Current issue: 53(2)

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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
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Acta Forestalia Fennica
1953-1968
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Articles containing the keyword 'inventointi'.

Category: Article

article id 7120, category Article
Kullervo Kuusela. (1960). Maan kuvioiden ja puuston vaihtelu sekä sen vaikutus metsän inventoinnin tarkkuuteen. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 72 no. 3 article id 7120. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7120
English title: Variation of the site patterns and growing stock and its effect on the precision of forest inventory.

The purpose of the investigation was to study the characteristics of the site and the growing stock and the effect of their variation on the precision of forest inventory. The total area of the forest tract is considered to be already known or it can be measured with surveying. The sub-areas or strata and the mean timber volume of each wooded stratum are estimated by sampling. Thus, the total volume of each stratum is the product of the estimates of the area and mean volume. Only line method of sampling the areas will be examined. Field material was measured in the inventory of the Finnish State Forests with the method used in the third National Forest Inventory. The circular plots and the sample trees were measured in the forests of Inari district. In this systematic line-plot method the distance between the lines was 5 km.

The results show that the total area should be broken down into suitable strata, such as the full-stocked productive forest land and regeneration areas with mother trees. The mean volume for each stratum is estimated with the plot method. An advanced estimation of the approximate mean volume and the coefficient of variation in the strata are needed for calculating the optimum allocation of plots.

If the volume calculation is done with the diameter as variable the variation of the plot volumes is decreased. If the local volume table is used and the site and stock characteristics differ from the characteristics of the volume table stock, a significant systematic error is possible. Planning of efficient and economical forest inventories requires data concerning site and stock variation. It should be calculated and published systematically by geographical region.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kuusela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7120, category Article
Kullervo Kuusela. (1960). Maan kuvioiden ja puuston vaihtelu sekä sen vaikutus metsän inventoinnin tarkkuuteen. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 72 no. 3 article id 7120. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7120
English title: Variation of the site patterns and growing stock and its effect on the precision of forest inventory.

The purpose of the investigation was to study the characteristics of the site and the growing stock and the effect of their variation on the precision of forest inventory. The total area of the forest tract is considered to be already known or it can be measured with surveying. The sub-areas or strata and the mean timber volume of each wooded stratum are estimated by sampling. Thus, the total volume of each stratum is the product of the estimates of the area and mean volume. Only line method of sampling the areas will be examined. Field material was measured in the inventory of the Finnish State Forests with the method used in the third National Forest Inventory. The circular plots and the sample trees were measured in the forests of Inari district. In this systematic line-plot method the distance between the lines was 5 km.

The results show that the total area should be broken down into suitable strata, such as the full-stocked productive forest land and regeneration areas with mother trees. The mean volume for each stratum is estimated with the plot method. An advanced estimation of the approximate mean volume and the coefficient of variation in the strata are needed for calculating the optimum allocation of plots.

If the volume calculation is done with the diameter as variable the variation of the plot volumes is decreased. If the local volume table is used and the site and stock characteristics differ from the characteristics of the volume table stock, a significant systematic error is possible. Planning of efficient and economical forest inventories requires data concerning site and stock variation. It should be calculated and published systematically by geographical region.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kuusela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7487, category Article
Olavi Linnamies. (1959). Valtion metsät sekä niiden hoidon ja käytön yleissuunnitelma. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 68 no. 5 article id 7487. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7487
English title: The state forests of Finland and a general management plan for them based on an inventory made in 1951-1955.

The distances between the lines in the line survey in the first two National Inventories of Finland were too long to supply data for every State Forest district. Consequently, the Third National Forest Inventory offered an opportunity to supplement the inventory for State Forests in 1954 and 1955, and to gather data on forest resources of the State Fforests. On the basis of the results, a management plan for the State Forests was drafted. The first part of the paper describes the inventory procedure and results of the inventory, the second deduces future cuttings and a forest management programme.
In 1955 the total land area of the State Forests was 9.49 million ha. Drained peatlands cover 126,000 ha, drainable peatlands 798,000 ha and undrainable peatlands 2,621,000 ha. The average volume of growing stock in all State Forests was 55.2 m3/ha, including productive and unproductive forest land. The average increment in all State Forests was 1,39 m3/ha on productive land and in all lands in average 1,14 m3/ha.
Cutting budgets for the progressive yield were prepared by checking the silvicultural cut and estimating the allowable cut. They were made by age classes, developmental stages and for each region. The stock development was forecasted for a period of 40 years. In average the allowable cut was larger during the first decade than during the second. Allowable cut was estimated by the tree species and by timber assortments. The management plan included future forest management work, such as intermediate fellings, regeneration fellings, site preparation, artificial regenereation, tending of seedling stands, and draining of peatland.
The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Linnamies, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7090, category Article
Yrjö Ilvessalo. (1923). Tutkimuksia yksityismetsien tilasta Hämeen läänin keskiosissa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 26 no. 2 article id 7090. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7090
English title: Studies on the condition of private forests in the central part of the Häme province.

