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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
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Acta Forestalia Fennica
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Articles containing the keyword 'itäminen'.

Category: Article

article id 7135, category Article
Paavo Yli-Vakkuri. (1961). Kokeellisia tutkimuksia taimien syntymisestä ja ensi kehityksestä kuusikoissa ja männiköissä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 75 no. 1 article id 7135. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7135
English title: Experimental studies on the emergence and development of tree seedlings in spruce and pine stands.

This paper aims at studying regeneration of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) by sowing and natural regeneration of birch (Betula sp.) in Western Finland.

Germination of spruce and pine seeds may be prevented by dryness and temperatures below the optimum for germination. In natural conditions, when temperature and moisture is insufficient for germination, the type of seedbed generally has en effect on germination result. Trenching of the seeding spots showed that root competition during the early stage of regeneration was not of decissive importance. It seemed to, however, improve the preservation of the seedlings later. It is common that it can take long before the seeds germinate, and during that time the number of viable seeds decrease strongly.

Also, the seedling stock quickly began to decrease in number after germination, especially during the first growing season and the following winter. The decrease was larger in intact vegetation than on mineral soil or in the humus layer. The emerging seedlings were destroyed by drought very easily, but their tolerance to drought improved later on.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Yli-Vakkuri, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7367, category Article
Esko Kangas. (1942). Karistuslämmön vaikutuksesta männyn siemenen karisemiseen ja itämiseen. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 14 article id 7367. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7367
English title: Effect of seed extracting temperature on extraction and germination of Scots pine seeds.

Temperatures needed in extracting Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seeds is relatively high, however, there is little information on its effect on germination of the seeds. This survey aimed at studying how different temperatures affect both extraction result and germination of Scots pine seeds. Comparisons between different temperatures (20, 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70 ºC) were made from cones collected from same sample trees, three trees in total.

Temperatures 20 and 30 ºC resulted in incomplete opening of the cones, and gave thus smaller amount of seeds. Complete extraction requires at the least the temperature of 40 ºC. The result is slightly better in 50 ºC, but germination of the seeds is little lower. Temperatures 60 and 70 ºC improve the results, but in the cost of germination. The main reason for lower germination percentage was that the higher temperatures release more empty and defective seeds from the cones. Results of different sample trees were different due to, for instance, quality and size of cones. Higher temperatures accelerated the extraction. According to the study, perfect extraction in 40 ºC requires longer extraction time than when the temperature of 50 ºC is used. In practice, 50 ºC temperature or even little higher temperatures can be used when the extraction time is shorter. Decessive factors in choosing the temperature would be the humidity of cones and length of extraction time.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Kangas, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7359, category Article
V. T. Aaltonen. (1942). Muutamia kasvukokeita puuntaimilla. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 6 article id 7359. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7359
English title: Growth studies on tree seedlings.

The aim of the study was to investigate effect of growth conditions on germination and growth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) seedlings in greenhouse conditions. Germination of seeds becomes markedly slower as the soil temperature decreases. It seems that low temperatures affect more Norway spruce than Scots pine. When temperature rises, the fresh weight of the seedlings increases more in pine seedlings than in spruce seedlings. Accordingly, lower temperatures affect less the weight growth of spruce seedling than that of pine seedlings.

An experiment testing how root competition affect germination showed that adjacent seedlings decrease germination of seeds more than shading with branches. The effect was strongest on pine and spruce seedlings when the shading tree species was fast growing birch (Betula sp.). On the other hand, shading affected most height growth of birch seedlings. Growing space can vary in relatively large range without it affecting greatly tree growth.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Aaltonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4963, category Article
Tapio Lehtiniemi. (1977). Männyn ja kuusen siementen gammasäteilyherkkyyteen vaikuttavista tekijöistä. Silva Fennica vol. 11 no. 1 article id 4963. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14814
English title: Factors affecting gamma-irradiation sensitivity of Scots pine and Norway spruce.

This study, comprising three experiments, aims to determine the effect of the geographical origin of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) seeds, and the duration of the time lag between the moisture treatment and subsequent irradiation on the gamma-irradiation sensitivity of seeds.

