Current issue: 53(2)

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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
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Acta Forestalia Fennica
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Articles containing the keyword 'hardwoods'.

Category: Research article

article id 112, category Research article
Mike R. Saunders, Shawn Fraver, Robert G. Wagner. (2011). Nutrient concentration of down woody debris in mixedwood forests in central Maine, USA. Silva Fennica vol. 45 no. 2 article id 112. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.112
Both nutrient concentrations and pre- and post-harvest pool sizes were determined across down woody debris decay classes of several hardwood and softwood species in a long-term, natural disturbance based, silvicultural experiment in central Maine. Concentrations of N, P, Ca, Mg, Cu, Fe, and Zn generally increased 2- to 5-fold with increasing decay class. Concentrations of Mn, Al and B did not differ among decay classes, while K decreased by 20–44% from decay class 1 to class 4. C:N-ratios declined with increasing decay class, while N:P-ratios increased from decay class 1 to 2 and then plateaued with further decay. Within decay classes, softwoods generally had lower nutrient concentrations and higher C:N-ratios than hardwoods; N:P-ratios did not differ between hardwoods and softwoods. Although gap harvesting increased the size of the overall down woody debris nutrient pools, mostly through a large pulse of decay class 1 material, harvesting generally reduced the nutrients held in advanced decay classes. Pre-harvest down woody debris pools for N, P, K and Ca were 11.0, 0.6, 2.1 and 21.1 kg ha–1, respectively, while postharvest were 20.0, 1.3, 6.2 and 46.2 kg ha–1, respectively. While the gap-based silvicultural systems sampled in this study doubled the size of the pre-harvest, downed woody debris nutrient pools, the post-harvest pools were estimated to be only 3.2–9.1% of aboveground nutrients.
  • Saunders, Department of Forestry and Natural Resources, Purdue University, 715 State Street, West Lafayette, IN, USA ORCID ID:E-mail: msaunder@purdue.edu (email)
  • Fraver, USFS Northern Research Station, Grand Rapids, MN, USA ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Wagner, School of Forest Resources, University of Maine, Orono, ME, USA ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 627, category Research article
Joseph Buongiorno, Audra Kolbe, Mike Vasievich. (2000). Economic and ecological effects of diameter-limit and BDq management regimes: simulation results for northern hardwoods. Silva Fennica vol. 34 no. 3 article id 627. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.627
The long-term financial and ecological effects of diameter-limit regimes and basal-area-diameter-q-ratio (BDq) regimes were compared by simulation in the case of northern hardwood forests. Varying the cutting cycle between 10 and 20 years had little effect on returns or stand structure. A 28-cm diameter-limit cut gave the highest production and financial returns, and the highest species diversity, but considerably lower size diversity. A 38-cm diameter-limit cut and a heavy BDq selection harvest gave high returns, while maintaining high levels of diversity. On lands of equal site quality, Michigan’s stands were more productive than Wisconsin’s. The results suggest that it is possible to manage northern hardwood stands sustainably with diameter-limit cuts, combined with removal of poorly performing understory trees. Adjusting the diameter limit gave rise to stands similar in productivity and structure to those obtained by BDq cutting regimes. Given their simplicity of implementation and monitoring, more attention should be given to diameter-limit cutting regimes, with attendant stand improvement measures, as a practical means for uneven-aged management of northern hardwoods.
  • Buongiorno, Department of Forest Ecology and Management, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1630 Linden Drive, Madison, WI 53705, USA ORCID ID:E-mail: Jbuongio@facstaff.wisc.edu (email)
  • Kolbe, Department of Forest Ecology and Management, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1630 Linden Drive, Madison, WI 53705, USA ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Vasievich, USDA Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station, 1407 S. Harrison Road, Suite 220, East Lansing, MI 48823, USA ORCID ID:E-mail:

Category: Review article

article id 688, category Review article
John A. Stanturf, Callie J. Schweitzer, Emile S. Gardiner. (1998). Afforestation of marginal agricultural land in the Lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley, U.S.A. Silva Fennica vol. 32 no. 3 article id 688. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.688
Afforestation of marginal agricultural land in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley (LMAV) relies on native species, planted mostly in single-species plantations. Hard mast species such as oak and pecan are favored for their value to wildlife, especially on public land. Successful afforestation requires an understanding of site variation within floodplains and matching species preferences and tolerances to site characteristics, in particular to inundation regimes. Soil physical conditions, root aeration, nutrient availability, and moisture availability during the growing season also must be considered in matching species to site. Afforestation methods include planting seedlings or cuttings, and direct-seeding. Both methods can be done by hand or by machine. If good quality seedlings are planted properly and well cared for before planting, the chances for successful establishment are high but complete failures do occur. Mortality and poor growth are caused by many factors: extended post-planting drought or flooding; poor planting or seeding practices; poor quality seed or seedlings; animal depredation; or herbicide drift from aerial application to nearby cropland. More species can be planted, even on continuously flooded sites. Direct-seeding, while limited to heavy-seeded species (oaks and hickories), costs less than 50% of planting seedlings. Growth varies considerably by soil type; most bottomland hardwoods grow best on silt loam and less well on clay soils. Up to 200 000 ha of land in the LMAV subject to spring and early summer backwater flooding could be afforested over the next decade.
  • Stanturf, USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station, P.O. Box 227, Stoneville, MS 38776, USA ORCID ID:E-mail: jstantur/srs_stoneville@fs.fed.us (email)
  • Schweitzer, USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station, P.O. Box 227, Stoneville, MS 38776, USA ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Gardiner, USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station, P.O. Box 227, Stoneville, MS 38776, USA ORCID ID:E-mail:

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