A strip survey was performed in the counties of Sahalahti and Kuhmalahti in Häme, situated in Central Finland, to study the condition of the private forests. The forests cover 78% of the total land area of 37,420 hectares. The forest site types were relatively fertile. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) dominated forest covered 43%, Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) 30% and Betula sp. 23% of the forest land. The productivity of the forests could be improved by changing the species so that they suit the site. The volume of the standing crop is 67.2 m3 per hectare. The volume of the growing stock in the area could be 1 million m3 larger if the forests were nearer to the natural state. The annual growth of the forests is low, and could be much improved by correct forest management.

One of the aims of the survey was to study how the distance between survey lines should be adjusted to give acceptably accurate results, in a way that the strip-survey method can be adapted to large areas. The largest distance between the lines that gave results that differed less than 10% from the correct results, varied between 10 and 1.5 kilometres depending on the variables. For instance, to get accurate results for the rarest forest site types required line distance of 1.5 kilometres, but accurate results for the most common forest site types could be achieves with line distance of 10 kilometres.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Ilvessalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5242, category Article
Suomen tilastoseura, Finnish Society of Forest Science. (1985). Metsien inventoinnin tilastolliset menetelmät. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 3 article id 5242. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15421
English title: Statistical methods in forest inventory.

At a joint meeting of the Finnish Statistical Society and the Society of Forestry in Finland on 17.10.1984, papers were presented on the history and mathematical foundations of statistical methods used in forest inventory in Finland. The advantages and applicability of Bayresian methods and methods of spatial statistics were also discussed. In two papers, forest inventories were examined as part of a forest information system and the information demands of the user were discussed.

This article includes eight presentation held in the meeting. The papers have each a summary in English.

  • Suomen tilastoseura, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Finnish Society of Forest Science, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4776, category Article
K. Stern. (1968). Überlegungen zur optimalen Teilstückgrösse in Feldversuchen mit Waldbäumen. Silva Fennica vol. 2 no. 4 article id 4776. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14561
English title: Some considerations on optimal plot size in field experiments with forest trees.

18 permanent sample subplots of the Swedish and the Hassian Forestry Institute, each measured in equal intervals for several decades, were divided into subplots of different size. An analysis of variance was calculated for every set of subplot size. The development of intraclass-correlations over years and over different sizes of subplots could be explained if three different correlations were assumed: soil-correlation, correlations from irregular distribution of the trees, and correlation resulting from competition. Intraclass-correlations were positive or negative depending on dominance of one or two of these correlations.

An explanatory simultation study of competitional variance showed the effect of the degree of competitional correlations on the variance of means of subplots of different sizes. If this coefficient was small, all variances of subplots means within the range investigated became larger than expected in experiments without competition, with larger coefficients the variances of means of the smaller subplots became smaller, those of larger subplots larger than expected.

Plots of medium or large size are probably optimal for long term experiments with forest trees, if all sources of costs in such experiments are taken into account.

The PDF includes a summary in English and Finnish.

  • Stern, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7666, category Article
Kullervo Kuusela, Sakari Salminen. (1991). Suomen metsävarat 1977-1984 ja niiden kehittyminen 1952­-1980. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 220 article id 7666. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7666
English title: Forest resources of Finland in 1977–1984 and their development in 1952–1980.

The field of work of the 7th National Forest Inventory was carried out during 1977–84. This report consists of the analysis of the forest resources, long-term development of forests and the results by ownership categories in Finland.

The area of forestry land, 26.4 million ha, has decreased slightly because of the increase of build-up areas and communication routes. Forest land, which is suitable to growing wood profitably, amounted 20.1 million ha. It has increased, although not as fast as earlier, due to drainage and fertilization of scrub and waste land swamps and the afforestation of agricultural land.

The growing stock volume was 1,660 million m3 and the estimated gross annual increment 68.4 million m3. A large quantity of young, rapidly growing stands, and fellings markedly below the increment, are the principal factors increasing the growing stock. The volume of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) has increased most but the greatest proportional increase has been in the volume of broadleaved trees.

The silvicultural quality of stands has improved and the increase in saw log tree volume has resulted in an increase in the total growing stock volume. The proportional volume of saw logs, however, has decreased. Both aging mature stands and postponed thinnings increase the risk of losses due to mortality and decay. Too dense stands retard the diameter growth of trees. The proportion of unsuccessful artificial regeneration has increased.

The area of private forests has slightly decreased, while companies and collective bodies have increased their ownership. Non-farmer private ownership already accounts for one half of the area of private forests. The silvicultural quality of company forests is best and the increase of the growing stock and its increment is proportionally greatest in these forests.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kuusela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Salminen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7639, category Article
Matti Keltikangas, Jukka Laine, Pasi Puttonen, Kustaa Seppälä. (1986). Vuosina 1930-1978 metsäojitetut suot: ojitusalueiden inventoinnin tuloksia. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 193 article id 7639. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7639
English title: Peatlands drained for forestry during 1930–1978: results from field surveys of drained areas.

