Current issue: 53(2)

Under compilation: 53(3)

Impact factor 1.683
5-year impact factor 1.950
Silva Fennica 1926-1997
1990-1997
1980-1989
1970-1979
1960-1969
Acta Forestalia Fennica
1953-1968
1933-1952
1913-1932

Articles containing the keyword 'istutus'.

Category: Article

article id 7178, category Article
Matti Keltikangas, Pekka Tiililä. (1968). Koivun ja kuusen istutuksen keskinäinen edullisuusjärjestys käenkaali-mustikkatyypin metsämailla. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 82 no. 5 article id 7178. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7178
English title: The economic sequence of silver birch (Betula pendula) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) when planting Oxalis-Myrtillus type forest land.

The present study proposes to calculate the economic sequence of two of Finland’s three main tree species, Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) and silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) when planted on Oxalias-Myrtillus type sites where both species are equally suitable, on biological grounds. In addition, the accuracy and applicability of the present Finnish yield tables to an economic comparison is tested. Benefit/cost ratio was selected as criterion of profitableness. All future net incomes and costs were discounted into the planting time and added together. The ratio between the discounted net revenues and the discounted investment costs (later called profit ratio) was the criterion. There is no reliable method to forecast the future wood prices, therefore two price ratios, birch veneer timber to spruce pulpwood and birch cordwood to spruce pulpwood, were chosen as free variables. The economic sequence of the tree species was determined as the function of these variables.

The main conclusions are, first, that under the present price ratios spruce appears to be the better choice for the forest owner, and the most promising policy for changing the situation seems to decrease the production costs of plants in birch nurseries. Second, the present Finnish yield tables are not consistent or accurate enough to enable any sufficiently reliable economic comparisons of tree species in artificial regeneration. The possible error of difference between two rather uncertain estimates is big. More work is needed to construct a uniform system of yield tables covering all main tree species, all site types, all macro climate conditions and all types of regeneration.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Keltikangas, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Tiililä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7421, category Article
Olli Heikinheimo. (1954). Taimitarhan maantieteellinen sijainti, siemenen alkuperä ja istutuskaudet. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 9 article id 7421. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7421
English title: Geographical location of a tree nursery, seed origin and planting seasons.

Planning of large central tree nurseries, which has become topical in Finland, means that the seedlings will be used in a wide geographical area. The nursery must decide which proveniences of seeds of the different tree species it will use. This concerns also the customer that buys the seedlings. The planting and lifting of the seedlings in the nursery have to be timed so that the seedlings are in a right state of growth at the time of planting.

The growth of the seedlings can, under certain conditions, be promoted by using a slightly southerly seed provenience, and large-sized seeds. There are, however, limitations to how much the seeds can be transferred northwards. If the nursery lies much south of the planting site, the seedlings have started height growth at the time of planting. This applies especially larch (Larix sp.), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and birch (Betula sp.), but affects less Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.). The problem can be handled by using a cool storage space for the seedlings waiting for a delivery in the nursery.

According to an international study, seedlings grown from seeds collected in countries south from Finland usually die already during the first two years in the nursery. Within Finland the seeds can be transferred at least by two latitudes. Spruce seems to tolerate longer transfer. Seed orchards should be planted south of the seed’s origin to ensure better yield and better quality seeds.

The Silva Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari‘s 60th birthday.
The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Heikinheimo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7421, category Article
Olli Heikinheimo. (1954). Taimitarhan maantieteellinen sijainti, siemenen alkuperä ja istutuskaudet. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 9 article id 7421. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7421
English title: Geographical location of a tree nursery, seed origin and planting seasons.

Planning of large central tree nurseries, which has become topical in Finland, means that the seedlings will be used in a wide geographical area. The nursery must decide which proveniences of seeds of the different tree species it will use. This concerns also the customer that buys the seedlings. The planting and lifting of the seedlings in the nursery have to be timed so that the seedlings are in a right state of growth at the time of planting.

The growth of the seedlings can, under certain conditions, be promoted by using a slightly southerly seed provenience, and large-sized seeds. There are, however, limitations to how much the seeds can be transferred northwards. If the nursery lies much south of the planting site, the seedlings have started height growth at the time of planting. This applies especially larch (Larix sp.), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and birch (Betula sp.), but affects less Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.). The problem can be handled by using a cool storage space for the seedlings waiting for a delivery in the nursery.

According to an international study, seedlings grown from seeds collected in countries south from Finland usually die already during the first two years in the nursery. Within Finland the seeds can be transferred at least by two latitudes. Spruce seems to tolerate longer transfer. Seed orchards should be planted south of the seed’s origin to ensure better yield and better quality seeds.

The Silva Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari‘s 60th birthday.
The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Heikinheimo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7421, category Article
Olli Heikinheimo. (1954). Taimitarhan maantieteellinen sijainti, siemenen alkuperä ja istutuskaudet. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 9 article id 7421. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7421
English title: Geographical location of a tree nursery, seed origin and planting seasons.

