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Articles containing the keyword 'hardwood'.

Category: Research article

article id 114, category Research article
Roy V. Rea. (2011). Impacts of moose (Alces alces) browsing on paper birch (Betula papyrifera) morphology and potential timber quality. Silva Fennica vol. 45 no. 2 article id 114. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.114
Although moose browsing effects on the growth and morphology of birch are well studied, effects of moose browsing on potential timber quality of birch have received little attention. Here, an assessment was made of the impacts of moose (Alces alces L.) damage to Paper Birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) trees from a 20-year old clear cut area in a sub-boreal spruce forest within the Aleza Lake Research Forest, near Prince George, British Columbia, Canada. Specifically, differences in overall tree architecture and in the internal characteristics of trees that had been severely damaged and suppressed by moose winter browsing were compared to birch trees that had not been damaged by moose in this way and were considered free-to-grow. The average stem diameter, number of annular growth rings, and height of stem breaks made by moose on suppressed birches at the point of breakage was 17.9 ± 6.6 mm, 4.6 ± 1.2, and 141.8 ± 32.0 cm, respectively. Stem diameters and the heights above-the-ground of stem breaks made by moose during sequential breakage events were not significantly different (all p ≥ 0.05) from one another. Decay was significantly (all p ≤ 0.001) more extensive in trees where branches had been broken off by moose than in trees with no breaks or where breaks were from unknown agents. Suppressed birches were significantly (p = 0.048) more exposed (farther from their nearest tree neighbor) when compared to birches that were free-to-grow. The distance from birch trees to species-specific neighbors (of any species) did not differ (all p ≥ 0.05) between suppressed and free-to-grow birches. Suppressed birches damaged from intense browsing and stem breakage were significantly (≤ 0.001) farther away from other birches showing signs of slight to moderate browsing than free-to-grow birches were from similar conspecifics. Because moose appear to impact the potential wood quality of birch, forest managers should consider the impacts that browsing and stem breakage can have on birch timber where these trees co-occur with and are eaten by moose.
  • Rea, University of Northern British Columbia, 3333 University Way, Prince George, BC, Canada V2N 4Z9 ORCID ID:E-mail: reav@unbc.ca (email)
article id 112, category Research article
Mike R. Saunders, Shawn Fraver, Robert G. Wagner. (2011). Nutrient concentration of down woody debris in mixedwood forests in central Maine, USA. Silva Fennica vol. 45 no. 2 article id 112. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.112
Both nutrient concentrations and pre- and post-harvest pool sizes were determined across down woody debris decay classes of several hardwood and softwood species in a long-term, natural disturbance based, silvicultural experiment in central Maine. Concentrations of N, P, Ca, Mg, Cu, Fe, and Zn generally increased 2- to 5-fold with increasing decay class. Concentrations of Mn, Al and B did not differ among decay classes, while K decreased by 20–44% from decay class 1 to class 4. C:N-ratios declined with increasing decay class, while N:P-ratios increased from decay class 1 to 2 and then plateaued with further decay. Within decay classes, softwoods generally had lower nutrient concentrations and higher C:N-ratios than hardwoods; N:P-ratios did not differ between hardwoods and softwoods. Although gap harvesting increased the size of the overall down woody debris nutrient pools, mostly through a large pulse of decay class 1 material, harvesting generally reduced the nutrients held in advanced decay classes. Pre-harvest down woody debris pools for N, P, K and Ca were 11.0, 0.6, 2.1 and 21.1 kg ha–1, respectively, while postharvest were 20.0, 1.3, 6.2 and 46.2 kg ha–1, respectively. While the gap-based silvicultural systems sampled in this study doubled the size of the pre-harvest, downed woody debris nutrient pools, the post-harvest pools were estimated to be only 3.2–9.1% of aboveground nutrients.
  • Saunders, Department of Forestry and Natural Resources, Purdue University, 715 State Street, West Lafayette, IN, USA ORCID ID:E-mail: msaunder@purdue.edu (email)
  • Fraver, USFS Northern Research Station, Grand Rapids, MN, USA ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Wagner, School of Forest Resources, University of Maine, Orono, ME, USA ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 34, category Research article
Natalie Macias, Chris Knowles. (2011). Examining the effect of environmental certification, wood source, and price on architects’ preferences of hardwood flooring. Silva Fennica vol. 45 no. 1 article id 34. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.34