The studies showed that the greater the irradiation dose seeds were subjected to the slower the rate of germination. In general, small radiation doses (250–1,000 rad) had a stimulating effect and the final germination percentage (36–40 days) increased. However, when the level was further increased, the germination percentage decreased. Air-dry and moistened seeds withstood irradiation better than others. In a study with moistened seeds from different geographical sources, pine and spruce seeds from Northern Finland were less able to withstand irradiation than those originating from the south.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lehtiniemi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4930, category Article
Tapio Lehtiniemi. (1976). Ionisoivan säteilyn vaikutus varastokuivien ja liotettujen metsäpuiden siementen idäntään ja taimien alkukehitykseen. Silva Fennica vol. 10 no. 1 article id 4930. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14772
English title: Effect of ionizing radiation on the germination of storage-dry and soaked forest tree seeds and on the initial development of seedlings.

The study was carried out in order to find out the changes taking place in germination of seeds in certain tree species as a function of gamma irradiation, the height growth of the seedlings produced and the types of phenotypic mutants possibly found in the generation that had received radiation. The tree species studied were Pinus sylvestris L., Picea abies (L.) H. Karst., Betula verrucosa (Betula pendula Roth), B. Pubescens Ehrh., Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn. and Alnus incana (L.) Moench.

Soaked seeds that had received a rather small dose of radiation germinated usually better than storage-dry seeds, B. pubescens being an exception. The damages observed in germination, height growth and the relative number of mutants were greater the higher the irradiation doses. The LD50 dose (germination, 28 days) was as follows in the case of the different tree species (storage dry/soaked): P. Sylvestris 1,500-2,000/2500-3,000, P. abies 1,000-1,500/4,000-4,500, B. pendula 9,500-10,000/7,000-7,500, B. pubescens >10,000/7,500-8,000 and A. Glutinosa 10,000/8,500-9,000 rad. Mass production of different mutants of deciduous trees for ornamental purposes, for example, appears to be easy using gamma-irradiation. On the other hand, the possibility of increasing tree growth remains open for further study.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lehtiniemi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4910, category Article
Erkki Lähde, Katri Pahkala. (1974). Havupuiden siemenen kehitys ja itäminen kirjallisuuden valossa. Silva Fennica vol. 8 no. 4 article id 4910. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14754
English title: Development and germination of the seeds of conifers according to literature.

The aim of the present study was to collect information presented in literature concerning the development and germination of the seeds of coniferous trees with special reference to those species which thrive in the conditions prevailing in Finland. Along with the increase in the importance of direct seeding as a silvicultural means in Northern Finland, there is a growing demand for methods by means of which the germination of seeds could be promoted. According to the results obtained from previous studies, such a method can be found, provided that a practically usable and reliable pre-germination method is developed.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lähde, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pahkala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4889, category Article
Tapio Lehtiniemi. (1973). Turvepuristeet ja männyn kylvö. Silva Fennica vol. 7 no. 4 article id 4889. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14727
English title: Use of peat briquettes in seeding of Scots pine.

The aim of the study was to assess, through field experiments, the possibilities of using peat briquettes in the seeding of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in Southern Finland. The briquettes were dug into the soil in the middle of patches of mineral soil. The seeds were covered by a 2-5 mm layer of mineral soil. The seedings were inventoried in the three following autumns.

According to the results, the briquettes were clearly inferior to the control, which was ordinary drill seeding. This was mainly due to the fact that no rain was received after the seeding, and that the third summer from seeding was extremely dry. Abundant germination was observed during the second summer after seeding in both briquette seeding and the control. During more rainy summers the result might have been better.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lehtiniemi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4866, category Article
Pertti Hari, Tapio Lehtiniemi. (1972). Lämpötilan ja itämisalustan kosteuden vaikutus kuusen (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) siementen idäntään ja CO2-eritykseen laboratoriossa. Silva Fennica vol. 6 no. 2 article id 4866. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14669
English title: The effect of temperature and moisture on germination and CO2-output of spruce (Picea abies) seeds in a controlled environment.

The study was an attempt to assess, from a theoretical viewpoint and with the techniques of measurement in mind, the usability respiration and cumulative respiration in the observation of the progress of seed germination in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.), as well as the influence of air temperature substrate moisture and the stage of physiological development of seeds on respiration. Furthermore, the reserve nutrient consumption and the possible uptake of mineral nutrients were kept under observation during the 9–11 days after seeding.