Planning of large central tree nurseries, which has become topical in Finland, means that the seedlings will be used in a wide geographical area. The nursery must decide which proveniences of seeds of the different tree species it will use. This concerns also the customer that buys the seedlings. The planting and lifting of the seedlings in the nursery have to be timed so that the seedlings are in a right state of growth at the time of planting.

The growth of the seedlings can, under certain conditions, be promoted by using a slightly southerly seed provenience, and large-sized seeds. There are, however, limitations to how much the seeds can be transferred northwards. If the nursery lies much south of the planting site, the seedlings have started height growth at the time of planting. This applies especially larch (Larix sp.), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and birch (Betula sp.), but affects less Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.). The problem can be handled by using a cool storage space for the seedlings waiting for a delivery in the nursery.

According to an international study, seedlings grown from seeds collected in countries south from Finland usually die already during the first two years in the nursery. Within Finland the seeds can be transferred at least by two latitudes. Spruce seems to tolerate longer transfer. Seed orchards should be planted south of the seed’s origin to ensure better yield and better quality seeds.

The Silva Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari‘s 60th birthday.
The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Heikinheimo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7343, category Article
S. E. Multamäki. (1939). Kuusen kylvöstä ja istutuksesta metsitettävillä soilla. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 47 no. 3 article id 7343. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7343
English title: Sowing and planting of Norway spruce in drained peatlands in Finland.

The drained peatlands regenerate usually well, and artificial regeneration by sowing or planting has been rare. Field trials of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) were established in northern Satakunta in Western Finland in three drained peatlands in 1934. Sowing trials of Norway spruce consisted of patch and broadcast sowed sample sites in treeless bogs and under protective forest. The seedlings of spruce were planted either under protective forest or in treeless peatland.

The results show that artificial regeneration of Norway spruce succeeds best under protective forest. The best tree species for upper storey is Betula sp. which grows fast and controls growth of ground vegetation. The peat is relatively decomposed on those peatlands that are suitable for spruce, and breaking of the surface of the peat is not recommended. In the sowing trials, breaking of the upper layer of the peat caused frost heaving, cracking of the dried surface and sticking of mud in the seedlings in the patch sown sample site. The shoot and root growth of seedlings of the broadcast sown site was better than seedlings of the patch sown site. The planted spruce seedlings seemed to be more susceptible for spring frost than the seedlings in the sown site. The plants of seed origin succeeded in general better than the planted seedlings.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Multamäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7281, category Article
Emil Vesterinen. (1934). Sotilaiden osanotto metsänviljelystyöhön. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 4 article id 7281. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7281
English title: The participation of troops in silvicultural work.
Original keywords: metsätyö; armeija; sotilas; istutus; kylvö
English keywords: forest work; army; solder; planting; sowing

Following the example of Norway, which was the first nation to employ regular troops in silvicultural work, sowing and planting courses were organized for the Finnish troops in 1931. The initiative was taken by the Forestry Instruction Bureau, and the work was organized by the forestry committees. During three years, total of 8,189 men was involved in the work.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Vesterinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5445, category Article
Taneli Kolström. (1991). Kuusen kylvö- ja istutuskoe viljavilla kivennäismailla Pohjois-Karjalassa. Silva Fennica vol. 25 no. 2 article id 5445. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15599
English title: Results from the sowing and planting experiment of Norway spruce (Picea abies) on fertile sites in North Karelia, Finland.

Different methods of sowing and planting of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) were compared on fertile sites in North Karelia (62°20’N, 29°35’E, 85–120 m a.s.l.). The planting material were 4-year-old bare-rooted transplants, 2-year-old bare-rooted seedlings, and 2-year-old containerized seedlings raised in plastic greenhouse. The sowing methods were band sowing and shelter sowing. Ground vegetation was controlled during the first growing season mechanically or chemically, or the control was omitted totally.

Planting of spruce gave better results than sowing. After eight growing seasons there were sowed seedlings left in 30% of the sowing pots. The average height of them was 35 cm. Seedling survival was best with large bare-rooted transplants (91%). Survival of containerized seedlings was 79% and of small bare-rooted transplants 71%. The average height of large bare-rooted transplants was 131 cm, of containerized seedlings 86 cm and small bare-rooted seedlings 68 cm.

Sowing is not an advisable method for regeneration of spruce due to the small survival rate and slow initial development when ground vegetation is controlled only once. Also 2-year-old seedlings gave a satisfactory result in regeneration. Seedlings raised in greenhouse were more sensitive to frost damage than seedlings grown on open ground.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Kolström, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5409, category Article
Jukka Lippu, Pasi Puttonen. (1990). Istutustaimen juuriston alkukehitys kasvupaikalla. Silva Fennica vol. 24 no. 1 article id 5409. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15561
English title: The early development of seedling roots at the planting site: A literature review.

