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Articles containing the keyword 'heritability'.

Category: Research article

article id 10040, category Research article
Bengt Andersson Gull, Torgny Persson, Aleksey Fedorkov, Tim J. Mullin. (2018). Longitudinal differences in Scots pine shoot elongation. Silva Fennica vol. 52 no. 5 article id 10040. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.10040
Highlights: More northerly Scots pine origins exhibit earlier onset and cessation of shoot growth; Continental origins show more northern phenological behaviour; Heat accumulation requirements for onset are not fixed and may be lower when accumulating slower; Scots pine may suffer from spring frost due to earlier growth onset in a warming climate; Phenological traits show potential to adapt to new climate conditions by breeding.

Phenology can have a profound effect on growth and climatic adaptability of long-lived, northern tree species such as Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), where the onset of growth in the spring is triggered mainly by accumulated heat, while cessation of growth is related to the joint effect of photoperiod and temperature. In this study, the objectives were: (1) to compare shoot phenology of genetic material from Scandinavia (maritime climate origin) and northern Russia (continental climate origin) sources, under field conditions in both Scandinavia and Russia (maritime and continental growth conditions); and (2) to estimate the heritabilities of phenological parameters. The material used was part of a larger provenance test series involving Scots pine populations and open-pollinated plus-tree families from Russia, Sweden and Finland. Terminal shoot elongation was measured on multiple occasions during the seventh growing season from seed at a trial near Bäcksjön (Sweden) and Syktyvkar (northern Russia). We calculated the regression of relative shoot elongation over accumulated heat sum above +5 °C using an exponential expression. Seedlings of Swedish and Russian provenance had similar heat-sum requirements for growth onset and cessation in both trials. More northern provenances started onset and cessation at a lower temperature sum, but heat accumulation requirements for onset were not fixed. Scots pine may suffer from spring frost due to earlier growth onset in a warming climate. Variation and heritability of phenological traits show potential to adapt Scots pine to new climate conditions by breeding.

  • Andersson Gull, The Swedish Forestry Research Institute (Skogforsk), Box 3, SE-918 21 Sävar, Sweden ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3556-3172 E-mail: bengt.anderssongull@skogforsk.se
  • Persson, The Swedish Forestry Research Institute (Skogforsk), Box 3, SE-918 21 Sävar, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: torgny.persson@skogforsk.se
  • Fedorkov, The Institute of Biology of Komi Scientific Centre of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IB Komi SC UB RAS), Kommunisticheskaya St., 28, Syktyvkar, 167982, Russia ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7800-7534 E-mail: fedorkov@ib.komisc.ru
  • Mullin, The Swedish Forestry Research Institute (Skogforsk), Box 3, SE-918 21 Sävar, Sweden ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4924-1836 E-mail: tim.mullin@skogforsk.se (email)
article id 7738, category Research article
Samuel Egbäck, Bo Karlsson, Karl-Anders Högberg, Kenneth Nyström, Mateusz Liziniewicz, Urban Nilsson. (2018). Effects of phenotypic selection on height-diameter ratio of Norway spruce and Scots pine in Sweden. Silva Fennica vol. 52 no. 2 article id 7738. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.7738
Highlights: Swedish plus-tree selection promoted less slender Norway spruce trees and more slender Scots pine trees compared to neighboring trees; Similar results were also found for progeny trials which indicated that genetics played a prominent role in phenotypic appearance.

