professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the public administration. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service. Two of the presentations were published in other publications than Silva Fennica issue 64.

This presentation discusses different ways of organizing felling cycle, forest management practices used in the forests of Finnish forest research institute, and how good practices developed in the institue could be applied in state forests.

  • Heikinheimo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4596, category Article
Valtion metsäkauppakomitea. (1948). Valtion metsien pysty- ja hankintamyynneistä : valtion metsäkauppakomitean mietintö. Silva Fennica no. 63 article id 4596. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9087
English title: On stumpage sales and sales at delivered price in state forests.

The government of Finland appointed a committee to study which method of selling wood, sale at delivered price or stumpage sale, is more profitable method for wood sales from state forests.

According to the committee, in normal conditions, when supply and demand determine the price of timber and forest work wages are dependent on the supply and demand of labour, returns from the sale at delivered price has proved more favourable than stumpage sale. During the World War II the case was, however, the opposite. Sale at delivered price can have also other advantages. The state has by means of logging a hold in the labour market and can use loggings, for instance, to ward off unemployment. Also, loggings can be more easily used in rational silviculture. They keep the supervising staff of forest districts employed throughout the year and provide better professional training for the foresters. In addition, the number of buyers from state forests has increased. The stumpage sale may, however, be good method in certain conditions. The committee states that the State forestry officials are best able to decide on the most favourable method of selling.

The article includes an abstract in English.

  • Valtion metsäkauppakomitea, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4581, category Article
V. Lihtonen. (1945). Metsäteollisuusyhtiöiden metsistä ja niiden hakkuista. Silva Fennica no. 61 article id 4581. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9085
English title: Forests of woodworking industry and the fellings carried out in them.

The aim of this treatise is to describe forests owned by timber companies, their area and position, the quality of forests, the condition of the forests, and fellings carried out during the World War II.

Area of the company-owned forest was 1,95 million hectares, 1,64 million hectares of which was productive and 0,31 hectares inferior forest soil, not including the areas lost after the war. Most of the forests were situated in remote regions. Average volume of the tree stands was slightly larger than in farm-owned forests. Fellings counted for 84% of the growth of the forests.

During the war  the state set felling quotas for both company, private and state forests. It was widely discussed how well they were met by the different owner groups. According to the statistics, the companies had followed relatively closely their cutting plans in peace years. Cuttings were highest in 1939, when the war begun. In the war years 1940-43, lack of workforce, horses and cars for transport complicated logging. The fellings increased again during truce after Winter War. Especially demand for small timber increased during the war. Felling of firewood increased in all the owner groups, in particular in the private forests that were situated near settlements. in general fellings were higher in forests that were easiest to reach.

During the war the companies acquired timber more from their own forests. The fellings from company forests were in war years 70% of those in peace years. The article concludes that companies fulfilled the requirements as well as it was possible in the circumstances.

The article includes an abstract in English.

  • Lihtonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4569, category Article
Martti Tertti. (1939). Näkökohtia kuusimetsän hoidosta. Silva Fennica no. 52 article id 4569. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13976
English title: Forest management of Norway spruce forests.

Silva Fennica issue 52 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1938. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation describes different types of fellings in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) forests in different forest site types. The use of thinning from below and above, clear cutting of Norway spruce stands, and thinning of mixed forests with birch (Betula sp.) are discussed.

  • Tertti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4565, category Article
Paavo Jokinen. (1939). Asutustoiminnan yhteydessä valtiolle pidätettävät arvopuut ja niiden hakkaaminen. Silva Fennica no. 52 article id 4565. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13972
English title: Reservation of valuable timber-trees in connection to settlement activities.

Silva Fennica issue 52 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1938. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation describes the conditions according to which the state can reclaim valuable timber-trees on forest land which ownership is transferred to landless population in settlement work.

  • Jokinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4563, category Article
Paavo Aro. (1939). Hakkaustapatilasto. Silva Fennica no. 52 article id 4563. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13970
English title: Statistics of felling methods.

Silva Fennica issue 52 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1938. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation describes the use and purpose of statistics about different felling methods compiled in Forest Service.

  • Aro, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4563, category Article
Paavo Aro. (1939). Hakkaustapatilasto. Silva Fennica no. 52 article id 4563. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13970
English title: Statistics of felling methods.

Silva Fennica issue 52 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1938. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation describes the use and purpose of statistics about different felling methods compiled in Forest Service.

  • Aro, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4559, category Article
A. A. Räsänen. (1939). Metsien uudistamisesta Perä-Pohjolassa. Silva Fennica no. 52 article id 4559. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13966
English title: Forest regeneration in Northern Finland.