The structure and functional responses of roots in planted seedlings when acclimatizing at the planting site are reviewed. A wide range of methods for classifying roots has been employed, and the terminology used is not uniform. Roots can be classified by their morphology, origin, and function. The temporal and spatial variation of soil temperature, moisture, structure, and concentration of nutrients are among the most important properties to which root systems acclimatize. In order to reliably describe the function of the root system, several parameters usually have to be measured. Studies on the root-soil interface have indicated that roots are not necessarily in continuous contact with soil. The control mechanism of root growth is inadequately known and theoretically formulated. Generally, only the mass needed for water and nutrient uptake has been allocated to the roots. However, the amount of photosynthates allocated to the roots is high. Acclimatization of seedlings out at the planting site is a complicated process which is influenced by the growing conditions at both the nursery and at the site. The function, distribution and structure of roots are controlled by the environment in a way similar to the shoot, but the control mechanism is imperfectly known.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Lippu, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Puttonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5249, category Article
Jari Parviainen. (1985). Istuttamalla perustetun nuoren männikön, kuusikon, siperianlehtikuusikon ja rauduskoivikon kasvu. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 4 article id 5249. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15428
English title: Growth of young Scots pine, Norway spruce, siberian larch and silver birch plantations.

Early growth of four different tree species (Pinus sylvestris L., Picea abies (L.) H. Karst., Larix sibirica Ledeb and Betula pendula Roth) 16–23 years after planting were compared in a field experiment of 16 square plots established on a stony, grove-like upland (Oxalis-Myrtillus forest type) in Southern Finland. This study gives additional results to the publication Folia Forestalia 386/1979.

At this early stage, the growth of the spruce stand was clearly slower than that of the other species for all parameters to be measured (height, diameter, and volume growth). Height growth was most rapid in the silver birch stand and diameter growth in the larch stand. No clear differences were found in the mean volume of the 100 thickest trees in the stand between the larch and silver birch.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Parviainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5243, category Article
Eljas Pohtila, Tapani Pohjola. (1985). Maan kunnostus männyn viljelyssä Lapissa. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 3 article id 5243. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15422
English title: Soil preparation in reforestation of Scots pine in Lapland.

The study deals with the interaction of various soil preparation and reforestation methods. The most favourable time of the year for broadcast sowing and the effect of stabilization after soil preparation on restocking were studied as special problems.

Prescribed burning, scalping and disc ploughing made a better combination with sowing than planting, and ploughing better combination with planting than sowing. The longer the period was between sowing and germination the fewer seedlings emerged. The best stocking was clearly resulted with sowing in June. Stabilization of soil after preparation had a negative effect on reforestation results.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Pohtila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pohjola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5198, category Article
Leo Heikurainen, Jukka Laine, Jarmo Lepola. (1983). Lannoitus- ja sarkaleveyskokeita karujen rämeiden uudistamisessa ja taimikoiden kasvatuksessa. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 4 article id 5198. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15181
English title: Fertilization and ditch spacing experiments concerned with regeneration and growth of young Scots pine stands on nutrient poor pine bogs.

The effects of variations in the intensity of drainage and NPK fertilization on the natural regeneration and planting results and the subsequent development of seedling stands under various climatic conditions on drained nutrient poor pine bogs was investigated in a 16-year-old study.

Comparison of height development of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands on drained peatlands to that of pine stands growing in mineral soil sites show that in Southern Finland the most efficient forest improvement measures (10 m ditch spacing and 1,000 kg/ha NPK-fertilization) resulted in growth that corresponds a to a height index of a stand in a Vaccinium type site. Less efficient treatment (30 m ditch spacing and no fertilizer) resulted in growth corresponding the development of young stand in a Calluna type site. In Northern Finland the effect of fertilization on height growth was almost negligible. This is possibly due to a decrease in the nitrogen mobilization from south to north of Finland. Thus, it seems evident that fertilization of young Scots pine stands on nutrient poor drained peatlands can be recommended only in the southern part of the country.

The effect of ditch spacing is same in the whole country. The narrower the spacing the better the height growth. In the south planted stands thrive better than naturally regenerated stands, but the situation is reversed in the north.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heikurainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Laine, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Lepola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5188, category Article
Eljas Pohtila, Tapani Pohjola. (1983). Vuosina 1970-1972 Lappiin perustetun aurattujen alueiden viljelykokeen tulokset. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 3 article id 5188. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15171
English title: Results from the reforestation experiment on ploughed sites established in Finnish Lapland during 1970–1972.

The objective of the study was to compare different reforestation methods on ploughed areas in Finnish Lapland. Four species were compared: Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.), silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) and Siberian larch (Larix sibirica Ledeb.). The experiments were established in different parts of Lapland on different types of sites in 1970–72.

