Current issue: 55(1)
Under compilation: 55(2)
Many countries have enacted plant protection laws or statutes that consist timber imported into a country, both raw wood and processed timber. This has caused some inconvenience to the international timber trade. Necessary protection against the spread of pests via export is fully acceptable, but the protection should be based on actual need.
When considering processed or barked raw timber, the problem concerns only species that pass their development in the wood. The four most important biological requirements affecting the risk are 1) the tree species of the importing country and affinity of the pest, 2) climatic conditions of the importing country and the pest’s range and adaptability to the climate, 3) biological factors regulating the population, and 4) suitability of the individual development of the pest for transmission. These risks are discussed in the article.
It is concluded that it is possible largely to eliminate the species that might be conveyed via export timber. It is often possible to decide in advance what danger threatens the importing country from species that might be conveyed via export timber. This would make it possible to adapt plant protection regulations to suit the relation between the exporting and importing countries.
The Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari’s 60th birthday.
The use of imported fuels has increased in Finland, which has resulted in a growing disregard of domestic fuels, primarily firewood, on fuel market. This has affected forest management and economy of forest owners as well as diminishing the working opportunities in the countryside by decreasing the demand of small-sized timber. This investigation studies the fuel problem in the industrial field by a survey sent to all industrial plants in the country.
The different fuels were converted to the calorific value of pine firewood measured in piled cubic meters (p-m3, cu.m.). In 1950 the industry utilized 14.1 million cu.m piled measure of imported and domestic fuels. Of this 47% was domestic fuels and 53% imported fuels. The share of coal was 40%, wood waste almost 30%, and firewood 18%. The relatively small proportion of firewood suggests that it could be possible to increase the industrial demand for firewood. However, it should be noted that industry uses fuel mainly for power production, where imported fuels are highly effective. Forest industry used 2/3 of all domestic fuel.
According to the report, waste wood was cheapest kind of fuel for industry. It was, however, often the plant’s own waste material. The cost of coal at the mill was 60% of the corresponding price of firewood. The location of the industry affects greatly the price relations between domestic and imported fuels. Coal is cheaper close to the harbours and the coastline of the country. The state has supported firewood transportation by lower freight rates for firewood.
The PDF includes a summary in English.
The purpose of the analysis presented in the article was to form an estimate as to future Finnish-American trade in forest products. The Finnish-American trade, that had its beginning in 1919, has been steadily growing and at the outbreak of the Second World War occupied third place in Finland’s total foreign trade. Over 90% of the Finnish exports consisted of forest industry products, pulp and newsprint being the most important items. The sales associations of the pulp and paper industries made it possible for the industries to gain a footing in the American market.
The production of pulp and most kinds of paper has increased in the USA up to 1942, but production of newsprint has tended to decrease. The timber resources of the country are large, but there is a considerable timber deficit in the northeastern states, therefore, these regions must be the principal aim for a campaign to build up the future market. According to the survey of future need of imports to the USA, more than two million tons of pulp and 2-3 million tons of paper products are needed in the immediate post-war period. The Canadian and Swedish competition will remain at about the same level, but one Finnish advantage, the quality, has disappeared on account of the progress made by research in the USA during the war.
The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.
The article summarizes import and export of timber and manufactured wood products in Europe before the Second World War, and outlines which are the opportunities of import and export after the war. The evaluation is based on statistics of 1936 and 1937. The export balance of Europe was positive; when all the timber assortments were included, Europe exported almost 10 million m3 more timber than it imported. Export and import of round timber were almost in balance, whereas export of paper products was about 12 million m3 larger than import. Consequently, European forest industry reached its magnitude before the war through export overseas. Foreign markets have been important especially for countries like Finland and other Nordic countries.
The war has disturbed the markets. In a scenario where Europe remains a closed sub-area in the global market, there is 10 million m3 excess of timber and wood products. Within Europe, United Kingdom is the greatest importer of timber and manufactured wood products. If UK was excluded from the European market, it would mean a big change in the export and import balance within the area. In 1936 and 1937 the import would have been only 45% and 55%, respectively, of the export if UK is not included in European numbers. If also Russia is excluded from the European sub-area, it would affect especially the export of round wood, sawn timber and plywood. Nordic countries have accounted for about 80% of European paper products export before the war. According to the article, Finnish wood resources do not allow big increase in sawn industry. However, there is potential in increasing demand of pulp in continental Europe in future. In general, Finnish forest industry would have to decrease the production, if the markets would be limited to the European sub-area.
The PDF includes a summary in German.
Living third dispersal stage juveniles of pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, were found infesting pine boards in Finland. The boards had been used as building material in a packing case to hold imported machinery. Total numbers of nematodes extracted from the boards did not exceed 4 grams of dry wood. When cultured on Botrytis cinerea the nematode reproduction resumed rapidly.
The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.
Coniferous timber imported by rail from the Soviet Union in Finland was studied for the presence of potential forest and timber pest beetles. Systematic samples of fourteen lots of pine pulpwood were examined. Seven of the lots originated from the European parts of the Soviet Union and seven from Siberia. 23 species of Scolytidae and about 18 other phloeophagous species were found including three species new for Finland: Phaenops guttulata (Buprestidae), Ips subelongatus and Orthotomicus erosus (Scolytidae).
The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.
As Finland has neither coal nor oil resources, it has had to resort to large-scale imports dependant on foreign relations and especially maritime connections. When the outbreak of World War II broke these connections, the state had to institute comprehensive controls and measures to ensure the supply of fuels. The present article deals with the measures taken by the authorities at that time.
Although the danger to Finland of interruption in fuel imports had been pointed out, the Finns had made hardly any preparations to manage on their own. In autumn 1939 there was no reserve stocks and particularly vulnerable was the question of motor fuels and lubricants.
When the Winter War ended in spring 1940, it was realised that special measures were needed. A law was enacted that concerned both the revival of production and regulation of consumption. For instance, every forest owner was notified of his share of the fuelwood logging. The wood processing industry had been accustomed to maintain stocks of wood covering two years’ requirements, but these inventories, too, were depleted by 1944. The law for safeguarding the supply of timber, enacted in early 1945, invested far-reaching powers in the authorities, and the logging plans were exceptionally large in 1945-47. Controls governing forestry and the forest industry were discontinued in 1947.
In Finland it is necessary to maintain a state of preparedness. This applies above all to fossil fuels and particularly oils.
The PDF includes a summary in English.
The government of Finland appointed a committee to make a suggestion of measures to be taken to arrange fuel supply during the heating season. The committee drafted also a plan to regulate and govern the fuel economy.
The committee estimated that the total consumption of coal, coke, firewood, waste wood and fuel peat, converted into pine firewood increased from 33.8 million eu.m in piled measure in heating period of 1952-53 to 42.9 million in 1955-56. According to the report, the demand of fuel is met increasingly through imported fuels, such as coal, coke and oil. The change is mainly due by their lower price and technically easy handling compared to domestic fuels.
The committee suggests that the production of domestic fuels, peat and firewood, should be increased and rationalized. In addition, financial support should be targeted to construct hydroelectric plants. Fuel peat industry should be developed further. The use of oil should be promoted, and boilers able to use different kinds of fuel should be constructed. To be prepared in changes in international situation, stocks of fuel are needed.