This article examines the importance architects place on three factors, environmental certification, wood source, and price, when specifying hardwood flooring. Architects were presented with nine flooring scenarios, in which the three factors were present in varying levels. They were asked to rank the scenarios from the least preferred to the most preferred. Data were obtained from a mail survey of architects in Oregon and Washington, U.S.A. (n = 402). Conjoint analyses determined that architects consider price and wood source to be the most important factors when specifying hardwood flooring. Interestingly, environmental certification was considered the least important factor. The respondents were then separated into three groups for further analysis based on whether they identified themselves as more influenced by environmental factors (biocentric) or human needs (anthropocentric). This analysis showed that the biocentric group favored wood source over price and environmental certification, while the anthropocentric group favored price.
  • Macias, Oregon State University, Department of Wood Science and Engineering, 119 Richardson Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA ORCID ID:E-mail: natalie.macias@gmail.com
  • Knowles, Oregon State University, Department of Wood Science and Engineering, 119 Richardson Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA ORCID ID:E-mail: chris.knowles@oregonstate.edu (email)
article id 199, category Research article
R. Edward Thomas. (2009). Modeling the relationships among internal defect features and external Appalachian hardwood log defect indicators. Silva Fennica vol. 43 no. 3 article id 199. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.199
As a hardwood tree grows and develops, surface defects such as branch stubs and wounds are overgrown. Evidence of these defects remain on the log surface for decades and in many instances for the life of the tree. As the tree grows the defect is encapsulated or grown over by new wood. During this process the appearance of the defect in the tree’s bark changes. The defect becomes flatter and its dimension changes. This progressional change in appearance is predictable, permitting the size and location of the internal defect to be reliably estimated. This paper concerns the development and analysis of models for the prediction of internal features. With the advent of surface scanning and external detection systems, the prediction of internal features promises to significantly improve the quality, yield, and value of sawn wood products.
  • Thomas, USDA Forest Service, 241 Mercer Springs Road, Princeton, WV 24740, USA ORCID ID:E-mail: edthomas@gmail.com (email)
article id 627, category Research article
Joseph Buongiorno, Audra Kolbe, Mike Vasievich. (2000). Economic and ecological effects of diameter-limit and BDq management regimes: simulation results for northern hardwoods. Silva Fennica vol. 34 no. 3 article id 627. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.627
The long-term financial and ecological effects of diameter-limit regimes and basal-area-diameter-q-ratio (BDq) regimes were compared by simulation in the case of northern hardwood forests. Varying the cutting cycle between 10 and 20 years had little effect on returns or stand structure. A 28-cm diameter-limit cut gave the highest production and financial returns, and the highest species diversity, but considerably lower size diversity. A 38-cm diameter-limit cut and a heavy BDq selection harvest gave high returns, while maintaining high levels of diversity. On lands of equal site quality, Michigan’s stands were more productive than Wisconsin’s. The results suggest that it is possible to manage northern hardwood stands sustainably with diameter-limit cuts, combined with removal of poorly performing understory trees. Adjusting the diameter limit gave rise to stands similar in productivity and structure to those obtained by BDq cutting regimes. Given their simplicity of implementation and monitoring, more attention should be given to diameter-limit cutting regimes, with attendant stand improvement measures, as a practical means for uneven-aged management of northern hardwoods.
  • Buongiorno, Department of Forest Ecology and Management, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1630 Linden Drive, Madison, WI 53705, USA ORCID ID:E-mail: Jbuongio@facstaff.wisc.edu (email)
  • Kolbe, Department of Forest Ecology and Management, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1630 Linden Drive, Madison, WI 53705, USA ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Vasievich, USDA Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station, 1407 S. Harrison Road, Suite 220, East Lansing, MI 48823, USA ORCID ID:E-mail:

Category: Review article

article id 688, category Review article
John A. Stanturf, Callie J. Schweitzer, Emile S. Gardiner. (1998). Afforestation of marginal agricultural land in the Lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley, U.S.A. Silva Fennica vol. 32 no. 3 article id 688. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.688
Afforestation of marginal agricultural land in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley (LMAV) relies on native species, planted mostly in single-species plantations. Hard mast species such as oak and pecan are favored for their value to wildlife, especially on public land. Successful afforestation requires an understanding of site variation within floodplains and matching species preferences and tolerances to site characteristics, in particular to inundation regimes. Soil physical conditions, root aeration, nutrient availability, and moisture availability during the growing season also must be considered in matching species to site. Afforestation methods include planting seedlings or cuttings, and direct-seeding. Both methods can be done by hand or by machine. If good quality seedlings are planted properly and well cared for before planting, the chances for successful establishment are high but complete failures do occur. Mortality and poor growth are caused by many factors: extended post-planting drought or flooding; poor planting or seeding practices; poor quality seed or seedlings; animal depredation; or herbicide drift from aerial application to nearby cropland. More species can be planted, even on continuously flooded sites. Direct-seeding, while limited to heavy-seeded species (oaks and hickories), costs less than 50% of planting seedlings. Growth varies considerably by soil type; most bottomland hardwoods grow best on silt loam and less well on clay soils. Up to 200 000 ha of land in the LMAV subject to spring and early summer backwater flooding could be afforested over the next decade.
  • Stanturf, USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station, P.O. Box 227, Stoneville, MS 38776, USA ORCID ID:E-mail: jstantur/srs_stoneville@fs.fed.us (email)
  • Schweitzer, USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station, P.O. Box 227, Stoneville, MS 38776, USA ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Gardiner, USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station, P.O. Box 227, Stoneville, MS 38776, USA ORCID ID:E-mail:

Category: Article

article id 4965, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen, Marjut Raivonen. (1977). Reaktiopuun mekaaninen lujuus. Silva Fennica vol. 11 no. 2 article id 4965. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14816
English title: Mechanical strength of reaction wood.
Original keywords: lyly; reaktiopuu; vetopuu; lujuus

According to the literature, the mechanical strength of the green reaction wood of softwood species (compression wood) is greater than that of normal wood. Drying increases the mechanical strength but less in reaction wood than in normal wood. In particular, the tensile strength along the grain and the impact strength are lower than in normal wood. The compression strength and possibly bending strength are greater, however.

The properties of the reaction wood of hardwood species (tension wood) differ from those of softwoods. When green, all mechanical properties are weaker than those of normal wood. When dried, the tensile strength and impact strength are better and compression strength lower. There is no great difference in the bending strength.

When the higher density of reaction wood is not taken into account and there are no impact forces, the mechanical strength of reaction wood in sawn goods etc. does not differ so much from that of normal wood. The harmful effect of knots, for example, can in practice be much greater.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Raivonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7628, category Article
Eljas Pohtila, Tapani Pohjola. (1983). Lehvästöruiskutuksen ajoitus kasvukauden aikana. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 181 article id 7628. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7628
English title: The timing of foliage spraying during the growing season.

An attempt was made in the study to determine the annual periods available for foliage spraying when cleaning Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) dominated seedling stands. The study was made in nine experimental fields which were established in different parts of Finland. The spraying was applied throughout the growing season by DM, MCPA and Roundup. The results were inventoried one year after the treatments.

The results showed that there were big differences both in the destruction of hardwood sprouts and in the survival of pine seedlings due to the time period of the spraying. Threshold points were observed in the range of effect of DM and MCPA. By means of these it is possible to time the spraying treatments in such a way that there remains only slight damage to pine, but hardwood sprouts are destroyed totally. The results varied with Roundup so much, among other things due to rain, that such threshold points could not be determined. This preparation both had a milder effect on the hardwood seedlings and caused slighter damage to pine than the other preparations.

In Sodankylä in Northern Finland, the pines attained a good resistance to arboricides when the efficient temperature sum of the growing season was 550, but in Punkaharju in Central Finland only when it was 850. The seed provenance of the seedlings had an effect on the resistance. The threshold temperature sums of resistance in pine were on the average 70–74% from the long-term average number of degree days at the origin of the seed. The effect on the hardwood trees grew weaker as the long-term average was filled. Resistance of pine followed with a specific lag the lignification of the shoot and the ceasing of the growth of the needles.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Pohtila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pohjola, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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