In Scots pine there was a difference of 15 percentage points in survival of seedlings between the best and worst methods of regeneration. Containerized seedlings and paper pot seedlings had the best survival rates. In Norway spruce the respective difference between sowing and planting was about 20 percentage points. In favour of planting. The survival rate can be increased by about 20 percentage points by selecting the right tree species. The average height varied from 25 cm (the sowed Norway spruce) to 179 cm (the planted silver birch) after 10 growing seasons. The birch was planted at the most fertile sites only. The longer time passed from the afforestation the clearer was the effect of the local growing conditions on the development of the seedlings. The elevation of the site was one factor seemed to influence the success of the seedlings.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Pohtila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pohjola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5122, category Article
H. Smolander, J. Kostamo, P. K. Räsänen. (1981). Maan tiiviyden vaikutus männyntaimien haihduntaan ja pituuskasvuun istutuksen jälkeen. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 3 article id 5122. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15063
English title: Effect of soil compaction on transpiration and height increment of planted Scots pine seedlings.

The effect of soil compaction on transpiration and height increment of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings following planting out were investigated in a small-scale pot experiment. Compacted and loosely-packed fine sand and fine-sand moraine were used as the planting substrates. The compacted soils used corresponded to the normal type of soil to be found in tilled forest soils in Finland. The effect of soil compaction on seedling transpiration during water stress was also studied in a separate experiment.

Seedlings planted in compact soil had a higher rate of transpiration than those in loosely-packed soil. The recovery in transpiration, which started halfway through the growing season, was faster, however, in the seedlings planted in loosely-packed soil. Under conditions of water stress, the seedlings planted in compact fine-sand moraine started to reduce the transpiration rate at higher soil moisture values than those planted in loosely-packed soil. No corresponding difference was observed for fine sand. Compaction was not found to affect the overall height growth, but it did at certain time during the growing season.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Smolander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kostamo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Räsänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4954, category Article
Carl Johan Westman. (1976). Förrådsgödsling av rotande tallplantor med olika kvävegödselmedel. Silva Fennica vol. 10 no. 4 article id 4954. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14800
English title: Fertilization of Scots pine seedlings with different nitrogen fertilizer.

The paper describes an attempt to determine whether ammonium, nitrate and urea nitrogen are bound in peat used as a filling material in containerized seedling production, what is the effect of the nutrients on certain chemical properties in the peat, and what is the effect of the nitrogen fertilizers on the primary growth of containerized (paper-pot VH 608) Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings in connection with planting out. The seedlings were fertilized with ammonium sulphate, potassium nitrate and urea.

The results show that none of the fertilizers used were bound in the peat. The nitrogen content in the above ground part of the seedlings increased clearly. Fertilization with ammonium sulphate resulted in the greatest increment and this increase appears to be permanent. The wintering process was somewhat delayed by the fertilization. The seedling mortality rate for all the treatments has been quite appreciable. However, fertilization particularly with ammonium sulphate on the poorer of the two sites studied has had a positive effect on seedling survival. Furthermore, it appears that fertilizer treatments have decreased growth after planting, but in the case of ammonium sulphate this decrease has changed into a clear growth increment.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Westman, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4901, category Article
Veli Pohjonen. (1974). Istutustiheyden vaikutus eräiden lyhytkiertoviljelyn puulajien ensimmäisen vuoden satoon ja pituuskasvuun. Silva Fennica vol. 8 no. 2 article id 4901. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14745
English title: Effect of spacing on the first-year yield and height increment of some species undergoing short rotation culture.

The effect of spacing on the first-year yield and height increment of Alnus incana (L.) Moench, Populus tremula L. x Populus tremuloides Michx. (Populus x wettsteinii), Salix ’Aquatica Gigantea’, and Salix phylicifolia L. was studied at the Arctic Circle Agricultural Experimental Station in Northern Finland. S. ’Aquatica Gigantea’ gave yields which were twice as high as those of the other species in the study. The highest yields were of the order of 60 tons per hectare (fresh yield including foliage). The annual height growth in S. ’Aquatica Gigantea’ was about 100 cm, in the others about 30–50 cm. S. ’Aquatica Gigantea’ had a maximal height growth when the distance between the seedlings was 25 cm.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Pohjonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4847, category Article
Pentti K. Räsänen, Matti Hiltunen. (1971). Männyn erilaisten taimierien istutuskelpoisuudesta. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 3 article id 4847. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14649
English title: The effect of differences in Scots pine nursery stock on the field survival and growth.

Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings were stored for five days in an ordinary wood shed. One half of the seedlings were planted out directly, and another half after soaking the roots of the seedlings for 3–6 hours in water to compensate the possible water deficit developed. According to the results of the experiment, the effect of watering was extremely small. The difference observed, which was in favour of the trees that had been watered during storage, was discernible only in the needle length and in the number of lateral buds; in mortality or in the growth of the seedlings no difference could be observed.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Räsänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Hiltunen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4838, category Article
Kustaa Seppälä. (1971). Metsityslannoituksessa käytetyn lannoitemäärän ja levitystavan merkitys istutustaimiston alkukehitykselle ojitetuilla avosoilla. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 2 article id 4838. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14640
English title: The quantity of fertilizer and application methods used in afforestation of open bogs.