The results showed that the stage of physiological development of the seeds can be rather well described by the means of cumulative CO2 release. There was a strong interaction in the CO2 release between the moisture of the substrate and the air temperature. It seems to be to great extent due to differences in the rate of development in the early phases of germination. The CO2 release from seeds showed a close correlation with percentage germinated seeds.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Hari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Lehtiniemi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4841, category Article
Hannu Mannerkoski. (1971). Lannoituksen vaikutus kylvösten ensi kehitykseen turvealustalla. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 2 article id 4841. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14643
English title: Effect of fertilization on the initial development of Scots pine and Norway spruce plantations established by sowing on peat.

Experiments were carried out to find out the effect of fertilizer application on germination, seedling emmergnece and initial development in conifer plantations established on peat by sowing, with a special reference to Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). The experiments were carried out in 1968–70 in laboratory, in greenhouse and in the field.

In the greenhouse experiments with Y fertilizer for peat soils (14% N, 18% P2O5, 10% K2O) it was shown that germination and seedling emergence decreased markedly with increased fertilizer application. Mortality among seedlings that had emerged was the higher the larger quantities of fertilizer had been applied. The effect of fertilization was the greater, the drier the substrate. Fine ground rock phosphate (33% P2O5) promoted seedling emergence on a dry substrate but not on a wet one.

The field experiments carried out in Central Finland included dry and wet sites. Y fertilizer, Oulu Saltpeter (25% N), fine-ground rock phosphate and potassium salt (50% K2O) were used. According to the results, easily soluble fertilizers decreased seedling emergence. On wet sites the effect of Y fertilizer was weaker than on drier sites. Fine-ground rock phosphate slightly increased the number of seedlings emerging. Height growth was increased during the first three growing seasons only by those fertilizers containing phosphorus.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Mannerkoski, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4832, category Article
Paavo Yli-Vakkuri, Pentti K. Räsänen. (1971). Siementen peittämisen ja kylvökohdan polkaisun vaikutus männyn ruutukylvön tulokseen. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 1 article id 4832. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14621
English title: The influence of covering and tramping the seeds into the soil on the success of spot sowing of Scots pine.

This paper reports spot sowing experiments of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). The seeds were either covered with coarse sand, tramped in the substrate or sowed without any covering, 30 seeds in each treatment in 70 replications. The site was of Vaccinium type with sandy soil. The germination percentage was 81 and 91 on the respective years. The development of seedlings was observed for 3–4 years.

The results indicate that both tramping and covering the seeds to some extent increased the number of seedlings and improved the early development. The highest numbers of seedlings were recorded in the first growing season, after which there was 23 seedlings/100 seeds in the uncovered spots, 27 seedlings in the covered spots and 31 seedlings in the tramped spots in the experiment sowed in 1965.

Mortality of the seedlings was highest between the first and second growing season, and empty spots increased with the time. There was no difference in mortality between the sowing methods, but the number of seedlings after first growing season affected the result. Under favourable conditions four seedlings per spot seemed enough to secure the survival of minimum one seedling per spot during the three first growing seasons. In poor conditions seven seedlings was needed.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Yli-Vakkuri, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Räsänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4803, category Article
Kari Löyttyniemi. (1969). Männyn ja kuusen siemenien esikäsittelyn vaikutuksesta itämiseen ja taimien alkukehitykseen kasvihuoneoloissa. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 3 article id 4803. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14591
English title: The effect of treatment of Scots pine and Norway spruce seeds on their germination and the early development of the seedlings.

The aim of this study was to establish the need of treatment of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) seeds to be sown in greenhouse. 3 x 100 seeds of each treatment (soaking in water, treatment with Pb3O4, treatment with tiram-containing coating substance) were sown in a glasshouse on a fertilized garden peat, and covered with peat layer of 6 mm thickness. The development of seedlings was followed for 100 days before the final measurement.

Soaking the seeds with water made germination somewhat faster. In spruce the germination percentage increased, but the opposite was observed in pine. No difference could be observed between the results from soaking with acid water from peat soil and lake water. Drying the soaked seeds for a week before sowing had no harmful influence on the germination or the early development of the seedlings. Treatment with Pb3O4 did not affect the germination speed or the seedling percentage of pine or spruce, but increased the germination percentage of spruce. Coating decreased germination and seedling percentages in pine. However, the differences between the treatments were so small that their practical significance is negligible.

Germination of both the species initiated on an average in 8 days, and 16 days after sowing 80% of the seeds had germinated. Seedling mortality was about 10% of the total number of seedlings, the most common reason being damping-off.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Löyttyniemi, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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