An extensive field-based survey was conducted to establish the distribution of site types on drained peatlands, the condition of the drainage networks, the post-drainage development of the tree stands, their structure and silvicultural condition and the corresponding requirements for operational measures. The data is based on sampling of the forest drainage undertaking during 1930–78 and consists of 1,312 km inventory transect, 6,030 relascope sample plots and 21,700 studied ditches.

Of the studied peatlands more than 60% were Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) mires, slightly under 20% Norway spruce (Picea abies) mires, and under 10% each treeless mires and paludified upland forest sites. The remaining peatland area that is to be considered suitable for forest drainage according to criteria used by Heikurainen (1960) now consists mainly of spruce mires and paludified upland forest types; about 1 million ha both groups still remain undrained.

The proportion of ditches in need of ditch cleaning was estimated to be under 10% in the youngest drained areas and under 30% in the oldest. The mean tree stand volumes of the drained peatlands of different site types show the same dependence on the trophic level as in earlier studies but the volumes seem to be some 5–10% lower. These results compare favourably with those of the 7th national forest inventory.

Trends in the post-drainage development of tree stand volumes and increment are also, generally, in accordance with earlier findings but have somewhat lower values. The development of the nutrient-poor site type stands, especially in Northern Finland, seems to be significantly poorer than was earlier assumed.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Keltikangas, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Laine, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Puttonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Seppälä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4705, category Article
Aarne Nyyssönen, Simo Poso. (1961). Koe metsikköluokitusten suorittamiseksi ilmakuvien avulla. Silva Fennica no. 112 article id 4705. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14232
English title: Tree stand classifications from aerial photographs: an experiment.

In connection to the Third National Forest Inventory of Finland, two survey strips in the northernmost Finland were photographed on scale 1:15,000. Infrared films and a yellow filter were used. For the present experiment a total length of 66 km of the strips was photographed. The strips were surveyed visually from the ground by stands. Sample plots were measured at kilometre intervals. The aerial photographs were surveyed the distances covered in the ground. The work was aided by stereograms which showed 16 large-size sample plots localised on aerial photographs.

The main groups of land identified along the survey line were productive and poorly productive forest land, wasteland and another land, in addition, peatland and firm land were distinguished. Although some differences were noted, the two survey methods provided fairly similar results. For an estimation of the tree species composition the material is one-sided since the district is mainly Scots pine. The principal tree species was successfully distinguished on aerial photographs in 78 out of 82 comparable pairs.

The mean of ground observations of dominant height of the stands was 10.9 m, that of observations on aerial photographs 11.2 m. The result of stand volume estimates reveals a distinct correlation between the various methods of estimation.

In an earlier study it was shown that it is possible, using a stand volume table based on characteristics revealed in aerial photography, to create a general idea of stand volume on the southern half of the country. A few additional factors, of interest for the stratification necessary in forest inventories, were also studied. A distinct correlation was observed between the results of aerial and ground survey for all the characteristics discussed. The present experiment showed that the prerequisites for stratification through aerial photographs do exist. Further investigation is needed into the most appropriate methods for stratification in each situation.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Nyyssönen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Poso, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4700, category Article
F. Loetsch. (1961). Die Waldinventur und ihre Bedeutung für Forstpolitik, Betriebswirtschaft und Waldbau. Silva Fennica no. 112 article id 4700. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14231
  • Loetsch, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4531, category Article
Paavo Jokinen. (1938). Asutuslain mukaisesta asutustyöstä valtion mailla ja metsänhoitajan tehtävistä tässä asutustyössä. Silva Fennica no. 46 article id 4531. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13940
English title: Execution of settlement in compliance to the Land Settlement Act in state lands and role of a forest officer in managing the work.

Silva Fennica issue 46 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1937. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service. 

This presentation describes execution of settlement in compliance to the Land Settlement Act in the state lands, and the role of a forest officer in managing the settlement. 

  • Jokinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4494, category Article
Eino Saari. (1937). Metsätaloudelliset tilastot. Silva Fennica no. 39 article id 4494. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13904
English title: Forestry statistics.

Silva Fennica Issue 39 includes presentations held in professional development courses in 1935 that were arranged for foresters working in public administration. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level.

This presentation lists statistics available on forestry.

  • Saari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4480, category Article
Yrjö Ilvessalo. (1937). Käytännöllisistä metsänarvioimistavoista. Silva Fennica no. 39 article id 4480. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13890
English title: Practical forest inventory methods.

Silva Fennica Issue 39 includes presentations held in professional development courses in 1935 that were arranged for foresters working in public administration. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation describes different forest inventory methods.

  • Ilvessalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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