The paper describes the results obtained from an experiment of fertilization of drained treeless peatlands in connection of planting in three sites in Central Finland. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings 2+0 was used. The fertilizer (Y-fertilizer for peat soils, 14% N, 18% P2O5, 10% K2O) was applied in rates of 0, 20, 40 and 80 g/transplant. The fertilizer was strewn either around the plant within a circular patch of 20 cm in diameter, in a ring with a radius of 10 cm and in a ring with a radius of 20 cm. The seedlings were measured two and five years after planting.

The greater the quantity of fertilizer applied and the closer it was applied to the plant the higher was the mortality of transplants. Fertilization increased the mortality during the first two growing seasons after application. Later, however, the mortality decreased to a similar level irrespective the way the fertilizer was applied. In the beginning of the second growing season the fertilized plants showed considerably better height growth than the control plants. The smallest quantity of fertilizer applied produced almost full increase in growth. The pattern of application of the fertilizer had little effect on the growth.

It was concluded that a use of small amounts of fertilizer can be recommended in connection with planting and that it should not be applied very near the seedlings.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Seppälä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4813, category Article
Bo Långström. (1970). Pakkaustapojen vaikutuksesta talvivarastoitujen männyn taimien istutukseen. Silva Fennica vol. 4 no. 1 article id 4813. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14602
English title: The effect of packing methods on the field survival and growth of winter-stored plants of Scots pine.

The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of four packing methods on the field survival and growth of seedlings and transplants of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stored over the winter in a cold-storage cellar. The following sorts of plants were used: one-year-old seedlings (1+0) grown in a plastic greenhouse, two-year-old (2+0) open grown seedlings and three-year-old open grown transplants. These plants were stored in open wooden boxes, in sealed plastic bags, in boxes with wet peat on the bottom and in plastic-laminated paper bags.

The control plants were of the same types and were kept in a nursery over the winter. The storage was carried out in a mantle-chilled cold-storage from October 1966 to May 1967. The temperature in the cold-storage was kept around -2 °C and the relative humidity of the air over 90%. The water content of a randomly selected sample plants showed no increase in water deficit after the storing. Part of the seedlings were transplanted in the nursery and the rest were planted in a clear-cut area. A number of the latter plants were treated with an insecticide (1% Intaktol, which contains DDT, Lindane and dieldrin) before planting. All the experiments were examined after one growing season and the planting experiments the next fall.

The transplants (2+1) in the nursery, and in the forest had survived and grown better than the seedlings. In the nursery the 1+0 seedlings survived and grew better than the 2+0 seedlings. There was no difference in mortality between the seedlings. After the first growing season occasional significant differences between the packing methods were observed, but they disappeared during the second growing season. Thus, all packing methods proved to be as successful as the control method without winter storage.

Transplants were more often attacked by the large pine weevil (Hylobius abietis L.) than the smaller seedlings. The damage, however, was considerably greater on the seedlings because of their lower resistance. No significant differences in the Hylobius-attack between the packing methods could be observed. The Intaktol-treated plants were as often attacked as the untreated ones, but the damage was slighter on the treated ones.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Långström, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4812, category Article
Pentti K. Räsänen, Aarno Koukkula, Paavo Yli-Vakkuri. (1970). Pakkauksen, varastoimisen ja valeistutuksen vaikutus männyn taimien istutuskelpoisuuteen. Silva Fennica vol. 4 no. 1 article id 4812. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14601
English title: The effect of packing, storing and heeling-in on the field survival and growth of Scots pine seedlings.

The aim of the present study was to establish, by means of planting experiments, the influence of different packing, heeling-in and watering as well as the length of the storage period on the development of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings, in all 2,090 seedlings, that had been lifted from the nursery bed in spring. The plants were packed in bundles and into plastic sacks in 1965 (6 storage methods) and in 1966 (3 storage methods). Control seedlings were planted without storing at the time when storage of the test material begun. The plantations were followed 3–4 years.

Storage for two weeks in the different ways and planting without storage gave similar results when seedling survival was compared. Storage in plastic sack proved to be as good as storage in bundles in a cellar, and healing-in in moist soil or in a drain were both usable methods. Watering the seedlings did not improve the results, which indicates that the storage caused no serious lack of water.