Silva Fennica issue 52 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1938. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation describes the state of forests in Northern Finland, and suggests that fellings are targeted at the oldest forests until the over-presented over-aged forest are harvested. The preferred regeneration method is natural regeneration in most forest types.

  • Räsänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4558, category Article
Olli Heikinheimo. (1939). Kokemuksia paksusammaltyypin metsien käsittelystä. Silva Fennica no. 52 article id 4558. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13965
English title: Experiences in forest management of Hylocomnium-Myrtillus type forests in Northern Finland.

Silva Fennica issue 52 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1938. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation describes a study of forest management practices suitable for in Hylocomnium-Myrtillus site type forests, typical for Northern Finland. A special problem for the forest site type is poor regeneration due weak seed production of Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) and thick moss layer.

  • Heikinheimo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4556, category Article
Olli Heikinheimo. (1939). Metsätalous ja matkailu. Silva Fennica no. 52 article id 4556. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13963
English title: Forestry and tourism.

Silva Fennica issue 52 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1938. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation describes nature turism and recreation in Finland, how timber harvesting and nature conservation affect tourism and ways to adjust fellings to tourism.

  • Heikinheimo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4534, category Article
Martti Tertti. (1938). Hakkausalan raivaamisesta. Silva Fennica no. 46 article id 4534. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13943
English title: Clearing of a felling area.

Silva Fennica issue 46 includes presentations held in professional development coursesarranged for foresters working in public administration in 1937. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administrationespecially in regional levelThe education was arranged by Forest Service. 
This presentation describes clearing of felling areas. 

  • Tertti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4533, category Article
Olli Heikinheimo. (1938). Harvennushakkauksista. Silva Fennica no. 46 article id 4533. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13942
English title: Thinning of forest stands.

Silva Fennica issue 46 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1937. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service. 

This presentation describes principles of thinning of forest stands. 

  • Heikinheimo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4494, category Article
Eino Saari. (1937). Metsätaloudelliset tilastot. Silva Fennica no. 39 article id 4494. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13904
English title: Forestry statistics.

Silva Fennica Issue 39 includes presentations held in professional development courses in 1935 that were arranged for foresters working in public administration. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level.

This presentation lists statistics available on forestry.

  • Saari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4454, category Article
C. C. Böcker. (1929). Om skogars skötsel i Norden. Silva Fennica no. 13 article id 4454. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8987
English title: Silviculture in the Northern countries.

The article gives a review on the history of forest management in the Northern countries. The article concludes that in the Northern Countries with their immense supplies of forest and small demand, because of sparse population, there was no hurry for developing the study of forest economics, as was the case in Central Europe. It was only when the modern wood using industry had revolutionized the marketing conditions, that the opportunity was provided for forest economics to develop. The paper introduces the book ’Om skogarnas skötsel in Norden’ (Silviculture in the Northern Countries) written by a Finn C.C. Böcker. That paper was compiled in behalf of a request of the king of Sweden, King Carl XIV Johan, who offered a price to a person who would draw a scheme for organizing forestry in Sweden, where Finland at that time belonged to. The prize was divided by Böcker and a swede, af Ström.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish and English and the original text in Swedish.

  • Böcker, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4435, category Article
Lauri Ilvessalo. (1926). Metsien säilymisen turvaaminen Karjalan kannaksen Suomenlahden rannikolla. Silva Fennica no. 2 article id 4435. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8383
English title: Ensuring preservation of forests on the coast of Gulf of Finland in the Karelian Isthmus.

Metsähallitus (Forest Service) commissioned a study about condition of forests on the coast of Gulf of Finland in the Karelian Isthmus. The study was made because of a growing concern on overcutting of the private forests in the area. Dominant tree species in the area is Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). In fresh mineral soil sites Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) grows in mixed forest with pine or as pure stands. The forests are in average 50 to 70 years old. Younger or older stands are less frequent.

At the beginning of 18th century the local peasants sold plots for Russians, and a villa area was created along the coast. When Finland became independent, many of the properties changed owners. Timber harvesting of the forests increased and many small sawmills increased the demand of wood. Because of the cuttings, productivity of the forests decreases and danger for wind damage in the forests increases.

The author suggests that legislation created to prevent deforestation as well as counselling should be applied to improve forest management. In addition, a protective area should be formed in the Karelian Isthmus where forest preserving directives should be followed.

A summary in German is included in the PDF.

  • Ilvessalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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