Current issue: 54(3)
In the southwest of the Iberian Peninsula, Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands is causing irreversible damage to populations of the two most common species of Quercus, the holm oak (Quercus ilex L.) and the cork oak (Quercus suber L.). Although the symptoms are similar in the two species, the mortality rates are different. We found significant differences in the post-infection growth of the root system as a function of tree species, as well as initial plant size, and inoculum level. We observed a marked decrease in the growth of new roots in Q. ilex with increasing inoculum level, while in Q. suber, we found longer but thinner roots with a moderate inoculum level. In both species, we observed a worsening in the water status of the plants from the lowest inoculum level.
The aim of this investigation was to clarify aerial infection of Fomes annosus (now Heterbasision annosum) in the cross-sections of stumps of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) in Southern Finland. In addition, an attempt was made to study possibilities to reduce an eventual aerial infection by means of spreading various protecting substances on the cross-section of the stumps immediately after cutting. The stumps were treated withs creosote, ceruse (lead white) and a product named ”Ventti”, which active constituent is copper. The effect of prescribed burning of the site on the aerial spreading of the fungus was studied.
Five sample plots were located in spruce stands and one in a pine stand. One of the spruce stands was prescribed burned. Samples were taken from the stumps 14–17 and 24–29 months after cutting. To identify the fungi, the samples were cultivated on a nutrient substrate in laboratory conditions. The results show that Heterobasidion annosum had spread by air to cross-sections of stumps of spruce. 11.5% of the samples taken from the spruce stumps 14–17 months and 17% of samples taken 24–29 months after cutting were infected. Burning of the site reduced strongly the aerial infection of stumps by the fungus. The stumps of Scots pine were not infected by Heterobasidion annosum in this study. The infection could be limited by treating the cross-sections with substances that are used to prevent growth of mould.
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The paper is a continuation of an earlier report by the author on the same subject (Acta Forestalia Fennica 133, 1973). Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) wounds were inoculated with Peniophora gigantea (Phlebiopsis gigantea) and the discolorations starting from the wounds were investigated three years after the wounding. Fomes annosus (Heterobasidion annosum) had infected 17 % of the total number of wounded trees. If no microbes were growing at the furthest point of the discoloration that had started from the wound, the discoloration advanced upward from wounds made at breast height at a rate of 61 cm/year in the dominant and 36 cm/year in the suppressed trees. In the dominant trees, a year after the wound was inflicted the discoloration had advanced at a rate of 50 cm/year and after three years the rate was 61 cm/year. This difference is not significant. Where microbes were present at the furthest point of discoloration, the discoloration had advanced 27 cm/year in one year and 42 cm/year in three years. Also, this difference is not significant.
A microbe was isolated from the furthest point of discoloration in only 13 out of 42 possible cases. The most common microbe was Stereum sanguinolentum. Bacteria showed the fastest rate of advance.
The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the success of infecting Norway spruce (Picea abies) wounds with a mycelial suspension of Peniophora gigantea (now Phlebiopsis gigantea). In an approximately 100-year old spruce stand on Myrtillus type soil in Southern Finland, two dominant and two suppressed spruce trees were wounded each month during one year, and infected with P. gigantea. Control trees were only wounded. One year after wounding the trees were sawn into discs near the wound. Samples of the discs were cultured to identify the microbes.
In the suppressed trees, the P. Gigantea infection had been successful in 75 % of the wounds extending into heartwood. For dominant trees, the percentage was 50. In sapwood wounds the infection was considerably less successful. In two wounds of the control trees were noted airborne P. gigantea infection, and in four Fomes annosus (now Heterobasidion annosum).
Discoloration starting from the wounds was not a reliable proof that microbes were present. According to the variance analysis, the upward advance of discoloration without microbes showed a greater correlation with the crown class than with the type and site of the wounds. The downward advance depended more on the type of the wounds than the crown class.
A total of 37 fungi were identified by species or family, from the damaged trees. A large number of bacteria were also found. The most common fungi were the Penicillium species, and they had most often advanced farthest above and below the wound. Of the actual decay fungi, Stereum sanguinolentum showed the highest incidence and fastest growth. Coryne cylichnium and Cephalosporium species were also relatively common.
The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.