After four growing seasons an average of 19,6% of the seedlings of the 1965 experiment died, the bulk of them by the end of the first growing season. Despite control treatment, Hylobious abietis caused serious damages. In the plantations of the year 1966 mortality of the seedlings was under 5% by the end of third growing season. During the first two growing seasons after planting differences in growth of the seedlings stored in different ways could be observed in the plantations of the year 1965, but the differences levelled out later. In the plantations established in 1966 no differences in growth occurred.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Räsänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Koukkula, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Yli-Vakkuri, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4769, category Article
Paavo Yli-Vakkuri, Aimo Autio, Juhani Vehkaoja. (1968). Päätehakkuun ja metsänviljelyn välinen aika. Silva Fennica vol. 2 no. 3 article id 4769. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14554
English title: Time lag between final cutting and regeneration.

The time interval between final felling and plantation means a waste of time and thus a production loss, and may lead to lush growth of ground cover and hardwood sprouts, which increases expenses in forest management. The objective of this study was to determine the length of time between final felling and artificial regeneration in private forests in the forest districts of Uusimaa-Häme in Southern Finland and Pohjois-Häme in Central Finland. The material consists of a sample of 150 plans of the 952 cutting and regeneration plans in the district of Uusimaa-Häme and a sample of 140 plans of the 1,102 plans in Pohjois-Häme.

The time lag between final cutting and seeding or planting was on average 1.4 years in Pohjois-Häme district and 0.7 years in Uusimaa-Häme. In the latter district, 56% of the logged area was regenerated in the spring immediately following the cutting, and 84% not later than in the second spring. In Pohjois-Häme, 29% of the harvested area was regenerated immediately in the first spring following cutting, and 79% not later than in the third spring following cutting.

In Pohjois-Häme, the interval was shortest in the smallest forest holdings, and longest in the largest holdings with the largest regeneration areas. The length seems to depend mainly on the size of the regeneration area. In Uusimaa-Häme district, the interval was shortest in the smallest holdings, rather short in the largest, and longest in the intermediate-size forest properties. Seeding with Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) was used in almost all regeneration areas.

The forest owners had mainly carried out the regeneration work themselves. In the Pohjois-Häme area, the interval was shorter when the district forestry board regenerated the area. 35% of the regenerated areas had required supplementary planting in Pohjois-Häme, and 47% in the Uusimaa-Häme area. Supplementary planting was more common in areas regenerated later after the cutting. In Pohjois-Häme, according to the reports of the forest owners, 75% of the regenerated areas required tending during the first three years, in Uusimaa-Häme, 80%.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Yli-Vakkuri, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Autio, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Vehkaoja, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4769, category Article
Paavo Yli-Vakkuri, Aimo Autio, Juhani Vehkaoja. (1968). Päätehakkuun ja metsänviljelyn välinen aika. Silva Fennica vol. 2 no. 3 article id 4769. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14554
English title: Time lag between final cutting and regeneration.

The time interval between final felling and plantation means a waste of time and thus a production loss, and may lead to lush growth of ground cover and hardwood sprouts, which increases expenses in forest management. The objective of this study was to determine the length of time between final felling and artificial regeneration in private forests in the forest districts of Uusimaa-Häme in Southern Finland and Pohjois-Häme in Central Finland. The material consists of a sample of 150 plans of the 952 cutting and regeneration plans in the district of Uusimaa-Häme and a sample of 140 plans of the 1,102 plans in Pohjois-Häme.

The time lag between final cutting and seeding or planting was on average 1.4 years in Pohjois-Häme district and 0.7 years in Uusimaa-Häme. In the latter district, 56% of the logged area was regenerated in the spring immediately following the cutting, and 84% not later than in the second spring. In Pohjois-Häme, 29% of the harvested area was regenerated immediately in the first spring following cutting, and 79% not later than in the third spring following cutting.

In Pohjois-Häme, the interval was shortest in the smallest forest holdings, and longest in the largest holdings with the largest regeneration areas. The length seems to depend mainly on the size of the regeneration area. In Uusimaa-Häme district, the interval was shortest in the smallest holdings, rather short in the largest, and longest in the intermediate-size forest properties. Seeding with Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) was used in almost all regeneration areas.

The forest owners had mainly carried out the regeneration work themselves. In the Pohjois-Häme area, the interval was shorter when the district forestry board regenerated the area. 35% of the regenerated areas had required supplementary planting in Pohjois-Häme, and 47% in the Uusimaa-Häme area. Supplementary planting was more common in areas regenerated later after the cutting. In Pohjois-Häme, according to the reports of the forest owners, 75% of the regenerated areas required tending during the first three years, in Uusimaa-Häme, 80%.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Yli-Vakkuri, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Autio, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Vehkaoja, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4764, category Article
Juhani Päivänen. (1968). Istutusajankohdan vaikutus männyn istutuksen onnistumiseen ojitetuilla avosoilla. Silva Fennica vol. 2 no. 2 article id 4764. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14549
English title: The effect of the date of planting on the survival of Scots pine on drained open peatlands in Finland.