Genetically improved Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) are extensively used in operational Swedish forestry plantations. However, relatively little is known about the stem slenderness (height-diameter ratio) of genetically improved material. Thus, in this study we investigated effects of plus-tree selection on stem slenderness of Norway spruce and Scots pine in Sweden by evaluating both the plus-tree selection and a large number of progeny trials. Species-specific models for predicting the height-diameter ratio were estimated using regression and mixed model approach. Our results show that phenotypic plus-tree selection promoted less slender Norway spruce trees and more slender Scots pine trees compared to neighboring trees. Similar results were also found for the progeny trials which indicated that genetics played a prominent role in the phenotypic appearance. Compared to the progeny of neighboring trees, Norway spruce plus-tree progenies had a 5.3% lower height-diameter ratio, while Scots pine plus-tree progenies had a 1.5% greater height-diameter ratio. The narrow sense heritability for height-diameter ratio was 0.19 for Norway spruce and 0.11 for Scots pine, indicating that it is possible to modify the height-diameter ratio by breeding. Correlation coefficients between breeding values for height-diameter ratio and diameter were negative for Scots pine (–0.71) and Norway spruce (–0.85), indicating that selection for diameter only would result in less slender stems of both species. Similar correlations were also found between breeding values for height-diameter ratio and height of Scots pine (–0.34) and Norway spruce (–0.74).