Due to mechanization of draining of peatlands, also open peatlands have been included in the draining projects due to technical reasons. Some research has been published on afforestation of open drained peatlands, but there is yet no experiments that reaches the entire development of the stands. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the possibility of extending the planting season of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) over the entire growing season in drained peatlands, where the water condition of the site is probably not the factor limiting forest development. An open low-sedge swamps in Southern Finland were planted in early summer and two weeks in midsummer in 1967.

In the light of the results, planting Scots pine would seem possible in drained peatlands throughout the growing season. However, plants may suffer considerably from lifting for the plantation in August. The success of planting at the turn of September and October is also uncertain. The nursery must be situated close to the areas to be planted, since the transportation and handling of plants during the growing season must be carried out with extreme care. The seasonality of planting work could be decreased by extending the planting season. In the future, several transplant storing methods should be tried out in connection with similar planting-time experiments.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Päivänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4764, category Article
Juhani Päivänen. (1968). Istutusajankohdan vaikutus männyn istutuksen onnistumiseen ojitetuilla avosoilla. Silva Fennica vol. 2 no. 2 article id 4764. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14549
English title: The effect of the date of planting on the survival of Scots pine on drained open peatlands in Finland.

Due to mechanization of draining of peatlands, also open peatlands have been included in the draining projects due to technical reasons. Some research has been published on afforestation of open drained peatlands, but there is yet no experiments that reaches the entire development of the stands. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the possibility of extending the planting season of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) over the entire growing season in drained peatlands, where the water condition of the site is probably not the factor limiting forest development. An open low-sedge swamps in Southern Finland were planted in early summer and two weeks in midsummer in 1967.

In the light of the results, planting Scots pine would seem possible in drained peatlands throughout the growing season. However, plants may suffer considerably from lifting for the plantation in August. The success of planting at the turn of September and October is also uncertain. The nursery must be situated close to the areas to be planted, since the transportation and handling of plants during the growing season must be carried out with extreme care. The seasonality of planting work could be decreased by extending the planting season. In the future, several transplant storing methods should be tried out in connection with similar planting-time experiments.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Päivänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4764, category Article
Juhani Päivänen. (1968). Istutusajankohdan vaikutus männyn istutuksen onnistumiseen ojitetuilla avosoilla. Silva Fennica vol. 2 no. 2 article id 4764. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14549
English title: The effect of the date of planting on the survival of Scots pine on drained open peatlands in Finland.

Due to mechanization of draining of peatlands, also open peatlands have been included in the draining projects due to technical reasons. Some research has been published on afforestation of open drained peatlands, but there is yet no experiments that reaches the entire development of the stands. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the possibility of extending the planting season of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) over the entire growing season in drained peatlands, where the water condition of the site is probably not the factor limiting forest development. An open low-sedge swamps in Southern Finland were planted in early summer and two weeks in midsummer in 1967.

In the light of the results, planting Scots pine would seem possible in drained peatlands throughout the growing season. However, plants may suffer considerably from lifting for the plantation in August. The success of planting at the turn of September and October is also uncertain. The nursery must be situated close to the areas to be planted, since the transportation and handling of plants during the growing season must be carried out with extreme care. The seasonality of planting work could be decreased by extending the planting season. In the future, several transplant storing methods should be tried out in connection with similar planting-time experiments.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Päivänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7548, category Article
Leo Heikurainen, Pertti Veijola. (1971). Lannoituksen ja sarkaleveyden vaikutus rämeen uudistumiseen ja taimien kasvuun. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 114 article id 7548. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7548
English title: Effect of fertilization and ditch spacing on regeneration and seedling growth in pine swamps.

In 1965 and 1966 a total of 25 experiments were laid out in various parts of Finland in order to find out the effect of simultaneous variation in the intensity of drainage and fertilization on the development of plantations and natural seedling stands of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) growing on pine swamps. The fertilizer used was Y fertilizer for peat soils, a fertilizer mixture containing 14 % N, 18 % P2O5 and 10 % K2O. It was applied in rates of 500, 1,000 and 1,500 kg/ha. The ditch spacings studied were 10, 20 and 30 m. The present paper is a preliminary report on a series of studies, the experiments will be observation for a total of 15–20 years.

Mortality of the planted seedlings was found to be the higher after the first growing season, the larger the quantity of fertilizer that had been applied. Fertilizing caused an increase in seedling mortality even after the first growing season following application. At the end of the fifth growing season the height of both natural and planted seedlings is the greater, the larger the quantity of fertilizer that has been applied. Analysis of the height growth of the seedlings showed that larger quantities of fertilizer did not increase growth in the same proportion. The occurrence of growth disturbances is the greater, the more fertilizer has been applied.

Fertilization also changed the composition of ground vegetation. The in the beginning of the experiment  birch (Betula sp.) was absent in the area, but was found in the stands the greater abundance the higher application of the fertilizer.

From the viewpoint of growth of the seedlings the best results were obtained with the greatest intensity of fertilization and the narrowest ditch spacing used in the study. The results also show that strong fertilization and a high degree of drainage intensity are not capable of bringing about any particularly good growth on peatlands which originally are relatively poor in nutrients. The growth values now obtained equal only one third of those obtained on peat soils of greater fertility.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heikurainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Veijola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4693, category Article
Martti Nenonen, Juhani Jukola. (1960). Tukkimiehen täin (Hylobius abietis L.) tuhoista mäntytaimistoissa ja niiden torjunnasta DDT :n avulla. Silva Fennica no. 104 article id 4693. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9132
English title: Pine weevil (Hylobius abietis L.) injuries and their control by DDT in Scots pine seedling stands.

The aim of the study was to find out more about pine weevil (Hylobious abietis L.) injuries in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedling stands and their control by means of DDT. For this purpose, inventories were made of seedling stands established earlier. Control experiments were made on burnt areas by planting seedlings dipped in a DDT emulsion.

The results of the inventories show that injuries caused by pine weevils can, in certain circumstances, especially in seedling stands established by planting, cause the complete failure in artificial regeneration. The extent and quality of the injuries vary greatly according to planting method, treatment of the cutting area, age of the seedling stand, environmental factors, and weather conditions. The most extensive injuries occur in regeneration areas of old Norway spruce stands burnt after clear cutting and planted with Scots pine seedlings. Injuries are greater in seedling stands established by planting, especially after broadcast burning, than in seedling stands originating either from artificial or natural seeding. The quality of the patch for sowing or planting has a considerable effect on the quantity and character of the injuries: in a patch from which organic matter has been removed, injuries do not appear or they are slighter. Seedlings can be protected effectively and economically by dipping their tops up to the root collar, in a DDT emulsion before planting.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Nenonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Jukola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4731, category Article
Leo Heikurainen, Juhani Päivänen, Kustaa Seppälä. (1966). Koetuloksia männyn kylvöstä ja istutuksesta ojitetuilla soilla. Silva Fennica no. 119 article id 4731. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14289
English title: Scots pine seeding and planting on drained peat soils.

This paper describes the preliminary results of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seeding and planting trials on drained peat soils.

The results showed that a perpared peat surface was a better surface for seeding than the unprepared one. Planting of 2+1-year seedlings succeeded better than planting 1-year seedlings. Planting on the turf gave better survival than planting on the unprepared soil surface. The whole growing season was suitable time for planting Scots pine seedlings except May when the peat soil under the surface was still frozen.

Using fertilizers in connection with planting was surveyed in two ways. Mortality of seedlings increased when they were top-dressed with NPK fertilizer. Using a so-called spot fertilizing with several combinations of fertilizers resulted in K and N tending to increase the mortality of seedlings, but P decreasing mortality.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heikurainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Päivänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Seppälä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4502, category Article
V. K. Ahola. (1937). Havaintoja viimeaikaisista metsänhoitotöistä valtionmetsissä. Silva Fennica no. 39 article id 4502. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13912
English title: Observations on forest management work in state forests.

The issue 39 of Silva Fennica includes presentations held in professional development courses in 1935 that were arranged for foresters working in public administration. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level.

This presentation describes the forest management work in the state forests.

  • Ahola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4492, category Article
V. K. Ahola. (1937). Metsän keinollisesta uudistamisesta. Silva Fennica no. 39 article id 4492. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13902
English title: Artificial regeneration of forests.

Silva Fennica Issue 39 includes presentations held in professional development courses in 1935 that were arranged for foresters working in public administration. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level.

 This presentation describes the methods of artificial regeneration of forests.

  • Ahola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4463, category Article
Erkki K. Cajander. (1932). Tietoja metsänviljelystoiminnasta Suomessa 1923-1930. Silva Fennica no. 22 article id 4463. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9019
English title: Artificial forest regeneration in Finland in 1923-1930.

The article is a review on early forest regeneration and management in Finland. Beginning of the 1900s marks change in attitudes and resources for forest management. The state increased the funding of forest regeneration and improvement in the state forests in 1928. State funding is directed also to forest improvement in the private forests, and organizations established to promote forest management in the private forests are reorganized. For instance, District Forestry Boards were appointed the forest improvement work in private lands, in addition to promotion of private forestry. Sowing increased in the state forests from 772 ha to 1,566 ha, in forests of the forest companies from 3,006 ha to 4,954, and in private forests from 1,417 ha to 1,566 ha in 1923-1926. The figures of private forests are, however, incomplete. The most usual methods are patch sowing and broadcast sowing on snow. Seeds used in sowing increased from 3,357 kg to 14,387 kg, and planting from 413 ha to 1,020 ha in 1923-1930. Almost half of the sown areas were in the state forests, and most of the planted area in the forests of the companies. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) was the main tree species in artificial regeneration, and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) was more popular in planting.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Cajander, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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