  • Egbäck, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, P.O. Box 49, 230 53 Alnarp, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: samuel.egback@slu.se (email)
  • Karlsson, Skogforsk, Ekebo, 268 90 Svalöv, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: bo.karlsson@skogforsk.se
  • Högberg, Skogforsk, Ekebo, 268 90 Svalöv, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: karl-anders.hogberg@skogforsk.se
  • Nyström, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Resource Management, Skogsmarksgränd, 901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: kenneth.nystrom@slu.se
  • Liziniewicz, Skogforsk, Ekebo, 268 90 Svalöv, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: Mateusz.Liziniewicz@skogforsk.se
  • Nilsson, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, P.O. Box 49, 230 53 Alnarp, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: urban.nilsson@slu.se
article id 1191, category Research article
Tore Skrøppa, Halvor Solheim, Arne Steffenrem. (2015). Genetic variation, inheritance patterns and parent–offspring relationships after artificial inoculations with Heterobasidion parviporum and Ceratocystis polonica in Norway spruce seed orchards and progeny tests. Silva Fennica vol. 49 no. 1 article id 1191. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1191
Highlights: Genetic variation is demonstrated in response to artificial inoculations with Heterobasidion parviporum and Ceratocystis polonica both between parents and their offspring;Strong relationships are observed between the male parents and their off-spring, less so between the female parents and their offspring.
Inoculations with the two fungi Heterobasidion parviporum and Ceratocystis polonica were made in two series of progeny tests each containing full-sib families planted at two sites and on grafts of the parents in two seed orchards. Significant variation among families in lesion lengths after inoculation was found for both fungi and a predominantly additive inheritance was indicated. The estimates of narrow sense heritability were 0.13 and 0.22 for H. parviporum and C. polonica, respectively. The estimate of the genetic correlation between the lesion lengths of the two fungi was as low as 0.12. Significant variation in lesion lengths was also found among parental clones, and within ramets of the same clone, in the seed orchards. In one of the series a high positive correlation (r = 0.88) was found between the H. parviporum lesion lengths of the male parents and offspring, but not for the female parents and off-spring. The results confirm earlier conclusions that the genetic variation and heritabilities are large enough for practical breeding for resistance.
  • Skrøppa, Norwegian Forest and Landscape Institute, Box 115, 1431 Ås, Norway ORCID ID:E-mail: tore.skroppa@skogoglandskap.no (email)
  • Solheim, Norwegian Forest and Landscape Institute, Box 115, 1431 Ås, Norway ORCID ID:E-mail: halvor.solheim@skogoglandskap.no
  • Steffenrem, Norwegian Forest and Landscape Institute, Box 115, 1431 Ås, Norway ORCID ID:E-mail: arne.steffenrem@skogoglandskap.no
article id 152, category Research article
Torgny Persson, Bengt Andersson, Tore Ericsson. (2010). Relationship between autumn cold hardiness and field performance in northern Pinus sylvestris. Silva Fennica vol. 44 no. 2 article id 152. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.152
Results from 3 artificial freezing tests (one-year-old seedlings) and 15 field trials (9- to 21-year old trees) of half-sib offspring from first generation Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) plus-trees were used to estimate the amount of additive genetic variance for autumn cold hardiness and traits assessed in the field, and the genetic correlations between them. Cold hardiness of individual seedlings was scored visually, based on the discoloration of their needles after freezing in a climate chamber. The field traits analyzed were tree vitality, tree height, spike knot frequency, branch diameter, branch angle, stem straightness, and susceptibility to infection by the pathogenic fungi Phacidium infestans L., Gremmeniella abietina (Lagerb.) Morelet, Melampsora pinitorqua (Braun) Rostr. and Lophodermella sulcigena (Rostr.) Höhn. Narrow sense individual heritabilities varied between 0.30 and 0.54 for autumn cold hardiness, 0 and 0.18 for tree vitality, 0.07 and 0.41 for tree height, and 0.01 and 0.26 for the remaining traits. Based on the results of the artificial freeze tests, our estimates of additive genetic correlations indicate that while early selection for cold hardiness can improve seedling survival rates in the field, it may also reduce growth in mild environments. It also has minor effects on quality traits and attack by common fungal diseases. The results indicate that artificial freeze testing is an appropriate method for identifying suitable clones for establishing seed orchards to supply stock for the reforestation of regions with harsh environments.
  • Persson, Forestry Research Institute of Sweden, Sävar, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: torgny.persson@skogforsk.se (email)
  • Andersson, Forestry Research Institute of Sweden, Sävar, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Ericsson, Forestry Research Institute of Sweden, Sävar, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 491, category Research article
Lars Rytter, Lars-Göran Stener. (2003). Clonal variation in nutrient content in woody biomass of hybrid aspen (Populus tremula L. x P. tremuloides Michx.). Silva Fennica vol. 37 no. 3 article id 491. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.491
Differences in the nutrient concentrations and nutrient amounts of stems and branches amongst clones of hybrid aspen (Populus tremula L. x P. tremuloides Michx.) were investigated. Seven clones with superior and seven with medium growth rates were selected from a test of 119 clones in southern Sweden. Four trees per clone were randomly identified and harvested in dormant conditions. Sample discs from the stems and branches were collected and analysed for N, K, P, Ca, Mg, and S concentrations, as well as wood density. The analyses revealed significant genetic differences in wood density, K, P, and Mg concentrations in the stems. There were weak (non-significant) and negative genetic correlations between stem volume and concentrations of all the nutrients, except potassium, suggesting that nutrient-efficient clones could be selected without significantly sacrificing genetic gain for growth. In the branches K, Ca, and Mg concentrations differed significantly among clones. After selecting more nutrient efficient clones, the potential savings of nutrients compared with current hybrid aspen material was estimated to be around 5%, which seems fairly low, at least in a short-term perspective. However, the use of clones with different nutrient storage strategies may be regarded as a possible way in the long run to save nutrients in hybrid aspen ecosystems, or of removing them when sludge is applied.
  • Rytter, Forestry Research Institute of Sweden, Skogforsk, Ekebo 2250, SE-26890, Svalöv, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: lars.rytter@skogforsk.se (email)
  • Stener, Forestry Research Institute of Sweden, Skogforsk, Ekebo 2250, SE-26890, Svalöv, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 689, category Research article
Erik W. Andersson, Kostas A. Spanos, Timothy J. Mullin, Dag Lindgren. (1998). Phenotypic selection compared to restricted combined index selection for many generations. Silva Fennica vol. 32 no. 2 article id 689. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.689
A breeding population has been subjected to repeated selection and crossing by simulation. Unrestricted phenotypic selection and restricted combined index selection were compared at the same effective number for five generations. Results show that phenotypic selection often achieves the gain and diversity possible to achieve by combined index selection but the relative efficiency is different for different family sizes and heritabilities. When phenotypic selection was compared with restricted combined index method at low heritabilities, both methods performed almost equally in terms of gain at the same effective number in small family sizes, although in large families, phenotypic selection was less efficient. At high heritabilities phenotypic selection was as efficient as combined index selection. Phenotypic selection was more efficient in conserving additive variance than combined index selection over five generations compared at the same gain and effective number. The introduction of a dominance component to the total variance had little effect. An increased breeding population size by a factor of ten resulted in an increased additive gain by app. 15%. The conclusion is that even though combined index selection is superior in identifying and extracting the potential for breeding achievements, it is generally not performing better than mass selection when compared at the same effective population size in small families.
  • Andersson, Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, S-901 83, Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: erik.andersson@genfys.slu.se (email)
  • Spanos, N.AG.RE.F.-Forest Research Institute, 57006 Vassilika, Thessaloniki, Greece ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Mullin, Genesis Forest Science Canada Inc., C.P. 64 Succursale Haute-Ville, Québec, QC G1R 4M8 Canada ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Lindgren, Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, S-901 83, Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:

Category: Article

article id 5605, category Article
Matti Haapanen, Marja-Leena Annala, Pirkko Velling. (1997). Progeny trial estimates of genetic parameters for growth and quality traits in Scots pine. Silva Fennica vol. 31 no. 1 article id 5605. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8506

Estimates of individual heritability and genetic correlation are presented for a set of 10 growth and quality traits based on data from 16 Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) progeny trials in Finland. Seven of the traits (tree height, stem diameter, crown width, Pilodyn value, branch diameter, branch angle and branch number) were objectively measured, whereas three traits (stem straightness, branching score and overall score) were assessed visually. The genetic correlations were mostly moderate or low, and favourable from the tree breeder's point of view. All variables related to tree size correlated relatively strongly and positively. Tree height exhibited a more favourable genetic relationship with the crown form traits than diameter, the latter showing positive correlation with branch diameter. Except for the slight negative correlation between branch angle and branch diameter, the branching traits were not notably correlated. The pilodyn value was positively correlated with stem diameter, reflecting negative correlation between diameter growth and wood density. The highest genetic correlations occurred among the two visually evaluated quality scores and branch diameter. All of the heritabilities were less than 0.4. Overall score, Pilodyn, branch angle, branching score and tree height showed the highest heritability.

  • Haapanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Annala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Velling, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5204, category Article
Pirkko Velling, P. M. A. Tigerstedt. (1984). Harvest index in a progeny test of Scots pine with reference to the model of selection. Silva Fennica vol. 18 no. 1 article id 5204. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15383

Harvest index and number of associated traits were measured in a 16-year-old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) progeny test based on full-sib families. It was found that harvest index is a highly heritable trait and that a number of yield components are positively correlated with it. It is suggested that harvest index and tree ideotypes should be the basis of selection in cultivated trees. It is emphasized that an integrated approach to tree improvement including silviculture, soil science, industrial and economic constraints and tree breeding is a prerequisite for maximal response.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Velling, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Tigerstedt, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5068, category Article
S. A. Petrov. (1980). Quantitative analysis of the effect of genotype and environment in forest tree populations. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 1 article id 5068. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15009

The paper discusses the theoretical basis of quantitative analysis of the effect of genotype and environment in forest trees. Perhaps the main problem in the understanding of the laws of intrapopulation variability of the species of woody forest plants is the study of the structure of their populations. It may be characterized by a number of parameters. The intrapopulation variability of quantitative characteristics appears as a result of environmental and genetic factors, but to determine the relative weight of these factors in a concrete case is not easy. The study of the structure of a population by its quantitative characteristics has a wider task: to establish the relevance of the hereditary differences of the individuals of a population. Also, the differences caused by diverse growth conditions and how they are reflected in the level of general phenotypic variability of the quantitative characteristics in a given population has to be identified. The author gives examples of assessment of heritability in forest trees.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Petrov, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4856, category Article
Pekka Rautiainen. (1971). Ympäristö- ja perintötekijöiden vaikutus männyn ilmiasuun Pohjois-Karjalan piirimetsälautakunnan siemenviljelyksessä Tohmajärvellä. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 4 article id 4856. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14658
English title: The effect of environmental and genetical factors on the phenotype of Scots pine in a seed orchard in North Karelia.

The study material included 600 Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) grafts from the Tohmajärvi seed orchard in Eastern Finland. Their broad sense heritability for the height growth was 0.92, for the number of branches 0.87 and for the angle of branching 0.84. Grafts from Central Finland had cones more often than the southern ones, the frequencies being 26.3% and 11.2%. It seems that dominance plays a significant role in the genetical variation of this seed orchard and that height growth is probably more rewarding breeding characteristic than quality, the difference being small, however.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Rautiainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4823, category Article
Christel Palmberg. (1970). Heritabiliteetin arvioiminen eräässä männyn (Pinus silvestris L.) jälkeläiskokeessa. Silva Fennica vol. 4 no. 3 article id 4823. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14612
English title: Estimation of heritability in open-pollinated plus tree progenies of Pinus sylvestris L.

Field experiments of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) was established by planting seedlings grown from seeds collected from open-pollinated plus trees throughout the country. The 36 progenies represented were planted in 4 blocks as 2+2 transplants in 1960. The main characteristics of the seedlings were measured in 1966 and 1968. Considerable damage had been caused to the stands by moose (Alces alces) and Melampsora pinitorqua Rostr., consequently, therefore, only normally developed seedlings were measured.

Highly significant differences between progenies were found in the number of branches in 1968 and in the ratio of height of tree to the length of the longest branch. In 1968, the differences in height between progenies were not significant, but there were significant differences between blocks both in tree height and length of terminal shoot. Obviously, the edaphic heterogeneity of the site has influenced mainly the juvenile growth of the plants, because in the length of the terminal shoot there could be seen also significant differences between the progenies. There were no significant differences between the progenies in the length of the longest branch, in the angles of the thickest branches, in stem taper and in the diameter of the thickest branch.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Palmberg, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7653, category Article
Ladawan Atipanumpai. (1989). Acacia mangium : Studies on the genetic variation in ecological and physiological characteristics of a fastgrowing plantation tree species. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 206 article id 7653. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7653

Genetic variation in the physiological characteristics and biomass accumulation of Acacia mangium Willd. was studied in both field and laboratory conditions. Variation in the growth characteristics, foliar nutrient concentration, phyllode anatomy and stomatal frequency was analysed in 16 different origins under field conditions in Central Thailand. Family variation and heritability of growth and flowering frequency were calculated using 20 open-pollinated families at the age of 28 months. The effect of environmental factors on diameter growth in different provenances is also discussed.

Under laboratory conditions, such physiological characteristics as transpiration rate, leaf conductance and leaf water potential were measured at varying soil moisture conditions. The responses of photosynthesis, photorespiration and dark respiration as well as the CO2 compensation point to temperature and irradiance were also investigated. All physiological characteristics indicated differences among provenances. An attempt was made to relate the results obtained in the laboratory to the growth performance in the field. Recommendations on provenance selection for the planting of A. mangium in Thailand are also given.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Atipanumpai, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7602, category Article
P. M. A. Tigerstedt. (1969). Progeny tests in a Pinus silvestris (L) seed orchard in Finland. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 99 article id 7602. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7602

Heritability of first and second-year height growth of Pinus sylvestris (L.) plants was studied using three different mating designs. Plants grew in a plastic greenhouse during the first growth period. During the second growth period they were exposed to open air conditions.

Heritability values varied from zero to 42%. An average heritability based on six separate calculations (two from each mating design) was computed and its reliability was discussed. This heritability value was 18%.

Different ways of improving heritability estimates was discussed and the need of more investigations on trait quality in relation to fitness and on the effect of natural selection and population strategy was emphasized.

  • Tigerstedt, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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